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Wach, Joachim

(1898–1955). B. Chemnitz (called Karl-Marx-Stadt 1953), Ger.; taught at Leipzig; to US 1935; taught at Brown U., Providence, R. I., and at U. of Chicago (Illinois) Divinity School. Works include Religionswissenschaft: Prolegomena zu ihrer wissenschaftstheoretischen Grundlegung; Einführung in die Religionssoziologie; Sociology of Religion; Das Verstehen; Types of Religious Experience Christian and Non-Christian; The Comparative Study of Religion; Church Denomination and Sect.

Wacker, Peter Johannes Georg Emil

(May 16, 1839–April 2, 1913). B. Kotzenbüll near Tönning, Ger.; educ. Copenhagen, Kiel, and Berlin; pastor Rinkenis, near Flensburg, 1867–76; pastor and rector of the deaconess institution, Flensburg, 1876. Works include Diakonissenspiegel; Die Laienpredigt und der Pietismus in der lutherischen Kirche; Der Diakonissenberuf nach seiner Vergangenheit und Gegenwart; Eins ist not; Die Heilsordnung.

Wackernagel, Carl Heinrich Wilhelm

(1806–69). Brother of K. E. P. Wackernagel*; b. Berlin, Ger.; prof. Basel, Switz., 1833. Works include Poetik, Rhetorik und Stilistik; Altdeutsche Predigten und Gebete aus Handschriften.

Wackernagel, Karl Eduard Philipp

(Carl; 1800–77). Brother of C. H. W. Wackernagel*; b. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin, Breslau, Halle; taught in Berlin, Stetten in Württemberg, Wiesbaden, Elberfeld; hymnologist. Works include Das deutsche Kirchenlied van der ältesten Zeit bis zu Anfang des XVII. Jahrhunderts.

Wagenseil, Johann Christoph

(1633–1705). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; prof. hist. and law 1667, oriental languages 1674, canon law 1697 Altdorf. Tr. Mishna (see Talmud) and its commentary into Ger.; other works include Belehrung der Jüdisch-Deutschen Rede-und Schreibart (title is given in various forms).

Wagner, Anton

(January 20, 1830–January 10, 1914). B. Allendorf, near Giessen, Hesse, Ger.; educ. Fort Wayne, Indiana Pastor Watertown, Wisconsin, 1855; Freistadt, Wisconsin, 1859; Pleasant Ridge, Illinois, 1860; Chicago, Illinois, 1867–1909.

Wagner, Charles

(1852–1918). Prot. cleric and moral essayist; b. Vibersviller, Moselle, Fr.; educ. Strasbourg, Göttingen, Heidelberg; pastor Remiremont and Paris; liberal; tried to unify Fr. Protestantism.

Wagner, Georg Gottfried

(1698–1756). Composer; b. Mühlberg, Saxony, Ger.; pupil of J. Kuhnau*; played violin in orchestra under J. S. Bach.* Studied theol. at Leipzig; cantor Plauen. Works include motet Lob und Ehre (pub. as J. S. Bach's); cantatas; oratorios.

Wagner, Tobias

(1598–1680). Luth. theol.; great-grandfather of T. Wagner* (d. 1775); b. Heidenheim, N Württemberg, Ger.; pastor Esslingen; prof. theol. 1653, later provost, chancellor 1662 Tübingen; confessional opponent of skepticism, atheism, and Cartesianism.

Wagner, Tobias

(d. 1775). Great-grandson of T. Wagner* (1598–1680); to US 1742; pastor in Maine and Pennsylvania; befriended by. H. M. Mühlenberg but turned against him; returned to Ger. 1759.

Wagner, Valentin

(after 1510–57). Rector, printer, city pastor Kronstadt; visited Wittenberg ca. 1542; influenced Kronstadt reformation; friend of P. Melanchthon* and J. Camerarius.* Works include Gk. grammar; comedies; song book.

Wagner, Wilhelm Richard

(dropped “Wilhelm” before he was 20; 1813–83). Dramatic composer, poet, essayist; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; choral dir. Würzburg 1833; active in various capacities in Magdeburg, Königsberg, Riga, Paris, Dresden, Zurich, London, and elsewhere. Works include Tannhäuser; Lohengrin; Götterdämmerung; Parsifal; Die Meistersinger van Nürnberg. See also Sachs, Hans; Wartburg.

Wahhabis

(Wahabis). Also called Ikhwan (“brothers”); puritanical Muslim sect founded as a reform group in Arabia by Muslim sect founded as a reform group in Arabia by Muhammad ibn-Abdul Wahhab (ca. 1691/1703–ca. 1787/92); loyal to Koran* and traditions regarding Muhammad*; revived in the 20th c. by ibn-Sa'ud.* See also Islam, 5.

Wahl, Christian Abraham

(1773–1855). Prot. theol.; b. Dresden, Ger.; pastor Schneeberg 1808; supt. Oschatz 1823; mem. consistory Dresden 1835. Works include Clavis novi testamenti philologica; Clavis librorum veteris testamenti apocryphorum philologica; Historisch-praktische Einleitung in die biblischen Schriften. See also Lexicons, B.

Wakamba Mission.

Miss. in E Afr. begun 1886 by a soc. organized for that purpose earlier in the yr. in Bav. Ger.; the field was taken over 1893 by the Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss..

Wakan

(Wakanda). See Primitive Religion.

Wake, William

(1657–1737). B. Blandford, Dorset, Eng.; educ. Oxford; to Paris, Fr., as chaplain of Eng. ambassador 1682; returned to Eng. 1685; held various appointments; bp. Lincoln 1705; abp. Canterbury 1716–37; negotiated with L. E. Du Pin* and others for reunion of Ch. of Eng. and Fr. Ch. Works include Exposition of the Doctrine of the Church of England; The State of the Church and Clergy of England; The Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers; The Principles of the Christian Religion. See also Union Movements, 4.

Wakon

(Wakonda). See Primitive Religion.

Walaeus, Antonius

(Antoine de Waele; 1573–1639). B. Gent, Belg.; educ. Leiden, Neth.; preached and lectured at Geneva, Switz.; city preacher Leiden; accepted a call to Koudekerke, near Middelburg, 1602; court chaplain 1604; preacher 1605, prof. dogmatics 1609 Middelburg; attended 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht* and helped write its canons; prof. theol. Leiden 1619. Opposed Arminianism.* Conducted a sem. for missionaries to the E. Indies 1622–32. Works include Het ampt der Kerckendienaren; Compendium ethicae Aristotelicae ad normam veritatis Christianae revocatum; Loci communes theologici.

Walch, Christian Wilhelm Franz

(1726–84). Son of J. G. Walch*; brother of J. E. I. Walch*; ev. theol.; b. Jena, Ger.; prof. Jena and Göttingen; exponent of supernaturalism; adopted and modified his father's moderate orthodoxy. Works include Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der Ketzereien, Spaltungen und Religionsstreitigkeiten, bis auf die Zeiten der Reformation; Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der Kirchenversammlungen; Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der römischen Päpste; Bibliotheca symbolica vetus; Compendium historiae ecclesiasticae recentissimae.

Walch, Johann Ernst Immanuel

(1725–78). Son of J. G. Walch*, brother of C. W. F. Walch*; prof. philos., logic, metaphysics, and other subjects Jena. Works include Antiquitates Herculanenses litterariae oratione auspicali; Antiquitates symbolicae quibus symboli apostolici historia illustratur.

Walch, Johann Georg

(1693–1775). Father of the 2 foregoing; b. Meiningen, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. philos., theol., and other subjects Jena; ecclesiastical councilor for Saxe-Weimar. Ed. works of M. Luther; other works include Historische und Theologische Einleitung in die Religions-Streitigkeiten Der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirchen, Von der Reformation bis auf ietzige Zeiten.

Waldeland, Martin Enoch

(September 18, 1876–December 30, 1933). B. Gunder, Clayton Co. (ca. 6 mi. E of Elgin, Fayette Co.), Iowa. Educ. St. Olaf Coll., North-field, Minnesota; United Ch. sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota (see Luther Theological Seminary, 4). Pastor Fertile, Iowa, 1900–02; St. Ansgar, Iowa, 1902–27. Taught at St. Ansgar 1902–04, 1907–08. Literary ed. Augsburg Pub. House 1908–12.

Waldenses

(variants of the name include Waldensians; Wadoys; Valdesii; Vaudes; Vaudois). The Waldensian Ch. grew out of fusion of the work of P. Waldo* with movements of Arnold* of Brescia, P. de Bruys,* and others; banned by pope repeatedly; object of repeated crusades; under vicious persecution by the Inquisition*; driven from their homes. Granted civil and religious liberty 1848 by Charles Albert of Sardinia (Carlo Alberto; 1798–1849; b. Turin, It.; king of Sardinia 1831–49).

Waldenses rejected purgatory, masses for the dead, indulgences, prayers to saints, RC eucharist and hierarchy. Known for preaching, miss. zeal, Bible knowledge. Beginning at the time of the Reformation, they merged into Prot. groups. The 1655 Confession of the Waldenses, A Brief Confession of Faith of the Reformed Churches of Piedmont, is in part an abridgment of the 1559 Gallican Confession (see Reformed Confessions, B).

See also Pacifism, B; Saints, Veneration of, 7.

J. J. I. v. Döllinger, Beiträge zur Sektengeschichte des Mittelalters, 2 vols. (Munich, 1890); F. Bender, Geschichte der Waldenser (Ulm, 1850); H. C. Sartorio, A Brief History of the Waldensians (New York, 1921); K.-V. Selge, Die ersten Waldenser, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1967); G. B. Watts, The Waldenses of Valdese (Valdese, North Carolina, 1965).

Waldenström, Paul Peter

(1838–1917). B. Luleaa, Swed.; educ. Uppsala; held various teaching positions and pub. offices. Held that the reconciliation through Christ is not of God to us, but of us to God. Helped found Svenska Missionsförbundet 1878 (see Sweden, Lutheranism in, 5; Swedish Missionary Societies, 4).

Waldis, Burkard

(Burkhard; ca. 1490–1556). B. Allendorf, on the Werra R., Ger.; poet; Franciscan; Luth. 1524; imprisoned during persecution 1536–40. Works include Die Parabel vom Verlorenen Sohn. See also Religious Drama, 3.

Waldo, Peter

(Valdo; Valdes; Valdez; Valdesius; Petrus Waldus; ca. 1140–ca. 1217/18). Fr. reformer; originally merchant of Lyons; renounced the world ca. 1173; devoted to religious study and preaching; he and his followers, known as Poor of Lyons, later as Waldenses,* used Scripture in the vernacular, preached without ch. authorization, and were excommunicated in the early 1180s. See also Doctrine, Christian, History of, 5.

Wales.

Peninsula on W of Gt. Brit.; principality of Eng. since 1284. Area: ca. 8,016 sq. mi. Christianity did not come to Wales with Romans, but from the E, probably via Honoratus* and Martin of Tours (see Celtic Church, 2). Hostility of RC and Anglo-Saxon chs. drove early Christian Britons into mountainous districts of Wales, where they gradually diminished in numbers and finally became extinct. Then ignorance and superstition overspread the whole principality for cents. The Reformation reached Wales through England. It spread rapidly among Welsh mountaineers, but under later Stuarts ignorance, vice, and immorality prevailed in Wales. A successful system of schools was est. in the 1st half of the 18th century. Meths. became most numerous among free chs.; Presbs. grew strong; other Prots. flourished; RCs, though few, became vigorous. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. began work in Wales 1967.

Walker, Jesse

(d. 1835). M. E. miss.; b. North Carolina; traveling preacher Tennessee and Kentucky 1802, Illinois 1806; planted Methodism in St. Louis 1820; active among Indians along the upper Miss. R. 1823.

Walker, Martin F.

(April 2, 1877–July 12, 1967). B. York, Pennsylvania; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor NYC 1899; prof. Conc. Collegiate Institute, Hawthorne (school moved to Bronxville 1908–10; see also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 7), New York, 1902–10; pastor Buffalo, New York, 1910; pres. Mo. Syn. Eng. Dist. 1938–45. Coauthor Greater Love Hath No Man.

Walker, Williston

(1860–1922). Cong.; b. Portland, Maine; educ. Hartford (Connecticut) Theol. Sem.; taught at Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) Coll. 1888–89. Prof. Hartford Theol. Sem. 1889–1901; Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut, 1901–22. Works include A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States; The Reformation.

Wall, Georg Wendelin

(1811–67). B. Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Basel, Switz.; commissioned Basel 1836; to US 1836; arrived St. Louis, Missouri, November 1836; pastor Ger. Prot. Ev. Ch. of the Holy Ghost; built Ger. Prot. Ch. in St. Louis (dedicated August 1840; first Ger. ch. in St. Louis); preached funeral sermon of O. H. Walther*; helped found The German* Ev. Ch. Soc. of the West.

Wallenstein, Albrecht Eusebius Wenzel von

(Waldstein; Valdstejn; 1583–1634). Duke of Friedland and Mecklenburg; Prince of Sagan; Austrian gen.; b. Hermanic, Boh. (now Czechoslovakia), on the Elbe, near Arnau, of Luth. parents; became RC but without deep religious convictions; lost his estates when Boh. became Prot. in the Thirty* Years' War. Commander imperial armies 1625; removed 1630; recalled 1632; defeated by Gustavus* II at Lützen 1632; assassinated February 25, 1634.

Wallin, Johan Olof

(Olaf; 1779–1839). Hymnist; b. Stora Tuna, NW of Uppsala, in the Dalecarlia (Dalarne, “the Dales”) region, Kopparberg district, Swed.; educ. Uppsala; ordained Luth. 1806; pastor Solna 1809, later at Stockholm, still later dean Västeraas; bp. 1824; abp. Uppsala 1837. Issued rev. Swed. hymnal 1819; other works include “The Angel of Death.”

Walliser, Christoph Thomas

(Wallisser; Waliser; Walleser; 1568–1648).Composer; b. Strasbourg; probably studied under M. Vulpius; taught in the Academy and dir. ch. music Strasbourg from 1599. Works include many Ger. Psalms set in the old contrapuntal style.

Walloons.

Inhabitants of Walloni (Fr. Wallonie), Fr. speaking part of Belg., including provinces Hainaut, Liège, Luxembourg, Namur, and S. Brabant. Became Cath after conversion of Clovis* I 496. Some became Prot. in the 16th c., and some of these fled under RC pressure, including the Inquisition,* to the neighborhood of Leiden, N Neth.; many Walloons from the Neth. settled in the mid-1620s at what came 1625 to be called New Amsterdam (now NYC).

Walter, Johannes Wilhelm von

(1876–1940). Ger. Luth. theol.; b. St. Petersburg (now Leningrad, Russ.); educ. Dorpat, Leipzig, Göttingen; taught at Göttingen, Breslau, Vienna, Rostock. Works include Die Geschichte des Christentums; Die Theologie Luthers.

Walter of Mortagne

(Gualterus de Mauretania; ca. 1090–1174). B. Mortagne, Flanders; studied at Reims; perhaps taught Paris; cathedral dean 1150, bp. 1155 Laon; indifferentist on the question of universals.

Walter of St. Victor

(Saint-Victor; d. perhaps ca. 1180/90). Polemicist; opposed P. Abelard,* Gilbert* de la Porrée, Peter* the Lombard, et al.; attacked scholasticism; held that dialectics can reveal only formal, not material, truth.

Walther, Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm

(October 25, 1811–May 7, 1887). 1. Brother of O. H. Walther*; prominent Luth. theol.; b. Langenchursdorf near Waldenburg, Saxony, Ger.; his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were Luth. pastors; educ. Leipzig, where rationalism ruled; influenced for Christianity by a group of earnest students, the F. W. Barthel* family, and M. Stephan* Sr.

2. Left the university ca. 6 mo. 1831–32 because of ill health; read M. Luther during illness; grad. Leipzig 1833; private tutor 1834; ordained Bräunsdorf, near Penig, Saxony, 1837.

3. Walther emigrated to the US 1839 with other Saxons (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II); pastor Dresden, Perry Co., Missouri; helped found log-cabin “coll.” (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II 4).

4. For subsequent events, including organization of the Mo. Syn., see Altenburg Debate; Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II 2 to III 2; Ministry, Education of, X E. Walther promoted Bible-centered educ. and growth on all levels.

5. Walther and F. C. D. Wyneken* went to Ger. 1851 to discuss doctrinal differences with J. K. W. Löhe*; returned 1852 without reaching unity. See also Church and Ministry, Walther's Theses on.

On Walther's connection with CPH see Publication Houses, Lutheran.

In 1854 the Mo. Syn. authorized pub. of a theol. journal ed. by Walther; he ed. Lehre und Wehre 1855–60, coed. 1861–64; see also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 2. Walther gave first impetus toward calling free* Luth. conferences beginning 1856, took part in the 1866 Buffalo* Colloquy and a colloquy with representatives of the Iowa Syn. November 13–18, 1867, Milwaukee, on “open* questions,” millennialism,* antichrist,* and the meaning of confessional subscription. He helped form the Synodical* Conference.

6. Walther gave direction to those who formed The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and Other States. In 1878 Capital U., Columbus, Ohio (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 1), a school of the Ohio Syn., which was in doctrinal agreement with the Mo. Syn., conferred on him the unearned, yet gratefully bestowed title of DD (which he had refused for doctrinal reasons 1855 when an honorary doctorate was offered by the U. of Göttingen). From the early 1870s much of his time was taken up by the predestinarian controversy (see Predestinarian Controversy, 2), which erupted in the open 1880.

7. Walther followed M. Luther in emphasizing justification by faith (see Luther, Martin, 6). In his doctrine of the ch., Walther distinguished ch. and structure.

8. Though criticized at times for his polemics, Walther is often described as the most prominent Luth. theol. of the US.

9. Pres. Mo. Syn. 1847–50, 1864–78.

10. In addition to works mentioned or referred to above: Walther issued an amplified ed. of J. W. Baier's* Compendium theologiae positivae; ed. Der Lutheraner. Other works include Americanisch-Lutherische Pastoraltheologie; Casual-Predigten und-Reden; Communismus und Socialismus; Die Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche die wahre sichtbare Kirche Gottes auf Erden; Festklänge; Gnadenjahr; Der Gnadenwahlslehrstreit; Licht des Lebens; Lutherische Brosamen; Die rechte Gestalt einer vom Staate unabhängigen Evangelisch-Lutherischen Ortsgemeinde; Die rechte Unterscheidung von Gesetz und Evangelium; Die Stimme unserer Kirche in der Frage von Kirche und Amt; Tanz und Theaterbesuch; Thesen über den Wucher.

See also Altar Fellowship; Weimarische Bibelwerk, Das.

M. Günther, Dr. C. F. W. Walther: Lebensbild (St. Louis, 1890); C. L. Janzow, Life of Rev. Prof. C. F. W. Walther, DD (Pittsburgh, 1899); D. H. Steffens, Doctor Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther (Philadelphia, 1917); W. G. Polack, The Story of C. F. W. Walther (St. Louis, 1935); W. Dallmann, W. H. T. Dau, Th. Engelder (ed.), Walther and the Church (St. Louis, 1938); Briefe von C. F. W. Walther … an seine Freunde, Synodalgenossen und Familienglieder, ed. L. Fuerbringer, 2 vols. (St. Louis, 1915–16); J. L. Gruber, Erinnerungen an Prolessor C. F. W. Walther und seine Zeit (Burlington, Iowa, [1930]); L. W. Spitz, The Life of Dr. C. F. W. Walther (St. Louis, 1961); Letters of C. F. W. Walther: A Selection, tr. and ed. C. S. Meyer (Philadelphia, 1969); Walther Sesquicentennial No. of the CTM (October 1961).

Walther, Johann

(1496–1570). Composer; friend of M. Luther*; b. probably Kahla, on the Thuringian Saale, near Jena, cen. Ger.; active in Torgau from the mid–1520s to 1548, Dresden 1548–54; lived in Torgau 1554–70. Helped Luther prepare music for Deudsche Messe (see Luther, Liturgies of). Issued Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn 1524, for which Luther wrote the foreword; other works include 2 Passions (see Passion, The) and the text of the hymn “Der Bräut'gam wird bald rufen.” Walther is regarded by some as the real founder of the musical liturgy of the Luth. ch. See also Kantorei; Music, Church.

Walther, Johann Gottfried

(1684–1748). Composer; relative of J. S. Bach*; b. Erfurt, Ger.; organist Thomaskirche, Erfurt, 1702; town organist Weimar 1707. Issued Musikalisches Lexikon Oder Musikalische Bibliothek; other works include a prelude and fugue and 4 chorales with variations.

Walther, Michael

(1593–1662). Luth. theol.; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg, Giessen, Altdorf, Jena; court preacher Schöningen 1618, also prof. theol. Helmstedt 1622; gen. supt. Aurich 1626, Celle 1643. Works include Officina biblica (isagogics); Harmonia totius s. scripturae; catechism exposition. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 3.

Walther, Otto Hermann

(September 23, 1809–January 21, 1841). Brother of C. F. W. Walther*; b. Langenchursdorf, near Waldenburg, Saxony; educ. Leipzig; private tutor; his father's asst. 1834; to US with other Saxons 1839 (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II); pastor St. Louis, Missouri, 1839.

Walther, Wilhelm Markus

(1846–1924). Luth. theol.; b. Cuxhaven, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Marburg, Göttingen; pastor Cuxhaven 1870; prof. Rostock 1895. Ed. WA XIX, XXIII. Other works include Adolf Harnacks Wesen des Christentums für die christliche Gemeinde geprüft; Die Bibelübersetzungen des Mittelalters; Lehrbuch der Symbolik.

Walther College.

An assoc. was organized 1866 St. Louis, Missouri, to est. a high school, which opened 1867 and was divided into Höhere Bürgerschule and Höhere Töchterschule; it was called Conc. Academy 1880, Lutheran High School 1881; a classic course was added to the academic course, coeduc. endorsed, and name changed to Walther-Coll. 1888; discontinued 1917. See also Graebner, August(us) Lawrence; Graebner, Theodore Conrad; Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, VI 7.

Walther von der Vogelweide

(ca. 1170–ca. 1230). Middle High Ger. lyric poet and troubadour (Minnesänger); b. perhaps Austria; educ. at court in Vienna; wandering singer after 1198; championed authority of Ger. rulers; opposed efforts to extend papal power. Works include Sprüche; Under der linden an der heide; Kreuzlied Ich saz of eime steine.

Walton, Brian

(Bryan; ca. 1600–61). Angl. scholar; b. Cleveland dist., North Riding, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; rector St. Martin's Orgar, London, 1628; bp. Chester 1660. Ed. London Polyglot (see Polyglot Bibles).

Wangemann, Hermann Theodor

(1818–94). B. Wilsnack, near Wittenberg, Ger.; rector and asst. preacher Wollin 1845; sem. dir. and archdeacon Kammin 1849; dir. Berlin* Miss. Soc. I 1865–94; visited Afr. twice. Works include Kurze Geschichte des evangelischen Kirchenliedes; Das Opfer nach Lehre der heiligen Schrift alten und neuen Testaments; Sieben Bücher Preussischer Kirchengeschichte; Der Kirchenstreit unter den von der Landeskirche sich getrennt haltenden Lutheranern in Preussen.

War.

1. Hostile conflict bet. nations and states (internat. war) or bet. parties in the same nation or state (civil war); cold war falls short of engagement by arms.

2. The hist. of the Children of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Exile is mainly an account of wars.

3. Many of these wars were waged with God's consent or at His direction. Some of the wars were God's punishment (cf., e.g., Dt 28:47–68) for such sins as contempt of the Word of God (Lv 26:21–25; 1 Ki 8:33), shedding innocent blood (2 Sm 12:9–10).

4. AC XVI: “It is taught among us that all government in the world and all established rule and laws were instituted and ordained by God for the sake of good order, and that Christians may without sin occupy civil offices or serve as princes and judges, render decisions and pass sentences according to imperial and other existing laws, punish evildoers with the sword, engage in just wars, serve as soldiers, buy and sell, take required oaths, possess property, be married, etc.

War and Prophecy.

Much prophetic literature usually appears in wartime; its writers seek materialistic contemporary evidence for their views regarding the meaning of prophetic Bible passages; they try to show that individual wars and nations were specifically foretold in detail; they emphasize, e.g., the battle of Armageddon (Rv 16:14, 16).

T. C. Graebner, War in the Light of Prophecy (St. Louis, 1942).

Ward, James

(1843–1925). Philos., psychol.; b. Hull, Eng.; educ. Liverpool, Berlin, Göttingen, Cambridge; Cong. minister Cambridge 1 yr.; engaged in psychol. research; prof. Cambridge 1897–1925. Influenced by G. W. v. Leibniz* and R. H. Lotze.* Opposed pluralism.* Held a theistic view of the world. Works include The Realm of Ends or Pluralism and Theism. See also Metaphysical Society, The.

Ward, William

(October 20, 1769–March 7, 1823). B. Derby, Eng.; learned printers' trade; studied for the ministry; missionary printer for Bap. Miss. Soc. 1798; sailed for India 1799; settled at Dan. settlement Serampore, near Calcutta; printed W. Carey's* Bengali NT and other translations. See also India 10; Serampore Trio.

Ward, William Hayes

(1835–1916). Cong. cleric; orientalist; journalist; b. Abington, Massachusetts; educ. Union Theol. Sem., NYC, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; pastor Oskaloosa, Kansas; teacher Utica (New York) Free Academy 1863–65; prof. Ripon (Wisconsin) Coll. 1865–67; assoc. with The Independent (New York) in various editorial capacities; led exploring expedition to Babylonia 1884–85; his surveys led to uncovering of Nippur; authority on Babylonian and Assyrian seals.

Ware, Henry, Sr.

(1764–1845). Father of H. Ware* Jr. and W. Ware*; b. Sherborn, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Unitarian pastor Hingham, Massachusetts, 1787–1805; prof. Harvard U. 1805–40, Harvard Divinity School 1816–45.

Ware, Henry, Jr.

(1794–1843). Son of H. Ware* Sr.; brother of W. Ware*; b. Hingham, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Unitarian pastor Boston 1817–30; helped found Am. Unitarian Assoc. (see Unitarianism); prof. Harvard Divinity School 1828–42. Works include The Life of the Saviour.

Ware, William

(1797–1852). Son of H. Ware* Sr.; brother of H. Ware* Jr.; b. Hingham, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts Unitarian pastor NYC 1821–36; Waltham, Massachusetts, 1837–38; West Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1844–45. Works include Zenobia: or, The Fall of Palmyra: An Historical Romance.

Warfield, Benjamin Breckinridge

(185 l–1921). Presb. theol.; b. Lexington, Kentucky; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Seminary. Prof. Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny (now part of Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, 1878; Princeton Theol. Sem. 1887. Coed. The Presbyterian and Reformed Review; other works include An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament.

Warneck, Gustav Adolf

(1834–1910). Father of J. Warneck*; b. Naumburg, near Halle, Ger.; educ. Halle; served congs. in Roitzsch, Dommitzsch, and Rothenschirmbach; inspector of missions at Barmen 1870; founded Saxon provincial missionary conference 1879. With T. Christlieb* and P. R. Grundemann* founded Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift 1874. Other works include Abriss einer Geschichte der protestantischen Missionen von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart; Evangelische Missionslehre.

Warneck, Johannes

(1867–1944). Son of G. A. Warneck*; Luth. miss. leader; b. Dommitzsch, near Torgau, Ger.; educ. Tübingen. Greifswald, Leipzig, Halle; miss. to Batak under dir. of L. I. Nommensen* 1892–1906; inspector Barmen 1908; taught at theol. school at Bethel 1912; ephor* Batak ch. 1920; dir. Rhenish* Miss. Soc. 1932–37. Works include Tobabataksch-Deutsches Wörterbuch; Die Religion der Batak; D. Ludwig I. Nommensen; Sechzig Jahre Batakmission.

Warner, Daniel Sidney

(1842–1925). B. Bristol (now Marshallville), Ohio; mem. Ch. of God in N. Am. (see Churches of God, General Conference); preached in Ohio and Nebraska from 1872; expelled for advocating “entire sanctification” ca. 1877; founded Church* of God (Anderson, Indiana).

Warnshuis, Abbe Livingston

(November 22, 1877–March 17, 1958). B. Clymer, New York; educ. Hope Coll. Holland, Michigan, and New Brunswick (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; Ref. Ch. in Am. (see Reformed Churches, 4 b) miss. Amoy, China, 1900–15; nat. evangelistic secy. China Continuation Com., Shanghai, 1915–20; Am. secy. IMC 1921. Coed. The China Mission Year Book; ed. Directory of For. Missions 1933.

Warren Association.

Formed 1767 at Warren, R. I., by 4 Bap. congs. (of Warren, R. I., and Haverhill, Bellingham, and Middleborough, Massachusetts) on the model of the Philadelphia Assoc. (see Baptist Churches, 4, 26), to secure denominational cooperation in educ., evangelization, and the struggle for religious liberty. Chief initial leader: J. Manning.* See also Backus, Isaac.

Wartburg.

Castle, Thuringia, cen. Ger., on hill just SW of Eisenach; built ca. 1070; scene of Sangerkrieg (song contest) 1207; subject of W. R. Wagner's* Tannhaeuser. See also Luther, Martin, 13–14.

Washington, Booker Taliaferro

(ca. 1856/58–1915). B. near Hale's Ford, Franklin Co., Virginia; his mother was a slave; studied at Hampton (Virginia) Institute; taught school 2 yrs. at Malden, W. Virginia; studied at Wayland Sem., Washington, D. C. taught at Hampton Institute 1879; organized and was principal of Tuskegee (Alabama) Normal and Industrial Institute; promoted educ. and elevation of African-Americans. Works include Up from Slavery; The Story of the Negro.

Washington Declaration

(Declaration of Principles Concerning the Church and Its External Relationships). After the ULC was organized, its Ex. Bd. was often asked to define the attitude of the ULC toward cooperative movements looking toward ch. union and toward other organizations, tendencies, and movements. The ULC adopted the Washington Declaration 1920:

A. Concerning the Cath. Spirit in the Ch. This section declares and explains the belief in the one, holy, Cath., apostolic ch., the existence of which cannot be demonstrated but rests on “our belief in the continued life of Christ in all His Christians.” This ch. “performs its earthly functions and makes its presence known among men through groups of men who profess to be believers in Jesus Christ. In these groups the Word of God is preached and the Sacraments are administered.” “Every group of professing Christians calling itself a Church will seek to express in its own life the attributes of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church.… 1. By professing faith in Jesus Christ.… 2. By preaching the Word and administering the Sacraments.… 3. By works of serving love.… 4. By the attempt to secure universal acceptance of the truth which it holds and confesses.” Every such group, even if partial and imperfect, is an expression of the one holy ch. But those groups in which the Word of God is most purely preached and confessed and the sacraments administered in the closest conformity to the institution of Christ “will be the most complete expression of the one, holy Church. For this reason it is necessary that, when occasion arises, any such group of Christians shall define its relationship to other groups which also claim the name of Church, as well as to other groups and organizations which do not bear that name.” Hence each ch. should be ready “to declare unequivocally what it believes … approach others without hostility, jealousy, suspicion or pride … grant cordial recognition to all agreements which are discovered between its own interpretation of the Gospel and that which others hold … co-operate with other Christians in works of serving love … insofar as this can be done without surrender of its interpretation of the Gospel, without denial of conviction, and without suppression of its testimony as to what it holds to be the truth.”

B. Concerning the Relation of the Ev. Luth. Ch. Bodies to One Another. The ULC “recognizes no doctrinal reasons against complete co-operation and organic union” with chs. calling themselves Ev., Luth. and subscribing the Luth. Confessions.

C. Concerning the Organic Union of Prot. Chs. “… we hold the union of Christians in a single organization to be of less importance than the agreement of Christians in the proclamation of the Gospel.… We believe that a permanent and valid union of churches must be based upon positive agreements concerning the truth for which the united Church Body is to stand.”

D. Concerning Cooperative Movements Among the Prot. Chs.. This section states the earnest desire to cooperate in “works of serving love … provided, that such co-operation does not involve the surrender of our interpretation of the Gospel, the denial of conviction, or the suppression of our testimony to what we hold to be the truth.” The purpose, principles, and effect on “the independent position of our Church as a witness to the truth of the Gospel” must determine cooperation. Nine paragraphs list fundamental doctrines (including the Real Presence) which a movement or organization must hold before the ULC would enter cooperation with it. The ULC refused to enter cooperative organizations or movements “whose purposes lie outside the proper sphere of Church activity” and there are organizations (e.g., for soc. or pol. reform) which the ch. as such would not enter but commended to its pastors and mems. No syn., conference, or bd. had power of indep. affiliation with “general organizations and movements.”

E. Concerning Movements and Organizations Injurious to the Christian Faith. This section warns against these.

In 1922 the ULC did not become a regular mem. of the FCC but resolved (in the so-called Buffalo Declaration) that the “relationship shall be of a consultative character by which The United Lutheran Church may have a voice but no vote; thus securing to it entire autonomy … in regard to the decisions and actions of the Federal Council of Churches, and, at the same time, the privilege of co-operating in such tasks and problems as it may elect.” EL

Minutes of the Second Biennial Convention of The United Lutheran Church in America (Washington, D. C., 1920), pp. 92–100; Minutes of the Third Biennial Convention of The United Lutheran Church in America (Buffalo, New York, 1922), p. 86; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966).

Wassmann, Dietrich

(1897–1954). B. Grossenheidorn, Schaumburg-Lippe Ger.; educ. Hermannsburg; miss. to Ethiopia 1927. Works include Durchbruch des Evangeliums im Gallaland.

Waterland, Daniel

(ca. 1682/83–1740). Angl. theol.; b. Walesby, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; king's chaplain 1717; chancellor York diocese 1722; canon Windsor 1727; archdeacon Middlesex 1730. Opposed deism.* Works include The Importance of the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity Asserted; Scripture Vindicated.

Watson, John Broadus

(1878–1958). Psychol.; b. Greenville, South Carolina Educ. Furman U., Greenville; U. of Chicago; prof. Johns Hopkins U., Greenville; U. 1908–20; entered business; exponent of behaviorism. See also Educational Psychology, D 4.

Watson, Richard

(1737–1816). Angl.; b. Heversham, Westmorland, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; prof. chemistry 1764, divinity 1771 Cambridge; prebendary 1774, archdeacon 1779 Ely. Rector Northwold, Norfolk, 1779; Knaptoft, Leicetershire, 1780. Bp. Llandaff 1782. Works include An Apology for Christianity (against E. Gibbon*); An Apology for the Bible (against T. Paine*).

Watson, Richard

(1781–1833). B. Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, Eng.; Meth. lay preacher; mem. Meth. New Connection (see Methodist Churches, 1) for a time; supported for. missions. Works include Theological Institutes. See also Arminianism.

Watson, Thomas

(d. 1686). Eng. Presb. preacher; educ. Cambridge; joined pastors opposed to O. Cromwell*; opposed execution of Charles I (see England, B 7); joined movement to est.. Charles II (see England, C 1) as king; imprisoned 1651–52. Works include The Godly Man's Picture; Heaven Taken by Storm; A Body of Practical Divinity.

Watts, Isaac

(1674–1748). B. Southampton, S Hampshire, Eng.; educ.. at a nonconformist academy at Stoke Newington; tutor 1696–1702; pastor of an indep. ch. London 1702; failing health from 1703 led to severe illness 1712 and semiretirement. Works include Logic. Other works include more than 600 (perhaps ca. 750) hymns, many of which are in Psalms of David, Imitated in the Language of the New-Testament. See also Sergeant, John.

Wauwatosa Theology.

Theol. tendency in the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin* and Other States which developed at the sem. in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, under leadership of J. P. Köhler* and emphasized hist. and exegesis over against dogmatics. See also Protes'tant Conference, The, Inc.


Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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