(17591837). B. Stove, near Rostock, Ger.; follower of I. Kant*; prof. philos. and theol. Halle. Held that basic religious ideas could be derived from basic morality of practical reason indep. of revelation. Works include Einzig möglicher Zweck Jesu aus dem Grundgesetze der Religion entwickelt; Censur des christlichen protestantischen Lehrbegriffs; Die Religion der Mündingen.
(18661930). Luth. deaconess; Mutter Eva (Mother Eva); b. Miechowitz, near Beuthen (Bytom), Upper Silesia; daughter of industrialist; death of mother and personal illness turned her to soc. work; founded Friedenshort (a deaconess house) at Miechowitz and homes for homeless elsewhere; miss. work was undertaken in China, Afr., and Guatemala.
(16961770). Painter; b. Venice, It.; last important figure in Venetian art; initiated the baroque period. Works include The Sacrifice of Abraham; Crossing of the Red Sea; Repudiation of Hagar; Fall of the Rebel Angels; Rachel Hiding the Idols; Judgment of Solomon; John the Baptist Preaching; Baptism of Christ; Decapitation of John the Baptist.
(Titius; 16411703). Hymnist; b. Wilkau, near Breslau; educ. Altdorf (near Nürnberg) and Jena; pastor Laubenzeddel, Hanfenfeld, and Hersbruck. Hymns include Ich armer Mensch, ich armer Sünder; Sollt es gleich bisweilen scheinen; Was ist unser Leben und nach dem wir streben? eitel Eitelkeit.
(16431713). Ref. theol.; b. Weesp, Neth.; educ. Utrecht and Leiden; pastor at various places; prof. Leiden. Distinguished natural and revealed theol. but regarded them as connected since doctrinal truth is rational. Works include Theologiae utriusque compendium cum naturalis turn revelatae.
(18611919). Poet, patriot, Christian of India; b. a Brahman (see Brahmanism); bap. 1895; tried to est. indep. ch. in India. His Christayan (life of Christ in poetic form) completed by his wife, Lakshmibai.
(18861965). B. Starzeddel, near Guben, Prussia; son of a Luth. pastor; educ. Berlin, Tübingen, Halle, Breslau; ordained Luth. 1912; army chaplain WW I; privatdocent Berlin 1919. Prof. Marburg 1924, Dresden and Leipzig 1925, Frankfurt am Main 1929. Lost position under Nazis 1933. Prof. Union Theol. Sem., NYC; Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; U. of Chicago, Illinois Concerned with relation bet. revelation and human reality; tried to find a synthesis bet. neoorthodoxy and liberal humanism; theol. and philos. are interrelated in a process that also involves sociol., hist., art. literature, ethics, psychotherapy. Works include Kirche und Kultur; Rechtfertigung und Zweifel; Systematic Theology; The Courage to Be; Biblical Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality; Theology of Culture.
(November 16, 1913June 10, 1966). B. Altenburg, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg and Tübingen; to US 1936; educ. Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa. Pastor Clifton, Texas, 193840; Giddings, Texas, 194245. Taught at Hebron (Nebraska) Jr. Coll. (ALC) 194142. Prof. Wartburg Coll., Waverly, Iowa, 1946. Works include The World and Men Around Luther; coauthor The Synods of American Lutheranism.
(163094). B. Sowerby, York-shire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; held various positions including dean Canterbury and canon St. Paul's, London; abp. Canterbury 1691; ineffective against deism* and RCm because of his latitudinarianism (see Latitudinarians). See also Arminianism.
(various spellings; 15591632). Flemish field marshal; commander in chief RC field forces at outbreak of Thirty* Years' War; repeatedly victorious, but was defeated by Gustavus* II at Breitenfeld 1631 and at Rain, on the Lech (near its confluence with the Danube), where he was mortally wounded.
(various spellings; before 150057). Luth. theol.; b. Amsterdam; educ. Wittenberg; pastor and reformed Bremen; opposed Anabaps.; attended 1537 meeting of the Schmalkaldic League (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2) and the Colloquy of Worms* and Regensburg* Conf. 1540/41; opposed Interim.* Works include Farrago sententiarum consentientium.
OT dating was based on the reign of kings and other important events (e.g., Exodus, 1 K 6:1; erection of Solomon's temple, 1 K 9:10; Babylonian Captivity, Eze 33:21; earthquake, Am 1:1). The Seleucid era (31264 BC; named after founder Seleucus I [Nicator; ca. 358280; king of Babylon 312280] and 5 other of its kings called Seleucus; at height of power controlled Bactria, Persia, Babylonia, Syria, and part of Asia Minor) was widely used by Jews and continued at Alexandria till the 16th c. and later in S Arabia. Jews under for. rule often figured their eras acc. to the system of the conquerors. Shortly after the time of Christ, Jews began to figure from the time of creation, which they regarded as being ca. 4,000 yrs. before the destruction of the temple.
The Christian era is reckoned from the birth of Christ on basis of calculation by Dionysius* Exiguus.
By calculations of cause and effect a theory of a much longer time span has been developed: There was a vast period of astronomical time before the earth existed as such. Then a vast period of earth, or geological, time passed before living structures appeared. The period of living structures has been divided into eras: Archeozoic, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (era of animals and man). The Cenozoic era is divided into 2 periods or systems: Tertiary (of mammals) and Quaternary (of man). The period or system of man is divided into epochs or series, (which are in turn divided into ages: Old Stone Stone Age (Pakolithic) and New Stone Age or Neolithic (prehistoric; characterized by use of stone tools), Bronze Age (beginning in Eur. ca. 3500 BC, in W Asia and Egypt somewhat earlier; characterized by use of bronze tools), Iron Age (beginning ca. 1000 BC in S Eur., somewhat earlier in W Asia and Egypt; characterized by the smelting of iron), and later ages to the present. See also Evolution.
Definition of time is elusive. Time marches on suggests that, whatever it is, it moves inexorably toward or into the future; as it does, future events become part of the past.
Philosophers disagree on the nature of time. Parmenides* regarded change and becoming as illusions. Heraclitus* held that change characterizes all. I. Newton* regarded time as indep. of, and prior to, events. G. W. v. Leibniz* held time to be formed by relationship bet. events and dependent on events.
A. Einstein* regarded time as relative to the point of observation. Augustine* of Hippo regarded time as essentially psychological (the future is the anticipated as such, the past is the remembered as such). H. Bergson,* A. N. Whitehead,* et al. regarded time as modal, or the way in which the determined (past) is related to the potential (future). See also Royce, Josiah. EL
(probably ca. 1653/571733). Deist; b. Beer Ferrers (Ferris), Devonshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; RC ca. 1685; returned to Angl. Ch. 1688. Works include Christianity as Old as the Creation: Or, the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature. See also Deism, III 5.
(It. The Little Dyer; real name Jacopo Robusti; 151894). Painter; b. Venice, It.; active mainly in Venice. Works include Adoration of the Golden Calf; Adoration of the Magi; The Agony in the Garden; Ascension; The Baptism of Christ; Belshazzar's Feast; Cain and Abel; Christ Among the Doctors; Christ and the Adulteress; Christ Before Pilate; The Creation of the Animals; Crucifixion; Samson and Delilah.
(Lobegott sometimes classicized: Aenotheus; Konstantin; 181574). Luth. scholar; b. Lengenfeld, near Plauen, in the Saxon Vogtland, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Leipzig; discovered Codex Sinaiticus; deciphered Codex Ephraemi. Ed. Gk. NT and other MSS; other works include Warm warden unsere Evangelien verfasst? See also Harmony of the Gospels, 2; Manuscripts of the Bible. 3 a.
(18361902). Painter, engraver, enameler; b. Nantes, Fr.; active in London, Eng., ca. 187080; traveled in Palestine 1887. Works include hundreds of Biblical watercolor pictures, many pub. under the title Vie de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ. Pictures include The Childhood of St. John the Baptist; Nathanael Under the Fig Tree: Healing of the Lepers at Capernaum; Jesus Teaching on the Sea Shore.
(18671927). Psychol.; b. Chichester, West Sussex, Eng.; educ. Oxford and Leipzig; taught at Oxford; to US 1893; prof. Cornell U., Ithaca, New York Exponent of structuralism (see Psychology, J 2). Works include Experimental Psychology; A Text-Book of Psychology; Systematic Psychology; Prolegomena.
(Tiziano Vecelli, or Vecellio; 14771576). Painter; b. Pieve di Cadore, Belluno province, Veneto, It.; chief master of Venetian school. Works include Adam and Eve; Martyrdom of St. Peter; Christ and the Adulteress; Supper at Emmaus.
(17731831). Ev. theol.; b. Langensalza, near Erfurt, Ger.; prof. and preacher Leipzig. Exponent of confessional supernaturalism*; opposed Prussian* Union. Works include Encyklopädie der theologischen Wissenschaften; Über Superanaturalismus, Rationalismus und Atheismus; De synonymis in Novo Testamento.
RC bp. with title of bp. of a defunct see, hence without jurisdiction there. Conquests, e.g., by Muslim, destroyed many sees: many exiled bps. assisted other prelates and became known as vicarii in pontificalibus or bps. in partibus infidelium. After the 12th c. the papal see continued to nominate bps. to sees in which they could not reside or rule. Since the 16th c., bps. have also been assigned to sees long suppressed. An 1882 encyclical abolished the term in partibus infidelium, substituting titular bp. and titular see. Many higher prelates in the curia,* vicars apostolic, and prelates nullius are titular bps. and abps. See also Roman Catholic Church, The, C 4; Vicar Apostolic.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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