(liturgical). Scripture verses recited or sung after the Gradual* or as part of it or instead of the Hallelujah* on penitential days from Septuagesima to Holy Saturday (see Church Year, 3, 4, 16; Quadragesima), on ember days (see Quatember), and certain other occasions. The term is derived from the Lat. for drawn out, a tract being assigned to one voice without a break. See also Ambrosian Music.
RC revival in the Ch. of Eng. that began 1833 at Oxford with pub. of Tracts for the Times (see Newman, John Henry); 90 tracts appeared 183341. Other tractarians include R. H. Froude,* J. Keble,* C. Marriott,* E. B. Pusey.* Newman resigned his incumbency in the Ch. of Eng. 1843, was received into the RC Ch. 1845; others, clerics and laymen, followed him. Effects of tractarianism include revival and strengthening of the high* ch. movement and increased emphasis on RC tradition in doctrine, sacraments, worship, and life. Reaction against it included formation of the Evangelical* Alliance. See also Anglo-Catholics; England, C 7.
In the ancient Christian Ch. the Lat. word traditio (act of handing over; equivalent of Gk. paradosis) was used of instruction, oral and written, given by one person to another. In course of time it came to refer to teaching not in Scripture.
Jews hold that God gave Moses an oral law which was handed down orally. Decisions of their doctors and priests became the source of their traditions (Mt 15:23; Mk 7:313; 2 Th 2:15; 3:6; see also Talmud).
Early ch. fathers (e.g., Clement* of Alexandria, Trenaeus,* Tertullian*) often appealed to oral tradition. But they warned against setting too high a value on it (e.g., Tertullian, De virginibus velandis, i; Cyprian, Epist. lxxiv [lxxv]). Augustine acknowledged the adequacy of Scripture (De doctrina Christiana, ii 9) but said that he would not believe the Gospel except as moved by the authority of the ch. (Contra epistolam Manichaei quam vocant fundamenti, v). See also Vincent of Lérins.
In the Dark* Ages extensive compilations of patristic writings (with more or less pagan learning included) were continued (e.g., by Alcuin,* F. M. A. Cassiodorus,* Isidore* of Seville, Rubanus* Maurus). Reliance on tradition was dealt a telling blow by P. Abelard.*
M. Luther* rejected extravagant RC claims for tradition and the spirit of radicals who tried to overthrow everything; tradition is reflected, e.g., in retention of the Creed; but he felt free to investigate traditional decisions even regarding the canon of Scripture. AC XXI: In our teaching nothing departs from the Scriptures or the catholic church or the church of Rome, in so far as it is known from its writers. The Council of Trent* (Sess. IV, Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures) placed tradition on a level with Scripture (omnes libros tam veteris quam novi testamenti necnon traditiones ipsas tamquam vel oretenus a Christo, vel a Spiritu Sancto dictatas et continua successione in ecclesia catholica conservatas, part pietatis affectu ac reverentia suscipit et veneratur), thus preparing the way for the doctrine of papal infallibility. EL
View that the soul* of a new infant is generated from the souls of its parents. Many prefer this view to creationism* because they feel that it helps to account for transmission of sin from parents to offspring (see also Sin, Original).
(ca. 1636/3774). Metaphysical poet and cleric; probably b. Hereford, Eng.; educ. Oxford. Works include Roman Forgeries; Christian Ethicks (also pub. under the title The Way to Blessedness); Centuries of Meditations.
(183296). B. on is. of Bornholm, Den.; educ. Copenhagen; influenced by S. A. Kierkegaard*; itinerant and revivalist on Bornholm 186063; left state ch. and organized a Luth. Free Ch. 1863; resigned as pastor 1877 because of ill health; to US 1882; prof. Chicago* Theol. Sem. 188590; dismissed because of his Luth. principles.
(George Trzanowski; Georgius Tranoscius; Jerzy Tranowski; 15921637). Called Polish Luther by Slovaks because of his Polish descent; b. Cieszyn, Silesia; educ. Wittenberg, Ger.; teacher Prague; private tutor; headmaster of school at Holesov, Moravia; head of school 1615, pastor 1616 Valasské Mezirici, Moravia; returned to Cieszyn 1625 under anti-Prot. pressure; then to Bielsko, where he served first as court chaplain, then (till end of 1627) as municipal minister; under Counter* Reformation pressure to Budatyn, Slovakia, then to the castle of Orava; pastor Liptovsky Sväty Mikulás, Slovakia. Tr. AC into Czech 1620. See also Czechoslovakia, 7; Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, 13.
A. Wantula, The Slavonic Luther, CTM, XVII (1946), 728737.
Quality or attribute acc. to which God is supermundane, absolutely free and superior to all earthly, material things; even the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain Him (1 K 8:27; cf. Jb 11:710). But He is not separate or apart (see Deism); cf. Jer 23:23; Acts 17:28. See also Immanence of God; Panentheism.
Founded 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; a way of meditation to attain well-being and creativity; ruled to be a religious system by a New Jersey Dist. Court 1978. See also Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field.
(Gk. metempsychosis, animation after [death]).
1. View that at death the soul passes into another body (human, animal, or plant) or demonic or divine form. Based on animism (see Primitive Religion).
See also Reincarnation.
Change of one substance into another. Term for RC view that in the eucharistic rite the substance or basic reality of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, while the outward appearances of bread and wine are not affected. RC theologians disagree as to whether bread and wine are annihilated in the process or if they pass into preexistent body and blood. See also Eucharistic Controversies; Grace, Means of, IV 3; Lateran Councils.
(Hung. Erdély; Ger. Siebenbürgen). Region in NW and cen. Romania. Part of Dacia in Roman times; later overrun by Germanic and other tribes; conquered by Hungarians 1003; soon thereafter, Szeklers (probably akin to Magyars) settled in the east and southeast and Saxons (Germans from the Rhineland and Luxembourg) in northeastern and southern passes; origin and hist. of the Vlachs (after whom Walachia, or Wallachia, was named) is much debated (their authentic hist. begins ca. the end of the 13th c.). Invaded by Mongols 1241. Tributary to the sultan 1540 in reaction against royal Ger. Hapsburgs. Part of Hung. 1867. Made part of Romania 1918/20. N part assigned to Hung. 194045, returned to Romania 1947.
Christianity probably reached Transylvania in Roman times. Won decisively for RCm in the 11th c.; diocese of Transylvania erected 1103. Hussite* doctrines spread. When Transylvania became a vassal principality under Turkish rule in the 16th c. most of its Caths. became Prot..
M. Luther's writings reached Transylvania ca. 1519; a reform movement begun Hermannstadt 1519 was short-lived, but a more successful one began Kronstadt in the early 1540s under leadership of J. Honter(us).* The AC was adopted 1572 largely as result of leadership of M. Hebler.*
In the 17th and 18th c. the Luth. Ch. in Transylvania experienced various persecutions. The 1861 ch. const., adopted after negotiation with the Austrian govt. (which saw advantage in good relations), gave the ch. autonomy free from state rule and led to lay participation in ch. administration. Nazis took control of the ch. 1940, communists at the end of WW II; many ch. activities, esp. educ., are highly restricted. Hungs. and Gers. each organized their own Luth. ch.
(Order of Cistercians* of the Strict Observance). Arose out of a reform of Cistercians in the 1660s by A. J. Le B. de Rance.* Trappists rise at 2 (2:15 weekdays), retire at 7, devoting 46 hrs. to manual labor, the rest of the day, apart from meals, to worship services, prayer, meditative reading, and study. Meat, fish, and eggs are restricted to the sick. Silence is perpetual, except for necessary directions at work and consultation with superiors.
(Jacob; February 21, 1815April 3, 1900). B. Lambsborn, Rhenish Palatinate, Bav., Ger.; trained by J. K. W. Lühe* at Neuendettelsau; to US 1845 with F. A. Crämer,* J. A. Detzer,* and F. J. C. Lochner.* Pastor Danbury, Ottawa Co., Ohio, in the Sandusky Bay area, 1845; mem. Mo. Syn. at its 1st conv. 1847. Pastor Liverpool, Medina Co., Ohio, 1849; Adrian, Michigan, 1850; retired 1882; thereafter repeatedly supplied vacancies. See also Michigan Synod, 1.
(ca. 15481635). Presb. cleric, educator; b. Nottingham, Eng.; educ. Cambridge and Geneva; refused to sign Thirty-nine Articles; ordained on the Continent to serve the Eng. cong. at Antwerp; lecturer London 1581; dismissed 1585; tried to make Eng. Calvinistic; provost Trin. Coll., Dublin, Ireland, in the mid-1590s. Works include Ecclesiasticae disciplinae et Anglicanae ecclesiae ab ilia aberrationis, plena e verbo Dei et dilucida explicatio.
(183496). B. Dresden, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Bonn; taught at Leipzig, Freiburg, Kiel, Heidelberg, Berlin. First opposed O. E. L. v. Bismarck, then supported him; opposed social democracy; first opposed Christianity later was more favorably inclined to it; emphasized power of state. Works include Deutsche Geschichte im 19. Jahrhundert.
1. Lucas the Elder (15421602). Father of 2; Ref. theol.; b. Erin, near Arras, N Fr.; educ. Paris and Orléans; refugee London, Eng.; preacher Walloon congs. in Neth.; prof. Leiden 1587. Works include Synopsis theologiae. 2. Lucas the Younger (15731607). Son of 1; Ref.. theol.; b. London, Eng.; Walloon preacher Leiden 1595; prof. Leiden 1603. Works include Scholastica et methodica locorum communium s. theologiae institutio.
(Joannes; Tremellio; 151080). B. in ghetto at Ferrara, It.; bap. RC; prof. Heb. at Lucca, It.; fled to Switz. and became ev.; taught Strasbourg 154247, Cambridge 154853; helped write Book* of Common Prayer; tutor of princes at Zweibrücken 155458; rector Gymnasium at Hornbach 155961; taught at Heidelberg 156167, then at Metz, then at Sedan. Works include a Chaldean and Syriac grammar. See also Junius, Franciscus.
(180786). B. Dublin, Ireland; educ. Harrow and Cambridge, Eng.; held various positions; ordained Angl. priest 1835; lectured at Cambridge 184546; prof. King's Coll., London, 184658; dean Westminster 185664; abp. Dublin 186484. Works include Notes on the Miracles of Our Lord; Notes on the Parables of Our Lord; Synonyms of the New Testament.
Sess. 1116; May 1, 1551April 28, 1552; under Julius* III; at Trent; &Prots.; having been granted an improved safeconduct, ambassadors and theologians of several estates (Brandenburg, Württemberg, Strasbourg) attended.
See also Andrada, Diego de Paiva de; Bible Versions, J 2; Billick, Eberhard; Chemnitz, Martin; Celibacy; Counter Reformation, 12; Interim, II; Roman Catholic Church, The, B 25; Roman Catholic Confessions, A; Stabat mater; Tempus clausum; Thou, Jacques Auguste de.
(151958). Polish Luth.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Poznan, Poland; preacher and secy. at court of starost gen. of Poland 1548; privy councillor to Albert* of Prussia 1553; opposed J. Laski*; leader of congs. in Greater Poland which adopted AC Tr. Luth. books into Polish.
(April 10, 1865September 1, 1923). B. Somerfield, former borough, Somerset Co., Pennsylvania. Educ. Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Coll. and McCormick Theol. Sem., Chicago, Illinois; also studied law in Chicago 188788. Pastor San Jose, California, 189198 (ordained 1892); lecturer San Jose Academy 189698; dean and prof. Ansgar Coll., Hutchinson, Minnesota, 190102. Prof. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio, 190305; Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, Ohio, 190523. Pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth Ch. in the USA 191718.
(Johann; 172682). B. Berchtesgaden, in the Salzburg Alps, Austria; to US with Salzburgers*; helped form state of Georgia and was its 1st gov. 1777; defended Savannah against Brit. and Indians; repulsed by Brit. 1779; settled near Orangeburg South Carolina; returned to Georgia 1781 upon election to pub. office; murdered by Tories.
(18661959). B. Mount Morris, Illinois; mystic philos.; exponent of New* Thought; held that the message of Christianity is essentially the same as that of the other great religions. Works include In Tune with the Infinite; In the Hollow of His Hand; My Philosophy and My Religion.
Off E coast of Venezuela. Area: ca. 1,970 sq. mi. Official language: English; others Fr., Hindi, Spanish. Religions: RC 36%, Hindus 23% Prots. 13%, Muslims 6%. Contacted by Columbus 1498. Changed hands repeatedly. Trinidad Brit. crown colony 1802, Tobago 1877. Slaves, imported under Sp. rule in the 17th and 18th c., were emancipated in the early 1830s. Amalgamated into a single colony 1889. Mem. West Indies Fed. 195862. Indep. 1962. RC miss. began with coming of the Spaniards. Others have included Baps., Salv. Army, Seventh-day Adv., Presb., Pentecostal. Prot. community: perhaps ca. 90,000 in the late 1960s.
(Order of the Most Holy Trin. for the Redemption of Captives). RC order founded, acc. to tradition, by Jean* de Matha and approved 1198 by Innocent Ill (see Popes, 10). First object was to secure release of Christians held captive by Muslim; activities expanded later to larger soc. service. Also known as Mathurins, or Mathurines, from St. Mathurin, 3d c. AD priest to whom the Paris convent was dedicated. See also Barefooted Monks.
1. The eternal, infinite Spirit (Jn 4:24), subsisting in 3 Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God is one (Dt 6:4; Is 44:6; 48:12; 1 Ti 2:5). God is also three. Plurality is indicated in Elohim (Heb. God), pl. form expressing not a plurality of gods, but a plurality in one God (and hence construed with the singular verb form, e.g., Gn. 1:1)
Athanasian Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, C): We worship one God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit is all one: the glory equal, the majesty coeternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Spirit uncreate. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Spirit incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Spirit eternal. And yet they are not three Eternals, but one Eternal. As there are not three Uncreated nor three Incomprehensibles, but one Uncreated and one Incomprehensible. So likewise the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Spirit almighty. And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God. And yet they are not three Gods, but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Spirit Lord. And yet not three Lords, but one Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by Himself to be God and Lord, so are we forbidden by the catholic religion to say, There be three Gods or three Lords. The Father is made of none, neither created nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone, not made nor created, but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made nor created nor begotten, but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity none is before or after another; none is greater or less than another; but the whole three Persons are coeternal together and coequal, so that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshiped.
AC I 23: There is one divine essence, which is called and which is truly God, and there are three persons in this one divine essence, equal in power and alike eternal: God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Spirit. All three are one divine essence, eternal, without division, without end, of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, one creator and preserver of all things visible and invisible.
2. All similes, comparisons, images, or illustrations by which men have tried to represent the doctrine of three Persons in one Godhead fail to illustrate; much less do they explain. The Trin. has been compared to fire, which is said to possess the 3 attributes of flame, light, and heat; but this division is highly artificial, and the comparison is altogether faulty, because Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not so many attributes of God, but are, each of them, God Himself. The Trin. has been compared to the division of a human being into body, soul, and mind; but each of these constituents is not separately a human being, whereas each of the divine Persons, separately considered, is truly God (cf. Cl 2:9).
3. The doctrine of the Trin. is beyond our powers of comprehension. The difficulty does not lie in the numeral terms but in the relation of the 3 Persons to each other and the way they are united in one Godhead without being only parts of it. AC I 4: The word is to be understood as the Fathers employed the term in this connection, not as a part or a property of another but as that which exists of itself.
4. That the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are 3 distinct Persons is evident from Mt 3:1317. The Father speaks; the Son is baptized; the Holy Spirit descends like a dove. Cf. Gn 1:13 and Ps 33:6 with Jn 1:1; Gn 48:16 with Is 63:910; cf. also Is 48:16.
5. These 3 Persons are equal in works, rank, and attributes. Cf. Jb 33:4; Is 9:6; Jn 5:2 3; 8:58; 1 Co 2:1014; Eph 1:10; 3:1416.
(Trishagion; Gk. thrice holy). Doxology whose name is derived from its 3-fold Holy: Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal, have mercy on us. Used in RCm since the 11th c. as part of the Improperia,* on other occasions, and for inscriptions on bells. Also used in E rites. To be distinguished from Sanctus (see Worship, Parts of, 11), sometimes also called Trisagion.
Belief in 3 gods. Specifically, the heretical view that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not 3 distinct Persons in 1 God, but 3 distinct essences, or gods; hence a form of polytheism. Arose and developed within Monophysitism.* See also Gentile, Giovanni Valentino; Roscellinus; Stiefel, Esajas.
(18651923). Prot. theol.; b. Haunstetten, near Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, Göttingen; taught at Göttingen 1890, Bonn 1892, Heidelberg 1894, Berlin ca. 1914/15; a leader of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. See also Historicism, 4; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 13; Modernism, 2; Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in, 12.
Addition of music, or words and music, by way of expansion or elaboration of the official text of RC mass or breviary office to be sung by the choir; incapable of artistic existence apart from the liturgical text and setting; in vogue ca. 9th12th c. To be distinguished from sequence.*
(Valentinus Drossendorf; 14901556). Educator; original name Friedland; adopted name of birthplace on matriculation at Wittenberg; b. Trotzendorf (later called Troitschendorf), near Görlitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; rector Lat. School Goldberg, near Liegnitz, Silesia, 1524; the school fell victim to pest and fire 1554.
(Trubar; 150886). Slovenian Luther; b. Raschiza, near Auersperg (near Laibach [now Ljubljana], which is near Trieste); RC priest; preached justification by faith alone at Laibach ca. 1531; fled in the late 1540s; preacher Rothenburg; pastor Kempten 1552; to Laibach 1562; banished in the mid-1560s; pastor Laufen, on the Neckar, Württemberg, 156566, and then at Derendingen. Created the Slovenian literary language. Works include a catechism; Abecedarium; compendium of AC and the Württemberg and Saxon confessions; a ch. order; commentaries.
That which is eternal, ultimate, secure, steadfast. God is truth in contradistinction to all that is relative and derived (Ps 31:5; Is 65:16; Jn 17:3; 1 Jn 5:20); cannot lie (2 Ti 2:13; Heb 6:18). All that comes from God is true (Ps 33:4). Truth is manifested in Christ (Jn 1:14, 17; 14:6) The Holy Spirit imparts the truth of Christ (1 Jn 2:2021), through whom truth is known (Jn 8:3132) and whose word is truth (Jn 17:1719; 2 Co 4:2; Gl 5:7; Eph 1:13; Ja 1:18). Truth is known in sanctified life (Jn 17:1719; 1 Jn 2:46).
In philos. various theories of truth are held, e.g., correspondence theory (truth consists in some form of correspondence bet. belief and fact); coherence theory (the truth of statements is determined by whether they cohere or fail to cohere with a system of other statements); pragmatic theory (truth is determined by experimental handling); performative theory (truth is a performative uterance).
(Truttvetter; Trutfetter; ca. 14601519). B. Eisenach, Ger.; exponent of via* moderna; prof. philos. Erfurt under whom M. Luther studied; prof. Wittenberg 150710. Works include Summulae totius logicae (title occurs in various forms).
(Grecized from Hefenträger; Hefentreger; 14971542). B. Fritzlar, on the Eder, 15 mi. SW of Kassel, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; priest 1521; preached Reformation doctrine at Fritzlar, Waldeck, and Wildungen. Works include a catechism; order of worship.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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