(ca. 150041). Twin brother of A. de Valdés*; RC reformer; b. Cuenca, Castile, Sp.; to It. ca. 1530/31; adopted in part the ideas of the Luth. Reformation. Works include Alfabeto cristiano; Diálogo de la lengua. See also Mantova, Benedetto da.
(18871952). Luth. composer; b. Stavanger, Norw.; son of a miss.; lived in Madagascar in early childhood. Works include Hvad est du dog Skiön; Vaagn op, min sjael; O store konge, David's sön; Kom regn fra det höie.
(January 1, 1825February 7, 1906). B. near Uniontown, Carroll Co., Maryland; educ. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; licensed by W. Pennsylvania Syn. 1852; ordained by Maryland Syn. 1853; miss. and pastor Pennsylvania 185355; principal Emmaus Institute, Middletown, Pennsylvania, 185559; pastor Reading, Pennsylvania, 185966; prof. Gettysburg 1866; pres. Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, 186884; pres. Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, 18841903. Coed. with J. A. Brown* The Quarterly Review of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and (with P. M. Biklé and E. J. Wolf*) The Lutheran Quarterly; other works include Christian Theology.
(Laurentius Vallensis; Lorenzo della Valle; ca. 1406/0757). Humanist; b. Rome, It.; taught rhetoric at Pavia; secy. and hist. to king of Naples 143548; papal secy. 1448. Showed the Donation* of Constantine to be a forgery; ridiculed the Lat. of the Vulgate; denied apostolic origin of Apostles' Creed and genuineness of correspondence bet. Jesus and Abgar.*
(nee Crosby; also known as Fanny Crosby; 1820 [1823?]1915). Hymnist; b. Southeast (or South East), Putnam Co., New York; lost her sight when ca. 6 weeks old; educ. New York (City) Institution for the Blind; taught there 184758; said to have written thousands of songs and hymns. Hymns include Pass Me Not, O Gentle Savior; Sweet Hour of Prayer.
(1747December 15, 1811). B. Rotterdam, Holland; educ. Leiden; army officer; doctor; became interested in ch. work upon losing his first wife and only child in a drowning tragedy; ordained miss. to S. Afr. by LMS 1797; left for Afr. on a convict ship 1798; arrived Cape Town in March 1799; labored among Hottentots, Kaffir, and others; removed his followers to a grant of land near Algoa Bay 1802; said to have redeemed many slaves with his own funds from cruel Boer masters; broke down much opposition of Europeans in Afr. to miss. work among natives. See also Africa, A 6, B 5; Netherlands Missionary Society.
(Harry; 161362). B. Debden, Essex, Eng.; educ. Oxford and on Continent; opposed state ch.; to Puritans in Massachusetts 1635; gov. of colony 163637; returned to Eng.; sided with parliament and O. Cromwell* but did not support execution of Charles I (see also England, B 7; Presbyterian Confessions, 1); later championed rights of parliament against Cromwell; imprisoned 1656; executed for treason after Restoration (see England, C). Works include The Retired Man's Meditations; An Epistle General to the Mystical Body of Christ on Earth; A Pilgrimage into the Land of Promise.
(formerly New Hebrides) Islands ca. 250 mi. NE of New Caledonia and ca. 500 mi. W of Fiji. Area: ca. 4,700 sq. mi. AngloFr. condominium since 1906; indep. 1980. Ethnic groups: mainly Melanesian, some Eur., Polynesian, Micronesian. Languages: Bislama (national), both Fr. and Eng. official. Religions: Presb. 40%, RC 16%, animist 15%, Angl. 14%. J. Williams,* 1st miss., was killed and eaten by cannibals on arrival 1839; many others suffered a similar death. More successful workers include J. Geddie* and J. G. Paton.* Missions include RCs, Angl. Ch. of New Zealand, Australian Chs. of Christ, Seventh-day Adventists, Apostolic Ch. Missionary Movement.
(Stato della Citta del Vaticano). Territorial seat of the papacy in Rome, It. Includes Vatican Palace, art galleries, astronomical observatory, bank, libraries, post office, gardens, museums, radio station, St. Peter's Basilica, and other bldgs. in Rome. Area: 108.7 acres (.15 sq. mi.; .4 sq. km). US est. diplomatic relations with the Vatican 1848, discontinued 1867, reest. 1984.
Basilica hist. is traced to the early 4th c., Vatican palace hist.. to the 6th c. (place now covers more than 13 acres); the palace became the chief papal residence after 1378 (see also Schism, 8; the older Lateran palace had been burned).
Various bldgs (e.g., Sistine Chapel [see Popes, 16]) were designed and decorated by Michelangelo,* Raphael,* and other masters. The crypt of St. Peter's Basilica includes tombs of popes and other rulers (e.g., Christina*).
1. Vatican Council I (December 8, 1869October 20, 1870). Regarded by RCs as the 20th ecumenical council (see Councils and Synods, 4). Convened by Pius IX (see Popes, 28). Prots. and Eastern Orthodox also invited.
a. The constitution on the catholic faith (de fide catholica; also known as Dei filius), adopted and promulgated April 24, 1870, condemned pantheism, rationalism, and materialism and contained 4 chaps. on God the Creator, Revelation, Faith, and Faith and Reason.
b. The First Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ (Constitutio dogmatica prima de ecclesia Christi; also known as Pastor aeternus), adopted July 18, 1870, treats in 4 chaps. the institution of the apostolic primacy in Peter, the perpetuity of Peter's primacy in Roman bps., the power and reason of the primacy of Roman bps., and the infallibility of Roman bps. See also Infallibility, Papal; Old Catholics.
2. Vatican Council II. Regarded by RCs as the 21st ecumenical council (see Councils and Synods, 4). Convened by John XXIII (see Popes, 34). Non-RCs invited as observers. Purpose: spiritual renewal of the ch. Discussions highlighted by insistence on return to liturgical, Biblical, and patristic sources of faith.
1st sess., October 11December 8, 1962, got the council under way.
3d sess., September 14November 21, 1964; Dogmatic Const. on the Ch. (Lumen gentium), Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis redintegratio), and Decree on Eastern Cath. Chs. (Orientalium ecclesiarum) promulgated November 21.
4th sess., September 14December 8, 1965; Decree on the Bishops' Pastoral Office in the Ch. (Christus dominus), Decree on Priestly Formation (Optatam totius), Decree on the Appropriate Renewal of the Religious Life (Perfectae caritatis), Declaration on the Relationship of the Ch. to Non-Christian Religions (Nostra aetate), and Declaration on Christian Educ. (Gravissimum educationis) promulgated October 28; Dogmatic Const. on Divine Revelation (Dei verbum) and Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity (Apostolicam actuositatem) promulgated November 18; Pastoral Const. on the Ch. in the Modern World (Gaudium et spes), Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum ordinis), Decree on the Church's Missionary Activity (Ad gentes), and Declaration on Religious Freedom (Dignitatis humanae) promulgated December 7. EL
H. Daniel-Rops, The Second Vatican Council: The Story Behind the Ecumenical Council of Pope John XXIII, tr. A. Guinan (New York, 1962); L. Jaeger, The Ecumenical Council, the Church and Christendom, tr. A. V. Littledale (New York, 1961); K. E. Skydsgaard, The Papal Council and the Gospel: Protestant Theologians Evaluate the Coming Vatican Council (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1961); R. M. Brown, Observer in Rome: A Protestant Report on the Vatican Council (New York, 1964); X. Rynne (pseudonym), Letters from Vatican City: Vatican Council II (First Session): Background and Debates (New York, 1963), The Second Session: The Debates and Decrees of Vatican Council II, September 29 to December 4, 1963 (New York, 1963/64), The Third Session: The Debates and Decrees of Vatican Council II, September 14 to November 21, 1964 (New York, 1964/65), and The Fourth Session: The Debates and Decrees of Vatican Council II, September 14 to December 8, 1965 (New York, 1965/66); H. Küng, The Council in Action: Theological Reflections on the Second Vatican Council, tr. C. Hastings (New York, 1963); M. Novak, The Open Church, Vatican II, Act II (New York, 1964); G. C. Berkouwer, The Second Vatican Council and the New Catholicism, tr. L. B. Smedes (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1965); Dialog on the Way: Protestants Report from Rome on the Vatican Council, ed. G. A. Lindbeck (Minneapolis, 1965); The Documents of Vatican II in a New and Definitive Translation with Commentaries and Notes by Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox Authorities, ed. W. M. Abbott (New York, 1966).
(180682). B. Behndorf, near Magdeburg, Ger.; prof. Berlin; friend of D. F. Strauss*; applied hist. criticism to OT; opposed by E. W. Hengstenberg.* Works include Die Biblische Theologie, wissenschaftlich dargestellt, I: Die Religion des Alten Testamentes.
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