(17701827). The master in whose hands the classical temper in music reached its highest development and who helped bring on the advent of Romanticism. B. Bonn; son of an irrational father who foolishly wanted to force Ludwig to become a child prodigy like the young W. A. Mozart,* in order that he, the father, might live in financial security. Studied with F. J. Haydn* and J. G. Albrechtsberger.* In Vienna, music capital of his day, Beethoven soon won acclaim for ability as pianist; he was respected as a composer, but not understood. His deafness of later yrs. troubled him a great deal, though a blessing in disguise, since it caused him to concentrate on his inner self. Works include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 9 sonatas for violin and piano, 17 string quartets, many shorter works, the oratorio Christus am Ölberge, and Missa Solemnis. Beethoven may hardly be called a ch. composer; even Missa Solemnis was intended for the concert stage. See also Mass (music); Passion, The.
P. Bekker, Beethoven, tr. M. M. Bozman (New York, 1926); R. Bory, Ludwig van Beethoven (New York, 1964); J. N. Burk, The Life and Works of Beethoven (New York, 1946); G. Grove, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn (New York, 1951); R. Langer, Missa solemnis: über das theologische Problem in Beethovens Musik (Stuttgart, 1962); A. W. Thayer, The Life of Beethoven, rev. and ed. E. Forbes (Princeton, 1964).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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