(18691943). Ger. Ev. theol.; b. Stettin; taught Berlin, Marburg, Breslau, Heidelberg, Göttingen, Berlin; influenced by J. W. M. Kaftan*; sought transcendental basis for religion; advocated religious-psychological approach to theology. Works include Systematische Theologie nach religionspsy-chologischer Methode.
(August 11, 1874October 11, 1929). B. Sibley Co., Minnesota; educ. Red Wing Sem., Conc. Coll., Moorhead, Minnesota, Chicago Luth. Sem.; miss. China 18981905; prof. Red Wing Sem. (on furlough); miss. China 191029; pres. Central China Union Luth. Theol. Sem. 191329; pres. Chinese Luth. Ch. 192029.
(December 8, 1840January 10, 1903). Hist.; b. Rebersburg, Pennsylvania; educ. Gettysburg Luth. Sem., Tübingen, Erlangen; Luth. pastor Baltimore; from 1873 prof. ch. hist. and NT exegesis Gettysburg Luth. Sem.; conservative. Coed. (with PM Biklé and M. Valentine*) The Lutheran Quarterly; other works include The Lutherans in America.
(Wolf; 16791754). Ger. philos.; b. Breslau; prof. math. and nat. philos. Halle 1707; deposed 1723 and banished from Prussia through influence of Halle Pietists; to Marburg; later recalled to Halle. Adopted theories of G. W. v. Leibniz*; coined term monism*. Though he accepted revelation, reason was his final authority. Logical consequence of his method was rationalism, which through his system gained increasingly strong foothold in Germany. See also Ahlwardt, Peter; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 8.
(ca. 1170ca. 1220). Middle High Ger. poet and minnesinger; descended from Bavarian family of Esehenbach, near Ansbach; spent much time on Wildenburg in Odenwald and on Wartburg in Thuringia. Works include Parzival.
(18541919). Ger. Luth. musicologist and composer; b. Schwarzenbach-am-Wald, Bavaria; educ. Altdorf, Munich, Leipzig; dir. of music at U. of Heidelberg. Works include Johann Sebastian Bach; Evangelisches Kirchenlied; Luther und die Musik; Luther und Bach.
(ca. 14751530). Eng. cardinal, statesman; b. Ipswich(?); educ. Oxford; fellow Magdalen Coll.; ordained priest ca. 1498; domestic chaplain of archbp. of Canterbury 1502; chaplain of Henry VII 1507; privy counsellor of Henry VIII; bp. of Lincoln 1514; archbp. of York 1514; cardinal 1515; Lord Chancellor of Eng. 1515. In his foreign policy he endeavored to hold the balance of power in struggle between Empire and France; endeavored to obtain papal dispensation for divorce of Henry VIII; blamed for his failure by Anne Boleyn and incurred King's displeasure; founded Christ Church, Oxford; arrested for high treason; died on way to London. See also Praemunire, Statutes of.
(August 29, 1818August 31, 1849). Luth. scholar, educ.; b. Hamburg, Ger.; sent to Am. 1846 with C. J. H. Fick* and A. G. G. Francke* by J. K. W. Löhe* shortly after founding of practical sem. at Ft.. Wayne; prof. there for 3 yrs.; d. of cholera. Noted for humility, clarity of thought, friendliness, and zeal for confessional Luth..
(172561). Ger. poet, educator, preacher, author; pietist; stud. Halle 1742; in 1744 was compelled by illness to discontinue and to travel; called as second pastor to Bunzlau 1748; became identified with an orphan asylum 1754.
(163390). Dutch. theol.; b. Amersfoort; educ. Utrecht and Geneva; pastor Groningen, Middelburg, Utrecht; pastor and prof. Utrecht and Amsterdam; Cartesian. Works include De scripturarum interpretate.
A. The NT, in common with the OT, places woman on a high level and creates the basis for a noble concept of ethical equality with man. It does so by making woman equal to man as a shareholder in the gifts of the Holy Spirit, by removing sex as a factor in the reception and exercise of the life of God, and by presenting noble illustrations of Christian womanhood. This ideal is further implemented in the NT by the definition of woman's sphere of service as one unique to her and essential to the world. Paul emphasized the need of the Holy Spirit, both in man and in woman, and outlined the sphere of woman's service. Already in the apostolic age special spheres of labor in the ch. were devised for women without families. Under the influence of the ascetic ideal these spheres of service were broadened into the work of welfare, which is one of the most worthy aspects of RCm. Luther opposed the view, which had developed in the ch., that marriage* is an inferior state to celibacy.* He himself, the ex-monk, married an ex-nun as a symbol and testimony of this revolt. Thereby he sought not to afford himself or others a license for lust but to est. an object lesson in the concept of the Christian calling. This concept, basic to Luth. ethics, views man as living in the vocations of family, state, and occupation, and woman as likewise fulfilling her vocation as wife, mother, friend, and citizen; and the fulfilling of this vocation with the help and for the glory of God constitutes a lofty Christian service. See also Asceticism; Monasticism.
B. The NT ideal brought about vast changes in the attitude toward woman in the ancient world. Whereas woman had been regarded as a chattel or object of lust, she was enabled to assume the regard and worth due her in God's plan. Likewise the Prot. Reformation served to restore the family ideal, not only in its communions but also in RCm.
C. Women have been particularly active in the Luth. program of the Ch. and of welfare. The Deaconess (see Deaconesses) program originated in the attempt to utilize the NT method of providing definite areas of service for women not in families. Luth. women have found more and more opportunity for rendering service to objectives of the Ch. also when they were wives and mothers. Am. Luth. ch. life has imitated the custom of other chs. by organizing women of the parish in specific groupings (ladies' aid, women's guild, business-women's groups, young women's groups) and for specific services. The parish groups foster fellowship among the women of the ch., occupy themselves with study or mission enterprises, engage in fund-raising pursuits, and otherwise are at the disposal of specific parish programs. In more recent yrs. women's groups have organized on a nat. scale. RRC
II. Denominational Organizations.
1. The OT and NT speak favorably of women in God's service, including Miriam (Ex 2:410), Esther, Naomi and Ruth, Anna (Lk 2:3638), Mary Magdalene (Mt 28:1), Mary and Martha (Lk 10:3842), Lois and Eunice (2 Ti 1:5), Priscilla (Acts 18:2, 18, 26), Lydia (Acts 16:415, 40). These and other Bible women exerted a great influence before and after women's organizations.
2. In the early centuries of Christianity wives and mothers helped to keep the faith alive through days of suffering, persecution, and martyrdom. Women like Monica,* mother of Augustine* of Hippo, with their prayers and training helped develop men who dedicated their lives to Christ.
3. Also in the post-Reformation era women made their influence felt in various ways. The Countess of Zinzendorf and Susanna Wesley (mother of John and Charles) are prominent names in the religious field of their day and active in the spiritual revolution in Eng.
5. In the middle of the 19th c. and later, women were a great force in the proclamation of the Gospel to women in India and in est. the first women's hospital there 1869. Dr. Clara N. Swain, a Meth. from Am., is credited as being the first woman medical missionary. Dr. Ida Scudder founded the medical center at Vellore, India. Stirring and hazardous efforts by consecrated women (e.g., Mary Slessor*) were likewise put forth in Africa.
6. These briefly related efforts can be multiplied many times over in various parts of the world as a testimony to other heroic women in missions. During these earlier centuries women served the ch. as individuals, each in her own way. They became stimuli for women to organize for missions.
7. After the Revolutionary War a number of groups banded together to raise money for miss. purposes at home and abroad. Some of the earliest groups were Quakers. The Female Cent Soc. of Bap. women was formed in Boston 1800. Organized miss. work of the Cong. women seems to have begun 1801, of the Presb. women 1803, of the Dutch Ref. 1851, of the Meth. 1819.
8. The significant thing is that in spite of the terrific handicap they faced, church women had the temerity to form societies in days when such a movement was not looked upon with favor by the brethren not even by the male members of their own families, to say nothing of the pastors and elders.
9. These early women had no precedent to guide them. They developed their own idea and relied largely on prayer and the Holy Spirit to lead them. Their loyalty to Christ and missions, in prayer and Bible reading, is an example for Christian women also in this age.
10. Records of early organizations are scarce. They were known by such names as Female Benevolent Soc., the Pious Female Praying Soc., the Female Mite Soc. and the Female Soc. for the Support of a Female School in India.
1. For years, as in most chs., the women of the RC Ch. formed parochial or parish organizations concerned with assisting the priest in some phase of his mission in the parish. Also in the course of years various women rallied around specific causes within the ch. on the nat. scale.
2. Shortly after WW I steps were taken to provide a structure to affiliate every eligible Cath. organization of women within the diocesan and nat. councils so that each could work in harmony with the leadership of the ch..
3. In 1919, with approval of Pope Benedict XV, the bps. of the US met in Washington, DC, to launch the Nat. Cath. Welfare Conf., which is recognized as the official agency of the bps. of the US intended to promote Christian life and to further the mission of Christ and His church. As in any agency the NCWC includes a number of depts. and bureaus to achieve its purposes. One of these is called the Dept. of Lay Organizations and includes the Nat. Council of Cath. Men and the Nat. Council of Cath. Women, organized in 1920. The NCCW is not a new or separate organization but is designed to federate existing organizations of women nat., state, diocesan, and local. It was called into existence to unite the Cath. women of the US in organized effort in all useful fields of educ., soc., religious, and economic work, for the betterment and happiness of the people. It further provides for channeling information from NCWC depts. to all affiliated organizations, for assisting them through publications, correspondence, institutes, and biennial nat. convs., and it provides a nat. and internat. voice for the Cath. women of the US
4. The NCCW includes ca. 30 affiliated organizations including Nat. Council of Cath. Nurses; Ladies Cath. Benevolent Association; Cath. War Veterans, Ladies Auxiliary; Cath. Daughters of Am.; organizations representing nationalities, alumnae, or college groups. The NCCW-affiliated organizations represent ca. 10 million women.
5. The NCCW makes no provision for individual membership. Rather, women belong to an organization. Organizations in turn affiliate with the federation, the NCCW.
7. It is noted that a special service rendered by the Council of Men and Council of Women is to provide representation for the ch. at nat. and internat. meetings. Through their delegates the councils represent Cath. thinking and obtain information on developments in various fields that they relay to the bps. Important areas in which representatives recently participated are White House Conf. on Children and Youth, Nat. Conf. of Citizens for Decent Literature, Congressional Hearings on Indecent Literature, Special UN Briefings, Council of Nat. Organizations for Adult Educ., and many other meetings of nat. and internat. character.
1. Luth. Ch. Women (LCW). Official auxiliary for women of the LCA. The LCW was initiated July/August 1962, following the June/July 1962 merging of 4 Luth. bodies: the ULC(A) (Ger. background); the Augustana Luth. Ch. (Swed. background); the Suomi Syn. (Fin. background); and the AELC (Dan. background).
2. In order to give a clear picture of the LCW it is necessary to refer not only to the women's organizations of the 4 merging church bodies, but also to the antecedents of the ULCA.
3. In 1837, before any general organization was formed, women attending a conf. of the Gen. Syn. of the Luth. Ch. in New York, with their husbands, gained the incentive to aid in educating missionaries, with the result that they formed the Female Association of Hartwick Syn. for the Educ. of Foreign Missionaries. Interest was extended beyond the Hartwick Syn. (New York) into other parts of the ch. In 1875 several pastors were moved to action, and the women in the Iowa Syn. organized and adopted a constitution. Almost simultaneously the movement spread to Ohio. After much promotional work the Gen. Syn., through a committee, called a meeting in Canton, Ohio, in June 1879 to organize a gen. women's group. The formal action read as follows: Resolved, that we hail the organization of this General Women's Home and Foreign Mission Society of the General Synod as the dawning of a new era in the history of women's work in the Lutheran Church, and will not rest until there is an auxiliary society in every congregation connected with the General Synod.
4. Several syn. societies in the United Syn. in the South formed the Women's Miss. Conf. 1906. Within the Gen. Council the women began organizing in 1885 but did not unite generally until September 1911 into the Women's Missionary Soc. of the Gen. Council.
5. These 3 tributaries, after a history of 40 years, merged in November 1918 immediately following the organization of the ULC(A) and became the Women's Missionary Soc. of the ULC(A). The purpose of the organization has always been missionary. The const., adopted 1919, states: The objects of the Society shall be: to exert all possible effort, by the grace and power of God, to fulfill the great commission of our risen and triumphant Lord, set forth in Matthew 28:1920, 'Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you; and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world'; to promote and stimulate the interest of the whole Church in the work of Missions; to disseminate missionary information, to promote missionary education, and financially to aid the missionary operations of the Church, through its regularly established boards; to co-ordinate and unite the work of synodical societies. The work has been carried on largely through the mission bds. of the ch. Numerous institutions have been built and maintained. Among them are hospitals, soc. institutions, and miss. residences.
6. Women missionaries have been educ. and supported in their respective fields. In a given year the number ranges from 50 to 75. More than $25,000,000 has been contributed to the ch. by this women's organization since 1919. At the conv. in 1955 the name was changed to United Luth. Ch. Women. This was the largest group in the 1962 merger; membership in 1959 was reported to be 171,815.
7. The Augustana Luth. Ch. Women voted to organize June 6, 1882, in Lindsborg, Kansas, provided that the ch. in session at the same time would give its approval. In the afternoon of the same date a favorable resolution was passed by the ch. assembly. Their endeavor was to awaken a greater interest for missions and a more general support of the same. The objective remained basically the same, but the scope of the miss. activity broadened to include all services in the parish, the community, the nation, and the world. In 1959 the membership had reached 82,423.
8. Luth. Guild of Suomi Syn.. When the Suomi Syn. was organized 1890, it was an accepted fact among them that women had equal rights to speak and vote. This concept likely forestalled any formal women's organization for many years. On the local level, however, ladies' aids often preceded the forming of a cong. They brought not only monetary returns but had social and spiritual significance for the newly arrived imigrants. The Finnish language was generally used. In 1945 during the conv. of the synod women and interested pastors submitted a resolution advocating greater use of the Eng. language in all ch. activities and requesting that the women be permitted to organize. The requests were granted, and the Luth. Guild of Suomi Syn. was organized Hancock, Michigan, June 12, 1946. The const. provided for the promotion of Christian knowledge, the advancement of the syn. through the development of the women of the ch., and cooperation with the Synod, and promised to labor in behalf of missions and to cultivate interest in Synod institutions and work.
9. Women's Mission Society of the AELC. At the time of the annual syn. conv. in Chicago, Illinois, in summer 1908 a number of young matrons gathered during the noon hour to discuss their growing worldbeyond family, ladies' aid, and local church. They were concerned about the needs of home missions and how to arouse all the women of the ch. to action. While no formal organization was effected, the women's aid agreed to form a Dan. Women's Mission Fund to aid young pastors and small congs. and to cultivate a love for missions. This loosely formed organization was under the leadership of Mrs. Karoline Kjolhede for 30 yrs. Meetings were conducted in the Dan. language. After Mrs. Kjolhede resigned 1937, the younger women, born in this country, undertook a firmer organization. The Eng. language was used, a const. drafted, and a new name applied, Women's Mission Soc.
10. Am. Luth. Ch. Women (ALCW). Founded 1960 by women of The ALC. Its purposes include: To serve as an auxiliary to the American Lutheran Church in the achievement of its objectives of making the Gospel of Jesus Christ known among all men.
There were women's miss. groups in the 4 churches which 1960 organized The ALC. In the UELC it was called the Women's Missionary Society; in the ALC, ELC, and Luth. Free Ch., Women's Missionary Federation.
All confirmed women of The ALC are automatically considered members of the ALCW. The organization has no charter or membership lists. The ALC provides the operating funds. It has 2 depts.: educ. and stewardship. The educ. dept. fosters study of the Bible and of the nature and mission of the ch.. The stewardship dept. encourages support of syn. and projects within syn..
The core of the ALCW is Bible study in small groups called circles.
The const. gives the purpose of the organization as to know and do the will of Jesus Christ by: inspiring in the individual member a deeper consecration to the Savior; developing stewardship of time, talents, and treasure; disseminating knowledge of the program of the church of Jesus Christ, particularly of The American Lutheran Church; spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ throughout the world. AN (10)
11. International Luth. Women's Missionary League (LWML). Women's soc. of the LCMS, organized Chicago, Illinois, July 78, 1942, as Luth. Women's Missionary League, as an expansion of women's groups that had been working successfully in various dists. of the Mo. Syn. In 1951 the use of the name Internat. Luth. Women's Missionary League for referring to the league at large was authorized. Name officially changed 1975 to International Luth. Women's Missionary League.
Before 1928 a few pastors conceived the plan to secure the united efforts of women in support of missions. An educ. program was introduced. The women saw the need for special miss. projects not provided for in the syn. budget.
During 192842 the directors of missions and pastors, watching the development and the achievements of organized women's groups, recognized the need for united effort throughout the syn.. At the 1938 syn. conv. in St. Louis 2 proposals regarding organized women's work were submitted. The syn. took the plans under advisement and appointed a com. to study the situation and prepare recommendations for the next conv.. In 1941 the syn. conv. approved the creation of a synodwide organization of women.
The organization meets in conv. biannually. During the biennium business is administered by the administrative com. and the ex. bd. The purpose of the organization is to promote miss. educ., miss. inspiration, and miss. service. Its freewill offerings support miss. projects for which no provision is made in dist. or syn. budgets. The mite box early became a noted collection device. The LWML has supported schools, sems., colls., hospitals, chapels, and other miss. projects around the world.
The major programs are directed toward Christian growth and miss. service.
See also Laymen's Activity in the Lutheran Church.
III. United Work of Prot. Women.
A. Prot. women were early influenced by the ideal of the oneness of the ch. Since the beginning of the 19th c. women met in local organized groups for the purpose of studying and supporting missions. In addition to appeals for help from foreign missions, immigrant families and the moving frontier opened up needs for women's work.
C. In the next 2 decades women's boards were organized in nearly every Prot. denom., including Women's Foreign Missionary Soc. of The Meth. Ch. 1869, Women's Foreign Missionary Soc. of the Presb. Ch. USA 1870; United Presb. Women 1870.
1. In 189091 an interdenom., committee of women was formed to help put on a program for the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. A Day of Prayer for home missions was est. 1887, and for foreign missions 1890; combined on first Friday in Lent 1919; became World Day of Prayer for Missions 1927. A Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions was set up 1901. The Council of Women for Home Missions was organized 1908. In 1914 a Committee on Christian Literature for Women and Children was organized which produced magazines, leaflets, books, and illustrated material in various languages. Some local interdenom., groups were already organized in the late 19th and early 20th c., including The Woman's Missionary Union of Springfield, Missouri 1887, the Missionary Social Union of St. Louis 1898, the Missionary Federation of Kansas City 1909. The jubilee meetings arranged across the country 1911 contributed greatly to the formation of such groups and led to the founding of the Federation of Women's Boards of Foreign Mission. Membership in local groups was usually not linked with denom. representation. All ch. women were eligible.
2. Social reform and work early became a concern of women's organizations. Though the Social Gospel was successfully opposed by fundamentalists, women's organizations continued to work and pray for social betterment.
3. In May 1928 the Nat. Commission of Prot. Ch. Women was organized to plan for local interdenom. church women's groups, unify and enlarge their programs, advise new organizations, and cooperate with the Federal* Council of Churches. The Nat. Council of Federated Ch. Women (NCFCW) was formed 1929 for the purpose of establishing a Christian social order in which all areas of life shall be brought into harmony with the teachings of Jesus Christ. It published a News Bulletin 1934 and The Church Woman 1936.
4. The Nat. Council of Federated Ch. Women, the Council of Women for Home Missions, and the Women's Committee of the Foreign Missions Conf. merged into The United Council of Ch. Women (UCCW), December 1113, 1941, with the purpose of uniting ch. women in their allegiance to their Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, through a program looking to their integration in the total life and work of the ch. and to the building of a world Christian community. At the constituting conv. the United Council of Ch. Women became the Gen. Dept. of United Ch. Women of the National* Council of Churches but kept its own charter, December 1950. In 1965 it became one of five departments in the Division of Christian Unity of the NCC. It has continued to stress prayer, unity, missions, human and civil rights. EDH, EL, PGL
These Fifty Years: 18921942, ed. Mrs. P. Peterson (Chicago, 1942); Revised Interim Report of a Study on the Life and Work of Women in the Church (Geneva, 1948); I. M. Cavert, Women in American Church Life (New York, 1948); K. Bliss, The Service and Status of Women in the Churches (London, 1952); K. Lehmann, And the Women Also (Columbus, Ohio, 1952); Men and Women in Church and Society (Geneva, 1952); Women of the Church (Study Document of LWF, 1952); M. A. Wyker, Church Women in the Scheme of Things (St. Louis, 1953); C. P. Blackwood, How to Be an Effective Church Woman (Philadelphia, 1955); F. Zerbst, The Office of Woman in the Church, tr. A. Merkens (St. Louis, 1955); R. C. Prohl, Woman in the Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1957); M. Reishus, Hearts and Hands Uplifted (Minneapolis, 1958); R. J. Smith, Their Sound Goes Forth (Philadelphia, 1959); J. F. Danielou, The Ministry of Women in the Early Church (London, 1961); G. G. Calkins, Follow Those Women (New York, 1961); R. F. Meyer, Women on a Mission (St. Louis, 1967).
Organized Cleveland, Ohio, during great temperance crusade 1874; mems. required to sign pledge of total abstinence. It is largely due to WCTU that public school textbooks make special reference to effects of alcohol and narcotics; its Sunday school dept. secured the teaching of quarterly temperance lessons in the Internat. Sunday School Series.
As result of efforts of Mrs. Thomas C. Doremus and Mrs. Francis Mason, a woman's miss. soc. was organized in Boston 1860 and in New York 1861. The two united 1861 to form the Woman's Union Miss. Soc. of Am. for Heathen Lands. The purpose of the interdenom. organization was to send single ladies to miss. fields. Fields (1966): India, Japan, West Pakistan. US headquarters: New York, New York Member IFMA.
(17601831). B. Richmond, Surrey, Eng.; widowed mother exercised salutary influence; at 17 entered Trinity College, Oxford; holy orders 1783; lecturer St. Peter's, Cornhill, 1784; morning preacher Bentinck Chapel; purchased lease of chapel 1793 and held incumbency together with rectory of Drayton from 1808; took great interest in religious societies and antislavery movement. Wrote hymns including Hail. Thou Source of Every Blessing.
(172072). Am. Quaker; his efforts to remove social ills are given in his Journal; known especially for his opposition to slavery.
Word of God covers the whole field of God's revelation of Himself. His Word is the essential mode whereby God intervenes in the world: Through it He creates the heavens and the earth (Gn 1); through it He reveals Himself to men (Jn 1:114); and by its proclamation the history of the ch. develops and is fulfilled (Acts 4:29, 31). The term is used in a special way of Jesus Christ, who is the Heart and Center of God's revelation. In addition, the NT uses Word of God of (a) the OT law (Mk 7:13); (b) a particular passage from the OT (Jn 10:35); (c) in a more general sense, God's revealed will, or His whole plan of salvation (Lk 11:28; Ro 9:6); (d) the word preached by Jesus (Lk 5:1); (e) the Christian message (Acts 4:31): and (f) all that goes on in a cong. in terms of worship, proclamation, and life (Acts 6:7). The application of the Word of God to Scripture as the written Word is derived from use b above. While theologians distinguished bet. the incarnate, the proclaimed, and the written Word, all 3 testify to the purpose of God in creating, saving, and sanctifying His people. The uniqueness of the Bible consists of the fact that it is our source book of knowledge on what God has done within history for the redemption of mankind. From beginning to end the Scriptures are anchored in Jesus Christ (Jn 5:39), to whom all the prophets, apostles, and evangelists testify. The Lutheran* Confessions, therefore, speak of the Bible as the prophetic and apostolic Word.
R. Abba, The Nature and Authority of the Bible (Philadelphia, 1958); O. Cullmann, The Christology of the New Testament (Philadelphia, 1959); W. Keller, The Bible as History (New York, 1956); P. Schumm, The Clearness and Sufficiency of Scripture in Abiding Word, I, 5866. MHS
(180785). B. Lambeth, Eng.; nephew of W. Wordsworth*; father of J. Wordsworth*; educ. Winchester and Cambridge; headmaster Harrow 183644; canon Westminster 1844; lecturer Cambridge 184849; priest 19 yrs. Stanford-in-the-Vale cum Goosey, Berkshire; bp. Lincoln 1869. Works include a ch. hist. to 451 AD, a Bible commentary, and The Holy Year, which contains hymns for the ch. yr. Hymns include O Day of Rest and Gladness; Songs of Thankfulness and praise; See, the Conqueror Mounts in Triumph; Arm These Thy Soldiers, Mighty Lord: O Lord of Heaven and Earth and Sea; Hark! the Sound of Holy Voices; Thou Who the Night in Prayer Didst Spend.
(17701850). Uncle of C. Wordsworth*; leading Eng. romantic poet; named poet laureate 1843; gave charm of novelty to things of everyday life; for many years strongly Platonic, but his Ecclesiastical Sonnets, written when in his 50s, reflect a return to Ch. of Eng.
Organized at Constance, Ger., August 1, 1914, by ca. 80 people under the leadership of Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze (b. 1885) and the English Quaker Henry Theodore Hodgkin (18771933); officially dissolved June 30, 1948. See also Ammundsen, Ove Valdmar; Ecumenical Movement, 9.
(Presbyterian and Congregational). Internat. agency of Ref. chs. formed by merger of the World Alliance of Ref. Chs. and the International* Cong. Council at Nairobi, Kenya, August 20, 1970. See also Alliance of the Reformed Churches Throughout the World Holding the Presbyterian Order.
(former names: The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America; Black Muslims; Nation of Islam). In 1930 a peddler, perhaps Arab., known as Farrad Mohammad (or Fard Mohammed [Muhammad]; F. Mohammad Ali; Elijah Mohammed [Muhammad]; Wallace Fard Muhammad; Wali [or Walli] Farrad; W. D. Fard; Ford) began teaching the Bible to Negroes in Detroit, Michigan, but came to oppose Scripture in favor of Islam.* The meeting hall was called Temple of Islam; later ones were called Temple 2 (Chicago, Illinois), etc. Farrad Mohammad lived in Detroit till 1933 or 1934, when he disappeared and Elijah Mohammad (Elijah Poole; Robert Poole; Paul Poole; Karriem; Ghulam Bogam; 18971975) became the leader. He was succeeded by his son Warith (formerly Wallace) Deen Muhammad, who changed the sect's name first to The World Community of Al-Islam in the West (WCIW) and then to the American Muslim Mission, oppned its membership to whites in 1976, and instituted other reforms, including one that allows women to share power with men as imams (see Imam), i. e., spiritual leaders, of mosques; Warith resigned 1978 in favor of an elective council to head the §. The decision to admit whites led to factionalism and a split, with Louis Farrakhan forming his own, smaller, Nation of Islam.
Black Muslims held that the solution of the Negro problem in Am. is separation and that the US owes them land. They rejected the white race, Am. society, Christianity, and the term Negro, and regarded N. Am. as a cultural and moral wilderness. They accept modified Islam. They hold Am. Negroes to be descendants of original man (people of the moon) and part of the ancient lost tribe of Shabazz, which allegedly lived in the region of Mecca. F. Mohammad is regarded by some as an incarnation of Allah (see Islam, 1); E. Muhammad is regarded as a Messenger of Allah. Muslim claim ca. 80 temples in the US (1963).
E. U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism (Chicago, 1962); C. E. Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America (Boston, 1961); W. H. Burns, The Voices of Negro Protest in America (New York, 1963); W. J. Brink and L. Harris, The Negro Revolution in America (New York, 1964). EL
Name adopted 1984 by Lutherans AlertNational, founded 1965 Cedar Rapids, Iowa; 1969 est. Faith Ev. Luth. Sem. (see Ministry, Education of, X H); 1980 est. the Conservative Luth. Assoc. as cong. arm; 1982 est. a radio ministry called Words of Faith; pub. Lutherans Alert Magazine.
Fed. of nat. councils of Prot. chs. and nat. councils of Christian educ.. In 1889 the first in a series of World's Sunday School Conventions assembled at London. At the 7th conv. the World's S. S. Assoc. was constituted (Rom 1907). The name was changed to World Council of Christian Educ. and S. S. Assoc. 1947. It promotes organized Christian educ. including Sunday schools, encourages study of Bible, and fosters world evangelization. It conducted world institutes on Christian educ. at Toronto 1950; Nishonomiya, Japan, 1958; Belfast 1962. Publication: World Christian Education. Headquarters: Geneva. See also Ecumenical Movement, 12.
The World Council of Churches is a fellowship of churches which confess the Lord Jesus Christ as God and Saviour according to the Scriptures and therefore seek to fulfill together their common calling to the glory of the one God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (constit., rev. 1961). The WCC had its origins in the Faith and Order and the Life and Work movements (see Ecumenical Movement, 710; Union Movements, 14, 15). These 2 movements converged 1937 when delegates from the majority of Prot. chs. met at Edinburgh and Oxford to discuss the possibilities of ch. union. The delegation at Edinburgh concerned itself primarily with Faith and Order, while the topic for discussion at Oxford was chiefly Life and Work. The two groups agreed to appoint continuation committees which were to lay the foundation for the proposed WCC and to prepare a draft for a coast. Specific steps leading to the formation of the WCC were the 1937 meeting of the Committee of 35 under W. Temple's* chairmanship at Westfield, Onson, Eng., and the 1938 meeting of the Committee of 14 at Utrecht, Neth. The organizational meeting was scheduled for 1941 but had to be postponed until 1948 at Amsterdam. At New Delhi 1961 the International* Missionary Council merged with the WCC. Other assemblies: Evanston, Illinois, 1954; Uppsala, Swed., 1968; Nairobi, Kenya, 1976; Vancouver, Brit. Columbia, Can., 1983. The const. lists the following functions of the WCC:
1. To carry on the work of the world movements for Faith and Order and Life and Work and of the International Missionary Council;
2. To facilitate common action by the churches;
3. To promote cooperation in study;
4. To promote the growth of ecumenical and missionary consciousness in the members of all churches;
5. To support the churches in their worldwide missionary and evangelistic task;
6. To establish and maintain relations with national and regional councils, world confessional bodies, and other ecumenical organizations;
7. To call world conferences on specific subjects as occasion may require, such conferences being empowered to publish their own findings.
The work of the WCC is carried on by 3 commissions: The Commission on Faith and Order, continuing the work of the Faith and Order movement (see Ecumenical Movement, 7, 8, 10, 11); the Commission of the Chs. on Internat. Affairs, developed from the Life and Work movement (see Ecumenical Movement, 911); the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism, developed from the Internat.. Missionary Council (see Ecumenical Movement, 6, 11).
G. K. A. Ball, The Kingship of Christ: The Story of the World Council of Churches (Baltimore, 1954): P. Gaines, The World Council of Churches: A Study of Its Background and History (Peter-borough, New Hampshire, 1966): G. A. Thiele, The World Council of Churches, CTM XXVII (May 1956), 532369; R. Krieling, Uppsala 1968 (Göttingen, 1968)
Work of the Survey* Application Trust and of the World Dominion Press; began 1916; the Trust was est.. London, Eng., 1924; T. Cochrane,* Roland Allen,* and others assumed responsibility for the Trust 1930; the Trust moved to the Mildmay Conf. Centre (see Mildmay Institutions) 1931, ceased operation 1968. Works issued by the World Dominion Press include World Christian Handbook; Things We Face Together (a series of pamphlets); writings by Roland Allen; World Dominion (first edited by T. Cochrane; first pub. 1923; merged 1958 with Christian News-Letter of the Christian Frontier Council to form Frontier).
Indep. intersyn. Luth. mission soc.. Began as prayer group among students 1932. Organized 1937. Sent out first missionaries 1938. Tries to go where other mission work is nonexistent or weak. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements; Mexico, D 3.
Began 1931 with the est. of Radio Station HCJB, Quito, Ecuador.
Origin is traced to 1913 when Charles Thomas Studd (18601931) with a companion went from Eng. to Afr. to evangelize areas not worked by other missions. Studd called his work Christ's Etceteras; called Afr. mission The Heart of Africa Mission; name changed 1919 to Worldwide Evangelization Crusade. Missionaries endeavor to live on level of nat. workers and make chs. indigenous and self-supporting; operates as worldwide fellowship rather than highly organized society; work coordinated through internat. secy. and coordinating council; theol. position fundamental but allows for varying interpretations; interdenom.; active in ca. 40 countries.
Meeting held November 1540 and January 1541 to promote understanding between RC and Luth. theologians. There were 11 men on RC side, with Granvella as representative of Charles* V and the legate L. Campeggio* as chief spokesman, while Melanchthon* was leader of Luths.. But a few days after the real opening, when a discussion between J. Eck* and Melanchthon was under way, the colloquy was adjourned to the Regensburg* Conf. without having accomplished anything. See also Grynäus, 1.
Meeting of Luth. and RC theols. held 1557. Those on Evangelical side were themselves at odds, because Flacian party had refused to acknowledge Wittenberg party unless the men in this group would cleanse themselves of synergism* (see also Synergistic Controversy) and Zwinglianism (see Zwingli, Huldreich). Preliminary efforts at effecting a united front having failed, the meeting was nevertheless called, Bp. J. v. Pflug* acting as chairman; greatest difficulty arose when RC refused to accept Bible as only final norm of doctrine; meeting adjourned in December See also Schnepf, Erhard.
First diet called by young Emperor Charles* V, where April 18, 1521, Luther made world-changing speech refusing to recant. He stood alone on Scripture against pope, prelates, and emperor. The diet also presented the Centum gravamina, Hundred Grievances, which German nation had against abuses of papacy. Former diets had made similar protests. This time, as previously, no real reforms were effected. See also Luther, Martin, 13; Reformation, Lutheran, 9.
A. R. Wentz, When Two Worlds Met, The Diet of Worms, 1521 (Philadelphia, 1921).
1. In broadest definition worship is the response of the creature to the Creator. In this sense it includes all expressions of mind or voice or body which are motivated by or directed toward the Divine. Since all men live and move and have their being in God, the term worship may be as correctly applied to the conscious and unconscious responses of pagan peoples to God as they understand Him as to the devotion of Christians.
2. Christian worship can only be defined accurately, however, by adding to Creator the words as He has revealed Himself in Jesus Christ and makes Himself known through the Holy Spirit. The recognition of the Holy Trinity as the one true God and the acceptance of the revelation of His nature and His purpose to save all men through Jesus Christ is basic to the Christian faith. Since no man can call Jesus Lord but by the Holy Spirit, the recognition of the Third Person of the Trinity is also basic to Christian worship. Since the Holy Spirit works among men through the means of gracethe Word of God in Scripture and sacramentstheir impartation of the new life in Christ Jesus is the beginning of worship. Because the old nature of man must continually be killed by the Law, and the new man must constantly be revitalized by the Gospel and the sacraments, their use is a necessary part of any continuation in worship. So vital is this Word impetus to the existence and the practice of Christian worship that the Lutheran Confessions say: We cannot offer anything to God unless we have first been reconciled and reborn. The greatest possible comfort comes from this doctrine that the highest worship in the Gospel is the desire to receive forgiveness of sins, grace, and righteousness (Ap IV 310). Luther wrote in his Small Catechism: We should fear and love God that we may not despise preaching and His Word, but hold it sacred and gladly hear and learn it.
3. In common usage the word worship is used to include this reception of the means of gracehearing the Scriptures and participating in the sacraments. However, in its sharpest focus the word worship describes man's response to this power of God brought to his life by the Spirit. Man's desiring to receive forgiveness, grace, and righteousness is worship. Gladly is the adverb that carries the worship accent into the action of hearing the Word. It is not the mere participation in Holy Baptism or the Lord's Supper that is worship; but the reaching out to God by the believer during his participation or as he meditates on God's gift in the Sacrament, that is worship. Worship is more accurately man's fearing and loving God, the heart of the First Commandment and the beating center of the Christian faith. Worship is the all-pervading recognition of the absolute worth of God.
4. The word for worship commonly used in this specific sense in the OT is hishtahawah, from shaha, to bow, to prostrate oneself. In the NT the specific word is proskuneoto prostrate oneself, to adore, to worship. The general concept of worship, however, included the broader aspects of the service of God. The OT word for this idea is abodah, from abad, to labor, to serve. In the NT this idea is expressed in the word latria,* originally meaning servitude, the state of a hired laborer or slave. Later the word described a gratuitous act by a citizen for the state, as, for instance, if a ship were built at a citizen's expense and given to the navy. Christians use it in the terms church service, divine service, religious service, or simply service.
5. Since God is served not only by expressions of adoration but by acts of service to the least of our Lord's brethren, worship is often used to include all that a believing man does for God's sake. In this sense worship is everything that a child of God does in faith. The mutually edifying acts of Christians for one another, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, are particularly described as aspects of worship. Every act of charity, done as unto God can well be called worship, especially since there is really nothing that a creature can do for the Creator except to show love and concerns for His other creatures. Such a definition of worship, however, equates it with the Christian life. To provide a workable definition of worship, the recognition of the absolute worth of God which pervades these actions could more helpfully be described as worship.
6. The interaction between Christians in worship (Corporate worship) is the more readily included in some definitions because Christian worship is always corporate in nature. Frequently the corporateness is visibly expressed as congs. of Christians gather in one place to worship. In such meetings the Scriptures and sacraments are used, and ritual and symbol are employed to make corporate expression possible. But even when Christians worship individually they are not alone, since all are members one of another. That Christians gather together is the expressed will of God, and the mutual helpfulness of Christians as they worship together is God-pleasing. But narrowly considered, these actions, too, are focused in man's direction. What is worship in them, in worship's narrow sense, is that they are offered to God by those who do them.
7. Forms which a group of Christians employ in order to express their worship of God are not worship, even though that word and the word service are sometimes used to label them (see also 4). The Luth. Confessions state that the ceremonies or church usages which are neither commanded nor forbidden in the Word of God, but which have been introduced solely for the sake of good order and the general welfare, are in and for themselves no divine worship or even a part of it (FC Ep X 3). It is here that the distinction between spiritual and ceremonial worship should be drawn. Our Lord's words to the woman at the well, God is spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth, do not deprecate the use of form in corporate or individual worship. They underline that the Lord must be loved with heart and soul and mind and strength, and not with heartless words or thoughtless ceremony. Our Lord Himself was the supreme example of such true worship of His Father; and He gave that example to us as a Jew participating in the ceremonial aspects of OT religion as well as in the times and ways that He went apart to pray to the Father in secret. The very creature-liness of humankind demands that worship be expressed in physical ways, even as God has revealed Himself in ways that are susceptible to the senses. God not only communicated His will and the revelation of His thoughts (which are not our thoughts) and His ways (which are not our ways) to the understanding of man, but He came into our world and time through the incarnation of His Son, Jesus Christ. His grace was made available to man through the very real dying of His Son, and our justification was secured through the coming to life again of the body of our Lord. His forgiving love is still mediated to us through print, through water and bread and wine. This alone would provide the adequate justification for the use of things in man's response to God. The detailed specification in the OT of the manner in which the action of worship was to be expressed is further evidence that it is correct for man to acknowledge his creatureliness by the use of ceremony and symbol in worship. Cultus, the embodiment of worship, is therefore divinely approved in principle but not specified in detail for NT Christians. The Luth. Ch., in Christian liberty, but with a very keen sense of the significance of the ch. as it has existed in the world through the centuries, has adopted the historic liturgy of the Western Cath. world. Even as this form is used in the recurring cycles of the church* yr., Christians must be mindful of the fact that worship is the adoring action of the participant, and not mere participation, in the liturgy.
8. The Christian worships when he gives to God the glory that is due His name; when he confesses his faults to Him whom he knows to be faithful and just to forgive his trespasses; when he gives thanks at all times and in all places for all things that a loving God directs in his life; and when he presents prayers and supplications for all sorts and conditions of men, and all this always as a member of the Kingdom and within the frame of the will of God, which is the basic premise of adoration. GWH
A few ancient ch. orders have either remained practically unchanged to the present time or have influenced present orders to a great extent.
1. The liturgy of the Roman Ch. was established in the basic features of its present form by Gregory the Great (590604; see Popes, 4). Not only did the Roman rite, as fixed by him, tend to emphasize the difference bet. Rome and Constantinople, but it also brought out the sacerdotal idea as it gained ground in the West under the influence of Gregory. In spite of Gregory's conservative position, the Roman rite began to supersede other rites which had been in use in the West. In the Ger. Empire, which at that time included Gaul, Pepin* and Charlemagne* virtually succeeded in abolishing the Gallican Liturgy, the Roman Ordinary of the Mass being introduced by force.
2. In Eng. the Council of Clovesho prescribed the Roman rite for the entire country 747, although it never fully succeeded in replacing the ancient forms.
3. In Ireland the syns. of Tara 692, of Kells 1152, and of Cashel 1172 passed resolutions favoring the Roman rite alone.
4. In Sp. the Syn. of Burgos 1085 declared the Roman Liturgy valid for the entire country. Thus by the 12th c. the Roman forms had superseded or supplanted the rites previously in use in Sp., Fr., Ger., Eng., Scot., Ireland, and It., with the exception of the archbishopric of Milan and individual dioceses at Seville, Toledo, Salamanca, and Valladolid, in Sp..
5. There was a revision of the Roman Liturgy in the 16th c., the Breviary of Quignon appearing 1539 and the Breviary of Pius V (see Popes, 21) 1568. Since these efforts, however, did not meet with general satisfaction, Clement VIII issued a new Roman service book 1604 which was finally revised under Urban VIII and appeared 1634. It may be said to be a recast of the Gregorian Liturgy, the framework and much of the liturgical material having been retained.
6. The order of service in the celebration of Mass in the Roman Ch. at present contains the following parts: the solemn beginning of Mass, with the Introibo (Ps 43) and the Gloria Patri; the Confiteor, or confession of sins by the priest; the Introit of the day with the Gloria Petri; the Kyrie, followed by the Gloria in Excelsis; the Collect, introduced with the Salutation and Response; the reading of the Epistle; the Gradual, or Hallelujah; the Gospel, preceded by the Benediction and Salutation, with Response by the priest's assistants; the Nicene Creed; the Offertory, or the Oblation, with the Invocation and the Lavabo; the Preface, including everything from the Salutation to the Sanctus; the Canon of the Mass, including the offering of the unbloody sacrifice, the Consecration, the Elevation and Adoration, and the Commemoration for the living and the dead; the preparation for Communion; the prayers preceding the Distribution (Agnus Dei and several collects); the Distribution, the priest first taking bread and wine himself and then administering the bread, if there are communicants; the Communion Psalm, the Postcommunion; the end of the Mass; the Benediction.
7. The liturgy of the Ch. of Eng. and also of the Prot. Episc. Ch. in Am. was derived from Ephesine or Gallican sources, reaching Eng. in the last part of the 2d c. or in the 3d c. by way of Lyons. It was afterward modified by Augustine* of Canterbury and Theodore* of Tarsus. A revision by Osmund of Salisbury (1087) resulted in a compromise bet. the Roman and the Gallican rite. The ancient Use of Salisbury was amended and rev. 1516, a 2d rev. being undertaken 1541. For further hist. see Book of Common Prayer.
8. The order of the chief service in the Angl. Ch. is the following: Lord's Prayer; Collect for Purity; Ten Commandments, with the response Kyrie; Collect of the day; Epistle, the cong. seated; Gospel, the cong. standing; Nicene Creed; announcements; Psalm; Sermon; sentences relating to offering; General Prayer; Exhortation and Invitation; Confession and Absolution; Comfortable Words; the Communion service.
9. In the liturgy of the Ref. chs. in Am. the sacrificial idea preponderates. In most denoms. a number of hymns, alternating with prayers and readings, precede the sermon, and the services close with prayer and benediction. Great emphasis is placed on the prayers in public worship, and the hymns and music are usually made an outstanding feature of the services. There is also a certain tendency to make the services more beautiful by introducing liturgical material, though the execution of liturgical parts is commonly left to a choir. See also Worship, Parts of.
10. The order of worship in the Luth. chs. of Am. is based largely on the work of Luther, whose Formula missae 1523 and Deutsche Messe 1526 exerted a wide influence. An abbreviated form of the Saxon and Prussian orders was used in many Ger. congs..
11. The chief parochial service of the Ch. of the Augsburg Conf. is the Holy Communion (AC XXIV 34; Ap XXIV 1). It is the historic rite of the Western Ch. in the language of the people. The invariable framework of the service (Ordinary) gives a cath. and evangelical direction to the devotion of the worshiper. The Propers, which change from Sunday to Sunday, from week to week, from holiday to holiday, enable the worshiper to live in the regular rhythm of the ch. yr..
12. In the LCMS the Holy Communion may be divided into 2 parts: the liturgy of the Word and the liturgy of the Sacrament. The 1st part consists of (a) Introit, Kyrie, Gloria in Excelsis, Salutation, Collect; (b) Epistle and Holy Gospel; (c) Creed, Sermon, Hymn. The 2d part consists of (a) Salutation, Preface, Sanctus, Exhortation; (b) Lord's Prayer, Consecration, Distribution; (c) Post-Communion. A more detailed division of the service is the following: I. The Service of Preparation: Invocation, Confession, Absolution. II. The Liturgy of the Word: (a) Introit, Kyrie, Gloria in Excelsis, Salutation, Collect; (b) Epistle, Gradual and Hallelujah, Holy Gospel, Nicene Creed; (c) Hymn, Sermon. III. The Litury of the Sacrament: (a) Offertory, Prayer of the Ch.; (b) Salutation, Preface, Sursum Corda, Gratias Agimus, Dignum, Sanctus and Hosanna; (c) Lord's Prayer, Words of Institution, Pax Domini, Agnus Dei; (d) Distribution. IV. The Post-Communion: Nunc Dimittis, Versicle, Collects, Benedicamus, Benediction.
13. In addition to the above liturgy, which may be found in The Lutheran Hymnal, p. 15 (Conc. Pub. House, 1941), there are 3 alternate services suggested for cong. use and printed in the Worship Supplement (Conc. Pub. House, 1969). The 1st service is similar to the structure outlined above but provides a new musical setting for the liturgy. The Service of the Word is composed of Entrance Song, Lord Have Mercy, Glory and Praise, Salutation, Collect, Lesson, Gradual, Epistle, Holy Gospel, Sermon, Creed. The Service of the Sacrament is composed of Offering and Offertory, Intercessions, Preface, Holy Holy Holy, Prayer of Thanksgiving, Our Father, Greeting of Peace, Lamb of God, Distribution, Thanksgiving, Collect, and Benediction. This liturgy follows closely the sequence of the new RC Mass, especially in regard to the placement of the sermon immediately after the reading of the Holy Gospel.
14. The 2d service follows an order of worship used in St. Mark's in the Bowery Ch., NYC. The service is divided into 3 main parts: The Preparation, The Service of the Word, and The Meal. The Service of the Word includes Lessons, Sermon, and Intercessions. The Meal follows the 4-fold action of the Eucharist as outlined by Gregory Dix: Taking, Blessing, Breaking, and Sharing.
15. The 3d service is based on the so-called Dutch Canon. This order is divided into the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. The Liturgy of the Word includes Opening, Confession, Glory in the Highest, Prayer for the Day, Readings, Homily, Intercessory Prayers. The Liturgy of the Eucharist includes Prayer for Peace and Unity, Offertory, Invitation, Thanksgiving, Communion, and Dismissal.
16. There is also a Service of Holy Communion prepared by the Inter-Luth. Commission on Worship for provisional use. This order is printed in Contemporary Worship Services, The Holy Communion (Augsburg Pub. House, Bd. of Pub.Luth. Ch. in Am., and Conc. Pub. House, 1970). The order of the liturgy is as follows: Entrance Hymn; The Liturgy of the Word: First Lesson, Second Lesson, Holy Gospel, Sermon, Hymn of the Day or Creed, Act of Reconciliation, the Intercessions; The Liturgy of the Eucharistic Meal, which includes all the traditional elements as found in the Order of Holy Communion, The Luth. Hymnal (p. 15); however, in order to emphasize the unity of the Eucharistic action, the various parts are not titled or distinguished.
17. The orders for the Holy Communion found in The Luth. Hymnal (p. 15), the Worship Supplement, and the Inter-Luth.. Commission on Worship booklet are all based on the structure of the worship service employed by the early ch.. They follow the historic 2-part division of the service: the Mass of the Catechumens and the Mass of the Faithful. JSD (1117)
In following the sequence of parts in the order of worship, their significance should be noted.
1. Versicles are short passages of Scripture intended to incite the worshipers to devotion and to suggest the central thought of the part following.
2. The Confession of Sins is properly made as a preparatory step, to obtain assurance of the forgiveness of God at the very beginning of worship. It has taken the place of the ancient Confiteor. In the Confiteor the priest knelt and made confession of his sins to Almighty God, to the blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed archangel Michael, the blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, etc.. The meaning of this confession was that the priest, having doffed his usual clothing and having donned his priestly vestments, was worthy of offering the sacrifice for the living and the dead. In Luth. worship the Confession is made for the entire cong..
3. The Office of the Word begins with the Introit and extends up to, but does not include, the Preface. The Introit (entrance) is the opening of the Ps of the day, spoken or chanted after the preparation, to indicate the character of the day and the nature of the spiritual food offered to the cong. It is a remnant of the primitive psalmody, which was probably taken over into the early ch. from the services of the synagog. Originally the entire Ps was chanted or sung antiphonally bet. the officiating clergy and the choir at the great entrance of the officiating priest and his assistants. Luther favored the use of the entire introductory Ps, but the abbreviated form remained, chiefly on account of lack of time.
4. The Gloria Patri or Lesser Doxology to the Holy Trinity distinguishes the use of the Psalter in NT times from its use in the synagog worship.
5. The Kyrie is a plea for the removal of misery and suffering, a confession of the wretchedness to be borne as a consequence of sins now forgiven. It is addressed to the Lord of mercy, in whom we not only have forgiveness of sins but also help and assistance in every need.
6. The Gloria in excelsis or Greater Doxology fittingly follows as a hymn of adoration, celebrating God's glory as manifested in the merciful gift of His Son, who bore all our sins and infirmities.
7. The Collects are prayers in which the wants and perils, or the wishes and desires, of the people or the entire ch. are together presented to God.
8. The reading of the Epistle is followed by the Hallelujah on the part of the cong., which praises the Lord for the unspeakable gift of His Word. At this point may he sung the Gradual (sequence, prose, tract, trope), originally merely an extension of the last syllable of the Hallelujah, in order to permit the lector to proceed from the Epistle to the Gospel ambo, but later developed into a special hymn or a series of responses and versicles, from which the liturgical plays were developed. The announcement of the Gospel is hailed with the sentence Glory be to Thee, O Lord, and the Praise be to Thee, O Christ at the close signifies the grateful acceptance or the Word by the cong.. Then the Creed is said or chanted.
9. In the Offertory following the sermon the cong. confesses its grateful and humble acceptance of the Word which has just been proclaimed, all the faithful offering themselves, their substance, and the sacrifices of prayer, praise, and thanksgiving to the Lord.
10. The Salutation, with its Response, is sung at the opening of the Communion service to indicate the beginning of a new part of the service.
11. The Office of the Holy Communion begins with the Preface and extends to the end of the service. The Preface is preceded by the prefatory sentences (Sursum and Gratias) and is distinguished for impressiveness and beauty, setting forth the reason for the hymn of praise which follows the chanting of the Preface (whether common, for ordinary Sundays, or proper, for festival seasons). This hymn of praise is known as the Sanctus,* or Tersanctus* (also called Seraphic Hymn; cf. Is. 6:23), in which the combination of heaven's and earth's chorus results in an exalted strain of glorification and thanksgiving (to be distinguished from Trisagion*).
12. After the consecration of the elements (see Institution, Words of) there follows in many liturgies the Anamnesis.* In Luth. liturgies the consecration is commonly followed by the Pax (The peace of the Lord be with you alway! Amen), followed by the Agnus* Dei, during which the communicants begin to approach the altar.
13. The Nunc* dimittis opens the Postcommunion. The believer, having received the fulness of God's grace and mercy, feels that he may now depart in peace to his home.
14. In the Benedicamus the cong. is called upon to give all honor to God alone, in order to receive from Him the final blessing.
1. That the worship of God in the midst of the cong., in the assembly of those who confess the true God together, is required of all believers, appears from various parts of the Bible (Ps 26:12; 42:4; Heb 10:25).
2. Just as important, however, for the nurture of the Christian's spiritual life is the daily communication with the Lord by way of private worship, by prayer, by reading the Word of God and meditating on it, and by discussing its truths with others (Ps 1:2; 55:17; 109:4; Mt 6:6). Examples of consecrated men and women who remained in such communication with the Lord are Hannah (1 Sm 1:10); David (2 Sm 7:27; 1 Ch 17:25); Elisha (2 K 4:33; 6:17); Ezra (Ez 10:1); Daniel (Dn 6:10; 9:34); Mary, the mother of Jesus (Lk 2:19, 51); Anna, the prophetess (Lk 2:37); the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:28 ff.); Cornelius (Acts 10:2, 30); Peter (Acts 10:9); the Bereans (Acts 17:11); Paul (Acts 20:36); the prophets (1 Ptr 1:1011).
3. Home devotions may easily be arranged, either in the morning or in the evening, preferably right after meals, when all the members of the family are together. A few stanzas of a hymn may be sung, or the head of the house may at once read a chapter or a passage from the Bible or from some good book of exposition or a devotion based on a Bible passage. This will be followed by prayer suitable to the time or occasion and, possibly, by recital of part of the SC. The home service may close with the Lord's Prayer and the Benediction. The liturgical orders of Matins, Vespers, and Compline may well be used. See also Hours, Canonical.
A 15-minute radio program, sponsored by the Lutheran Laymen's League (see Lutheran Laymen's League, International), dedicated to the revival of the family altar. The idea of visiting in homes by radio with prayers, hymns, and meditations originated in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area 1943. Electrical transcriptions were prepared and offered to radio stations gratis on a sustaining basis. First broadcast was September 27, 1948, over 11 stations; in less than a yr., over 100 stations; reached a peak of nearly 300 stations; discontinued 1971. TDM
(18351922). B. Hopewell, New York; grad. Amherst Coll. 1857 and New Brunswick Theol. Sem. 1860; ordained Ref. Ch. in Am.; pastor Brooklyn, Philadelphia, and Schenectady, New York; served his denom. as sec. of ministerial relief and pres. of its Gen. Synod. Wrote God of the Prophets, Bless the Prophets' Sons.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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