Term applied to a type of literature produced in abundance by Jews after 200 BC and by Christians through 200 AD Samples of OT apocalyptic are in Zch, Dn, Ps of Sol, the Book of Jubilees,* The Testament of Abraham, 2 Esd (not Neh, but 4 Esd of the apocrypha in the old Vulgate, or The Ezra Apocalypse), the Book of Enoch, and the Apocalypse of Bar NT apocalyptic occurs in the Shepherd of Hermas. the Apocalypse of Peter, and Rv.
Apocalyptic literature has theol. and literary characteristics. It presents the world caught in war bet. good and evil and offers hope of the victory of good in catastrophic action that destroys its enemies. It is marked by strong angelology* and demonology* and by fervent messianic hope that sometimes takes on an extreme pol. character. Only some of its images and visions are interpreted; some of its symbols are standard and have about the same meaning whenever they occur. All NT apocalyptic books except Rv are not in the Bible canon.* Apocalyptic literature usually emerges from oppressed people. It was produced in the 12th c., e.g., by Elizabeth* of Schönau, Hildegard* of Bingen, and Joachim* of Floris and at the time of M. Luther* by M. Stiefel.* HTM
See also Apocrypha, B 4; C 1, 5.
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, ed. R. H. Charles, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1913); R. H. Charles, Eschatology, the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, Judaism, and Christianity: A Critical History (New York, 1963; 1st ed. 1899 A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity); H. H. Rowley, The Relevance of Apocalyptic, 3d ed. (New York, 1964, c1963).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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