(ca. 172496). B. Eng.; to Am. 1755 as Brit. army officer under Gen. Braddock; one of the survivors of Braddock's defeat; saw action also elsewhere, e.g., at Quebec 1759; returned to Eng.; retired from military service; became Meth. 1765; returned to US as preacher in Albany, NYC, Philadelphia, and elsewhere; d. in Eng.
(183679). B. Schwabach, near Nürnberg, N Bav., Ger.; educ.. Erlangen; vicar under J. K. W. Löhe*; instructor at the miss. school in Neuendettelsau. Pastor Diebach, near Schillingsfürst, Middle Franconia, W Bav., Ger., 186472; Neuendettelsau 1872; Polsingen, Middle Franconia, 1876. Works include System der altsynagogalen palästinischen Theologie aus Targum, Midrasch und Talmud.
(18821950). B. Mönchen-Gladbach (now Mönchengladbach), near Dösseldorf, Ger.; student of K. M. A. Kähler*; taught at Halle, Bonn (twice), Münster. Works include Reformation, Orthodoxie und Rationalismus; writings on the NT.
(Carl; Ernest; 17861826). Composer, opera conductor, pianist; b. Eutin near Lübeck, Ger.; active esp. in Breslau, Stuttgart, Prague, Dresden, London. Works include piano music; orchestral compositions; operas and other dramatic works; cantatas (including In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr); masses.
(18641920). Economist, sociologist, philos.; b. Erfurt, Ger.; studied law at Heidelberg, Berlin, Göttingen; prof. Freiburg, Heidelberg, Munich. Works include Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie.
(ca. 1619/2174). B. probably Niederdorla or Mühlhausen, Thuringia, Ger.; studied organ and composition under J. Praetorius; active in Dresden, Den., and Hamburg. Works include choral and organ music.
(May 13, 1871April 15, 1942). B. Etne, Bremnes canton, Hordaland Co. (which includes Sunnhordland, or Sönhordland), Norw.; to US 1891; educ. Red* Wing (Minnesota) Sem.; miss. tour of inspection Persia 189899; pastor South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana; prof. Red Wing Sem. 190817, Luther Theol. Sem. (St. Paul, Minnesota) 191741. Works include Absolutionen; Men Who Knew God; Moses: Faith in Decision; Who Is Jesus?
(Wegelein; 160440). B. Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; pastor Budweiler; 4th diaconus of the Franciscan Ch., Augsburg, 1627; forced to leave Augsburg by 1629 Edict of Restitution*; recalled as archidiaconus after Gustavus II gained control of the city 1632; forced to flee again as a result of the battle of Nördlingen (see Thirty Years' War); pastor Pressburg, Hung.; hymnist. Hymns include Allein auf Christi Himmelfahrt (Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein).
(17711849). B. Küblingen, near Schöppenstedt, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt; privatdocent Göttingen 1805; prof. Rinteln 1806, Halle 1810; regarded supernatural revelation as impossible. Works include Institutiones theologiae christianae dogmaticae, a representative dogmatic work of rationalism. See also Rationalismus vulgaris.
(November 22, 1851January 5, 1915). B. Center Valley, Lehigh Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia. Pastor Phillipsburg, New Jersey, 187378; prof. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 187577; pastor Philadelphia 187882; prof. Augustana Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois, 188291; pres. and prof. dogmatics and Heb. exegesis Chicago* Luth. Theol. Sem. 18911915. Works include Commentary on the Gospel of Mark; Biblical Theology of the Old Testament; An Introduction to Dogmatic Theology; Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology.
(153388). Mystic; b. Naundorf, near Grossenhain, near Dresden, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; pastor Zschopau 1567; subscribed FC. Writings published after his death reveal theosophic, pantheistic tendencies; influenced by Neoplatonism,* Erasmus,* Paracelsus*; influenced J. Böhme,* G. W. v. Leibniz,* et al.; followers called Weigelians.
(190943). B. Paris, Fr., of Jewish parents; taught philos. at girls' schools at Roanne, Bourges, and Saint-Quentin; fled Ger. troops to Marseille 1940, to Eng. via Am. 1942; known for radical views on soc. questions and alleged mystical experience of Christ. Works include La pesanteur et la grâce; Attente de Dieu; La connaissance surnaturelle; Cahiers.
Weimar, Ger., was a stronghold of Gnesio-Lutherans* in the 16th c.. Conventions and colloquys held there included: convention regarding the Interim* 1548; Flacian Syn. against Philippists* 1556; colloquy (or disputation) concerning the Konfutationsbuch* (rev. at Weimar) 1560; colloquy bet. theologians of Wittenberg and Jena 156869; syn. on original sin 1571.
Ger. Bible with annotations and other helps, first pub. 1640 Nürnberg, Ger.; put together in Weimar by order of Ernest* I by J. M. Dilherr,* J. Gerhard,* S. Glass(ius),* J. Himmel,* C. Löber,* J. Major,* et al. New ed. prefaced by C. F. W. Walther.* Also called Ernestinische Bible, Nürnberger Bibel, Weimarer Bibel, Gothaische Bibel, and (popularly) Kurfürstenbibel (or Churfürstenbibel).
(18741936). Ev. theol.; b. Vonhausen, near Büdingen, Hesse, Ger.; educ. Giessen and Berlin and at the theol. sem. at Friedberg, Hesse; taught at Berlin, Bonn, Jena. Tried to win unchurched intellectuals for ch. membership on their own terms. Works include Die Nichtkirchlichen und die freie Theologie; Die Gleichnisse Jesu.
(November 2, 1696July 13, 1760). Father-in-law of H. M. Mühlenberg*; son of J. C. Weiser Sr. (16601746; b. probably Gross Aspach, Württemberg, Ger.; to New York 1710; soldier); b. Afstaedt, a small village in Herrenberg, a county contiguous to Backnang, Württemberg; to New York 1710; learned Indian language and lore; served as interpreter and justice of the peace; in the struggle bet. Brit. and Fr. he kept the Indians on the Brit. side; arranged treaties with Indians; aided Moravian missions to Indians.
(16771747). Ev. theol.; b. Hirsau, S Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; diaconus Calw 1701; court chaplain 1705; prof. Stuttgart 1707, Tübingen 1721. Works include Introductio in memorabilia ecclesiastica historiae sacrae Novi Testamenti.
(18271918). Father of J. Weiss*; ev. theol.; b. Königsberg, Ger.; educ. Königsberg, Halle, Berlin; prof. Königsberg, Kiel, Berlin; consistorial councillor Berlin; theologian of the Prussian* Union. Works include commentaries in H. A. W. Meyer's* Kritisch exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament.
(18631914). Son of C. P. B. Weiss*; b. Kiel, Ger.; educ. Marburg, Berlin, Göttingen, Breslau; prof. Göttingen, Marburg, Heidelberg; mem. Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 13.
(Weiss; Wiss; Wegs; Weys; Weyss; ca. 14801534). B. Neisse, Silesia; priest; monk at Breslau; joined Bohemian* Brethren in Boh. and became their preacher at Landskron in Boh. and Fulnek, Moravia; hymnist. Ed. 1st Ger. hymnal of the Boh. Brethren; hymns include Christus ist erstanden; Nun lasst uns den Leib begraben.
(15901635). B. Domnau, near Königsberg (now Kaliningrad), Prussia; educ. Königsberg, Wittenberg, Leipzig, Jena, Strasbourg, Basel, Marburg; school rector Friedland, near Domnau, 161417; pastor Königsberg 162335; hymnist. Hymns include Macht hoch die Tür, die Tor' macht weit; Such, wer da will, ein ander Ziel.
Society organized 1882 to care for wounded or sick soldiers of the Austro-Hung. army and to place and care for officers and their widows and orphans in proper institutions. Not to be confused with White* Cross League.
(18401911). Ev. theol.; b. Calw, in Black Forest, S Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; pastor Stuttgart; prelate Ulm 1897; prelate and preacher Stuttgart 1900; exponent of conservative Biblical theol. Ed. Der Christenbote and Jugendblätter; other works include sermons and biographies.
(182299). Ev. theol.; b. Öhringen, near Heilbronn, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. ch. hist. Tübingen 1861; chancellor U. of Tübingen 1890; regarded himself as a disciple of F. C. Baur.* Works include writings on early Christianity. See also Bible Versions, M.
(18641943). B. Jamaica; educ. Edinburgh, Scot.; pastor Scot. 18871913; prof. OT Edinburgh 1913; disciple of J. Wellhausen.* Works include Deuteronomy: The Framework to the Code; Prophet and Priest in Old Israel.
(160264). B. Markneukirchen (im Vo[i]gtlande), near Plauen, Saxony, E cen Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; prof. Wittenberg 1635; supt. Brunswick 1640; court preacher Dresden from 1645/46. Works include writings against G. Calixtus.*
(14991572). B. Freiberg (or Freyburg?), Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; converted by one of M. Luther's sermons; lived with Luther 152735; school rector Freiberg (Freyburg?) 1539; staunch Luth. in the adiaphoristic* and Majoristic* controversies. Works include commentaries; a postil; writings on propaedeutics, ethics, and homiletics.
(18441918). OT scholar, philol., textual critic; b. Hameln, Lower Saxony, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; prof. Greifswald, Halle, Marburg, Göttingen; held that the Priestly writer (see Higher Criticism, 7) is the latest of the Pentateuch sources. Works include Das arabische Reich und sein Sturz; Geschichte lsraels; Prolegomena zur Geschichte lsraels; lsraelitische und jüdische Geschichte; Die Pharisäer und die Sadducäer; commentaries. See also Duhm, Bernhard; Exegesis, 9; Higher Criticism, 12; Lods, Adolphe; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 10.
(December 12, 16211668); Luth. miss.; b. probably Chemnitz (now Karl-Marx-Stadt), Ger., of Austrian extraction; issued several miss. treatises 166364; ordained by F. Breckling* at Zwolle, Holland, 1664; miss. to Dutch Guiana (see also South America, 13).
(Wenzel; 13611419). King Wenceslaus IV of Boh. 13781419; king of Ger. and Holy Roman emp. 13781400; imprisoned by Boh. nobles 139394; deposed by Ger. electors 1400; imprisoned 1402; regained Boh. throne 1404. With J. Hus* he supported the claims of Alexander V (see Schism, 8).
(Marcus Frederik; Fridericus; 15841652). Ref. theol.; b. Sandhausen, near Heidelberg, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg; private tutor Geneva, Switz., 160910; rector Gymnasium Zerbst, Ger. Works include Christianae theologiae systema maius; Collatio doctrinae Christianae Reformatorum et Lutheranorum.
(18531928). B. Hamburg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Göttingen; prof. Göttingen, Kiel, Heidelberg, Jena. Works include Die Lehre Jesu; Das Johannesevangelium; System der christlichen Lehre. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 12.
(February 8, 1878July 11, 1963). B. Bern, Switz.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. at large for Minnesota and Dak. dist. of the Mo. Syn.; pastor Fair Haven and Kimball, Minnesota, 1902; prof. Luther Coll., New Orleans, Louisiana, 1906; pastor Frohna, Missouri, 1910; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1923. See also Brief Statement.
(May 17, 1844November 1, 1934). B. near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; educ. Union Theol. Sem., NYC; founded Ger. Luth. Christ Ch., NYC, 1869 and was its pastor till his death. Pres. Ev. Luth. Syn. of New York and New Jersey (see United Lutheran Church, in America, The. Synods of, 15) 190408; New York Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15) 190408; New York Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15) 190810. Visited deaconess mother houses in Eur. 1888, and his report led to founding Deaconess Motherhouse, Baltimore, Maryland, 1895 (see also Deaconesses, 8). Helped found FCC. Wrote the Germanicus letters in (The) Lutheran Observer; issued Der Sonntagsgast 18721932; other works include an order of worship.
(16271703). Father of S. Werenfels*; Ref. theol.; b. Liestal, Switz.; educ. Basel; archdiaconus Basel cathedral 1655; antistes Basel and prof. Basel U. 1675. Advocated receiving Huguenots and Waldensians as citizens. Works include Disputationes theologicae.
(16571704). Son of P. Werenfels*; Ref. theol.; b. Basel, Switz.; educ. Basel; prof. Basel; exponent of a humanistic, rational orthodoxy; dissociated himself from logomachy about verbal inspiration. Works include Opuscula theologica, philosophica, et philogica; sermons.
(18901945). Poet, dramatist, novelist; b. Prague of Jewish parents; to US 1940; tried to give life religious meaning; held that everything temporal is sacred because it comes out of the eternal; tried to depict man against the background of creation, fall, incarnation, and resurrection; his poems call for brotherhood and love.
(15891643). B. Preussisch-Holland, near Elbing (or Elblag), Prussia; school rector Preussisch-Holland 1616; diaconus Königsberg 1621; hymnist. Hymns include Nun treten wir ins neue Jahr; Der Tod hat zwar verschlungen; Freut euch, ihr Christen alle, Gott schenkt uns seinen Sohn!
Ger. version of the Pentateuch* pub. anonymously at Wertheim, Ger., 1735; product of rationalismus vulgaris (a common or popular type of rationalism); printed secretly; a 1737 imperial mandate ordered its confiscation and the apprehension of its author.
(November 1, 1851August 30, 1925). B. Hanover, Ger.; to US 1868; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Cleveland, Ohio. Ed. Amerikanischer Kalender für deutsche Lutheraner 190922. Other works include Das Buch des Herrn und seine Feinde; Gottes Wort eine Gotteskraft; Die Herrlichkeit Gottes in der Natur.
(170391). Brother of C. Wesley*; founder of Methodism; b. Epworth, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained 1728; joined Holy* Club and became its leader; with C. Wesley to Georgia as miss. 1735; influenced by Moravians; in London again by early 1738; felt his heart strangely warmed May 24, 1738, ca. 8:45 p.m., at a Moravian meeting in London while listening to a reading of M. Luther's Preface to Ro; to Herrnhut, Ger., to visit Moravian leaders; on return to Eng. was opposed by organized chs.; nonconformist; began preaching in fields 1739; sent out lay preachers; provided chapels; 1st soc. of followers formed 1740. Traveled extensively in Eng., Ireland, and Scot.. For his theol. see Methodist Churches, 2. Hymns include tr. from Ger., e.g., Jesus, Thy Blood and Righteousness; Jesus, Thy Boundless Love to Me. See also Asbury, Francis; Religious Tracts; Scotland, Reformation in, 5; United Society.
M. L. Edwards, John Wesley and the Eighteenth Century, rev. ed. (London, 1955); C. W. Williams, John Wesley's Theology Today (New York, 1960); V. H. H. Green, John Wesley (London, 1964); R. C. Monk, John Wesley: His Puritan Heritage (Nashville, Tennessee, 1966).
(181076). Son of S. Wesley*; b. London, Eng.; organist at various places; prof. of the organ at the Royal Academy of Music, London, 1850; leading Eng. organist of his day. Works include the hymn tune Aurelia and other ch. music.
Formed 1968 by merger of Pilgrim Holiness Ch. (emphasized new birth, sanctification, premillennialism, evangelism; see also International Apostolic Holiness Union) and The Wesleyan Methodist Church of America (see Methodist Churches, 4 b).
Formed 1959 near Muncie, Indiana.
1. Miss. soc. of the Meth. Ch. of Gt. Brit. and Ireland which traces its origin to miss. work among slaves on the is. of Antigua 1786 and was formally organized Leeds, Eng., 1813; usually called Meth. Missionary Soc. 2. The Missionary Soc. of the Wesleyan Meth. Ch. of Am. was founded Syracuse, New York, 1862; dept. of world missions of The Wesleyan* Meth. Ch. of Am.; often called Wesleyan World Missions.
(1707[08?]88). Brother of J. Wesley*; father of S. Wesley*; b. Epworth, Eng.; 18th child and youngest son in the family; educ. Oxford; coll. tutor; helped form Holy* Club; ordained 1735; to Georgia as secy. of James Edward Oglethorpe (16961785; b. London, Eng.; mem. parliament; founder of Georgia) 1735 (arrived February 1736); returned to Eng. 1736; influenced by Moravians; nonconformist; itinerant preacher 173956. Wrote perhaps more than 6,000 hymns, including Oh, for a Thousand Tongues to Sing; Jesus, Lover of My Soul. See also Methodist Churches, 1.
(Wessel [Harmeness; Harmenss] Gansfort; Goesevoyrdt; 1st name perhaps John, originally perhaps Johann[es]; ca. 1419/2089). Doctor controversarium; mystic; philos.; b. Groningen, Neth.; studied at several univs.; active in various cities, esp. Paris, Fr.; spent last yrs. in the Neth.; regarded by many as a reformer before the Reformation (see Reformation, Lutheran, 4). Works include Farrago rerum theologicarum uberrima; treatise on the Lord's Supper. See also Hoeck, Jakob.
(July 14, 1864January 31, 1933). B. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis; pastor near Nokomis, Illinois, 188692; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 18921933. Works include Sermons and Addresses on Fundamentals; The Prooftexts of the Catechism with a Practical Commentary; Festival and Occasional Sermons.
(17741860). RC theol.; b. Dresden, Ger.; educ. Dillingen, Würzburg, Vienna; priest 1812; administrator of the diocese of Constance 1817; fostered continued clerical educ. after ordination; promoted principles of J. H. Pestalozzi* in schools; introd. masses in the vernacular; relaxed laws of celibacy; advocated a Ger. Cath. ch. only loosely connected with Rome. Works include Über die Folgen der Säcularisation; Die deutsche Kirche; Betrachtungen über die Verhältnisse der katholischen Kirche im Umfange des Deutschen Bundes; Die grossen Kirchenversammlungen des 15ten and 16ten Jahrhunderts.
For beginnings see Kentucky Synod, 2; name Ev. Luth. Syn. of the West adopted 1835 (Syn. of the West I); included Tenn., Kentucky, Indiana Illinois, and parts of Ohio, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin Joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1841. Split 1846 into Ev. Luth. Syn. of Illinois,* Syn. of the Southwest,* and Ev. Luth. Syn. of the West (Syn. of the West II). Shortly thereafter in 1846 a few mems. of the Syn. of the West (II), suspecting a move to attach that syn. to the Gen. Syn., withdrew and organized the Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Indianapolis.* Some mems. of the Syn. of the West (II) were absorbed by the Miami* Syn. and by the Olive Branch Syn. (see Indiana Synod, Northern; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 8). The ch. at Ft. Wayne, Indiana, of which W. Sihler* was pastor, helped form the Mo. Syn. 1847 and with ratification of its delegate action severed its connection with the Syn. of the West (II). There is no record of any further meeting of the Syn. of the West (II).
(170356). Brit. author; educ. Oxford: served in army; employed by secy. of state; retired to Wickham ca. 1729. Works include Observations on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; poetry, including Education and Institution of the Order of the Garter. See also Deism, IV.
(18251901). B. near Birmingham, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; ordained 1851; canon Peterborough 186983; prof. divinity Cambridge 187090; mem. of committee for rev. Eng. tr. of NT 187081; bp. Durham 1890. Active in Christian Socialist movement (see also Christian Social Union). Textual critic. With F. J. A. Hort* pub. critical ed. of Gk. NT.
(September 13, 1682April 9, 1727). Apostle to Norw. Finns; b. Trondheim, Norw.; pastor on is. of Veoy (formerly Vedoy; Ger., Weö, or Wedöen), in Romsdal Fjord, 1710; chief of miss. to Finns 1716; made miss. tours among Finns 1716, 1718, 1722. See also Lapland; Norway, Lutheranism in, 8.
1. The period of ca. 1,000 yrs. from the 6th to the 16th cents. is sometimes called Middle* Age(s) (a term that acquired some overtones of barbarism and superstition, but which is essentially time-oriented, referring to the middle bet. ancient times and the last times; as hist. unfolds it becomes increasingly meaningless).
2. Ca. 500 Christianity was largely limited to the Mediterranean basin. By 1000 it had spread throughout Eur., fostered by popes, princes, and monks. See Augustine of Canterbury; Celtic Church; Clovis I; England, A 2; France, 1; Palladius (5th c.); Patrick; Popes, 4.
4. On the conversion of Saxony see Germany, A. On Scandinavia see Ansgar; Denmark, Kingdom of; Iceland; Norway, Early Christianity in; Sweden, Conversion of, to Christianity. On Christianization of E Eur. see Charlemagne; Czechoslovakia, 12; Hungary; Poland.
5. During much of the Middle Ages, Eur. Christianity was involved in feudalism, an economic and pol. system in which wealth was reckoned on basis of land, and the ch. and clergy, by holding lands (or estates, called feuds) under several forms of tenure, became an integral part of the soc. and economic fabric. Bps. and abbots often functioned as secular princes having obligations of service to other lords and in turn receiving homage from inferior vassals. Theoretically each ch. was under jurisdiction of a bp., but many were controlled by lay lords. This led to the investiture* controversy. In some cases the church's victory led ecclesiastics to try to dominate secular princes. By the end of the Middle Ages both the prelates and the Holy Roman emperors (see Holy Roman Empire) had been discredited by this power struggle.
6. On the rise of the papacy see Gregory III; Papacy, 14. When Charlemagne was crowned by the pope 800, a new alliance bet. popes and W emps. began which largely ignored E emps. and patriarchs and marked the beginning of the Holy Roman empire. In course of time popes came to be regarded as final arbiters in matters of dogma and discipline. They retained sole right to create cardinals, ratify election of bps., authenticate relics, canonize saints, and absolve grave sins.
7. The pope's advisors came to be called cardinals* (a term of uncertain derivation). In the 8th c. their number was increased from 25 (unchanged since the 6th c.) to 28. Since 1059 they are the papal electors.
8. Most potent of the church's means of enforcing ch. discipline* was the interdict*; excommunication* was another. Day-by-day ch. govt. on the local level was carried on by bps. (see Bishop), whose chs. were called cathedrals (see Cathedral). For assistants to bps. see Archdeacon; Canon, 2; Chapter. Theoretically bps. were to be elected by canons, asked for by the people, and consecrated by the abp.; practically there often was external pressure from influential princes which dictated the choice.
13. Medieval theol. was marked by adoptionist (see Adoptionism), eucharistic,* Filioque,* iconoclastic,* and predestinarian* controversies. The number of RC sacraments* was not defined till 1547. Superstition, ignorance, and abuses beclouded the light of the Gospel. Man sought serenity and stability in the practice of a groping faith.
15. Struggle for power with secular rulers led to the Babylonian Captivity of the popes (see Christian Church, History of the II 3) and the conciliar* movement. These and other factors, including financial abuses, led to decline of the ecclesiastical hierarchy by the end of the 15th c. Primary object of M. Luther's* reform efforts was not removal of outward abuse (much, if not most, of which was corrected by the Council of Trent*) but restoration of the Gospel, difference in definition of which caused continuing cleavage bet. Luths. and RCs CAV
See also Latin Christianity.
1. Sem of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA founded 1893 at Midland* Coll., Atchison, Kansas; moved to Fremont, Nebraska, 1919; separate institution called Central* Luth. Theol. Sem. 1949; merged with Luth. School of Theol. at Chicago 1966. See also Ministry, Education of, X M.
2. Sem of the Prot. Episc. Ch. est. at Chicago, Illinois, 1883, united 1933 with Seabury Divinity School (developed from a miss. and school est. 1858 at Faribault, Minnesota) in Seabury-Western Theol. Sem., Evanston, Illinois.
4. See Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
Mansion at 28 Huntingdon Rd., Cambridge, Eng.; bought March 1960 by the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. (see England, C, 1618), inaugurated as a house of theol. studies February 22, 1962, and dedicated February 25, 1962, as the center of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. theol. training program. Preliminary work toward a Luth. sem. or house of theol. studies was done 1956 by W. F. Arndt,* who began by instructing one student. The formal training program began 1958 with the appointment of Norman E. Nagel as preceptor. See also Franzmann, Martin Hans.
The Cuba Bible Institute, Los Pinos Nuevos, from which the West Indies Mission developed, opened 1928 near Placetas, cen. Cuba. Fields have included Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Rep., Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Windward Is.
Syn. appointed by the Long Parliament (see Presbyterian Confessions, 3) to reform the Eng. Ch.; 1st meeting July 1643; Scottish Commissioners absent after November 1647; met irregularly till 1653. See also Directory for the Public Worship of God; Henderson, Alexander.
The Larger Catechism is for ministers, to be explained from the pulpit; the Shorter Catechism is for instruction of the young. Both were approved by the Eng. parliament 1648, the Scot. Ch. adopted them 1648 and again 1690, after temporary repeal under Charles II (see England, C 1). The Shorter Catechism is noted for terse brevity and precision; it differs from most other catechisms in the following: (1) The question is embodied in the answer; (2) A new, logical order of topics is substituted for the old hist. order in the Apostles' Creed; (3) It deals in dogmas rather than facts, addressing the intellect rather than the heart; (4) The questions are put in an impersonal form, instead of addressing the learner directly; (5) The answers are theol. and metaphysical. See also Scotland, Reformation in, 1.
Standards of Presbyterianism adopted at Westminster. See also Presbyterian Confessions, 3.
(of Eisleben) (d. 1569). Ger. Luth. theol.; preacher Nausitz, near Artern, 1553; diaconus Sangerhausen; preacher Gerbstädt, Co. of Mansfeld; Gnesio-Lutheran. Works include Der Faulteufel and Wider den Hoffartsteufel (titles are cited in various forms).
(of Hamburg) (151074). B. Hamburg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pupil of M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; teacher at the Hamburg Johanneum*; lectured at Wittenberg; pastor 1541, supt. 1571 Hamburg. Held with J. Hoeck* that Christ's descent into hell was an expression of His complete humiliation and vicarious suffering; sided with M. Flacius* Illyricus in Adiaphoristic Controversy (see Adiaphoristic Controversies, 1); opposed Melanchthon and G. Major*; defended Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper against J. Calvin,* J. H. Bullinger,* et al. Works include Luthers Meinung von den Mitteldingen. See also Micron, Marten.
1648 treaty that ended the Thirty* Years' War; drawn up in Münster and Osnabrück, Westphalia. Terms dealt with indemnification for various countries, secular affairs of the empire, and ecclesiastical affairs. The latter included: Approval and extension of the Convention of Passau* and the Peace of Augsburg* to include Calvinists. Prots. and RCs to be equal in all affairs of empire. January 1, 1624, to be the normative day (annus normalis, Lat. literally normal year) for determining questions of ownership of ecclesiastical states and of exercise of religion; where this date was indecisive, territorial lords retained ius reformandi (Lat. right of reformation, i. e. to determine religion by fiat); certain rights, including that of emigration, were given to subjects who differed from their ruler in religion. The imperial court was restored and divided equally bet. Prots. and RCs. See also France, 13.
(Wetstein; 16931754). NT textual critic; b. Basel, Switz.; educ. Basel; pastor Basel and taught at Basel U.; dismissed 1730; to Amsterdam. Ed. Novum Testamentum graecum editionis receptae cum lectionibus variantibus. See also Arminianism; Textual Criticism, 3.
(17971866). Norw. theol. and hymnist; b. Copenhagen, Den.; educ. Christiania (now Oslo); chaplain Oslo cathedral. Opposed rationalism; influenced by N. F. S. Grundtvig.* Works include Andagtsbog for Menigmand; Christelige Psalmer; Psalmebog; Foredrag over Pastoraltheologien.
(Anton; Weier; ca. 1760March 30, 1829). Early settler in Stark Co., Ohio; licensed by Pennsylvania Ministertum 1812; ordained 1819 by Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of); pastor in Ohio.
(181077). Luth. poet; b. Niederbronn, at E foot of the lower Vosges, Alsace; acquired comprehensive acquaintance with Ger. poetry early on; mem. consistory Niederbronn 1852. Poems adapted as hymns include O Jesu, Freund der Sünder.
(August 26, 1722March 1770). B. Hanau, Ger.; educ. Halle; to US 1748. Pastor on the Raritan, New Jersey, 1748; NYC and Hackensack, New Jersey, 1753. Tr. The Whole System of the XXVIII Articles of the Evangelical unvaried Confession.
(May 2, 1779October 7, 1847). B. Northumberland Co., Pennsylvania; licensed 1809 as catechist, 1810 as candidate, for Washington Co., Pennsylvania, by Pennsylvania Ministerium; ordained deacon 1815. Pastor Washington Co., Pennsylvania, and Wayne Co., Ohio. Helped organize Special Conference 1812 which led 1818 to beginning of the Ohio Syn., in which he was also active (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 12).
(18221902). B. Plymouth Dock (later Devonport), 2 mi. WNW of Plymouth, Devonshire, Eng.; Bap. layman; educ. U. Coll., London. Works include New Testament in Modern Speech. See also Bible Versions, L 13.
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