(ca. 152065). B. Gent, Belg.; studied at Louvain; fled 1544 because of his Ref. faith; to Aachen, Cologne, Strasbourg; driven by Interim* to Eng.; with J. Laski* organized Neth. refugee chs.; went with cong. expelled from London by Mary* I through Den. to Emden, Wesel, and Frankfurt; promoted Ref. in Poland with Laski 155659. Works include Rationes quaedam (against Luth. doctrine of Lord's Supper); tr. of Laski's Compendium doctrinae.
Theory elaborated by J. Bentham,* J. S. Mill,* and others acc. to which the morality of conduct is determined by its ability to promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. The term has come to be used in various meanings. See also Ethics, 4; Gay, John; Paley, William; Sidgwick, Henry; Tucker, Abraham.
Formalized declaration of doctrinal basis of Old* Caths. Reaffirmed the proposition of Vincent* of Lérins; subscribed to the ecumenical* creeds and the universally accepted dogmatic decisions of ecumenical councils of the first 1,000 yrs. Rejected the doctrine of papal infallibility and supremacy and of the immaculate* conception. Rejected Unigenitus,* the Syllabus* of Errors, and similar RC pronouncements. Rejected the Council of Trent* decisions regarding discipline and those of its doctrinal definitions that disagree with the early ch. Affirmed true reception of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist; rejected RC doctrine of the unbloody sacrifice of the mass.
(Utrechtsche Zendings-Vereneging). Founded 1859 in the interest of miss. work in the Dutch (or Neth.) E. Indies; first missionaries sent 1863; combined 1951 with other agencies to form Netherlands* Ref. Ch., Bd. of For. Miss..
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