(ca. 640/624ca. 548543). One of the 7 Sages, or Wise Men, of Greece (the others, acc. to a gen. accepted list: Bias of Priene, Chilon of Sparta, Cleobulus of Lindus, Periander of Corinth, Pittacus of Mitylene, Solon of Athens). B. probably Miletus; regarded as founder of Gk. geometry, astronomy, and philos.; held a form of monism* acc. to which everything is a form of water. See also Anaximenes of Miletus; Philosophy.
(150269). B. Oberehnheim, Alsace; educ. Wittenberg; prof. Gk. at Frankfurt an der Oder 1540; prof. theol. Marburg 1543; championed Luth. doctrine of Lord's Supper over against A. G. Hyperius*; experiences in Schmalkaldic* War led him to write against faith without works; rejected Protestantism 1548; preacher Frankfurt am Main 1549, dismissed 1552; rejoined RC Ch. 1553/55; preacher Minden; canon Mainz; prof. Freiburg im Breisgau 1566.
(Dankbrand; Thangbrandur; Tangbrand; Thankbrandr; fl. toward end of 10th c. AD). Perhaps Anglo-Saxon or Flemish priest; miss. to Iceland 997999 (see Iceland, 2), which he prepared for official acceptance of Christianity (1000). See also Norway, Early Christianity in.
Many special days of thanksgiving have been observed from time immemorial. In medieval Eng., Lammas (from loaf + mass; popularly apprehended as from lamb + mass) Day (August 1; feast of St. Peter's Chains in the RC calendar; cf. Acts 12:3, 67) was probably a thanksgiving at which bread from first ripe grain was used at mass. Special forms of thanksgiving for abundant harvests were occasionally authorized from the end of the 18th c.. The custom of using bread from first ripe grain at mass was revived in the early 1840s; an annual thanksgiving soon replaced, or was combined with (cf. Ger. Erntedankfest), the traditional Harvest Home, which was a celebration in which thanksgiving was not necessarily prominent. The proposed Rev. Prayer Book of 192728 provided a collect, Epistle, and Gospel for such a day; the 1789 Am. Prayer Book has a form for thanksgiving.
In the US, the Pilgrim Fathers observed an occasion of thanksgiving perhaps on arrival 1620, surely no later than their 1st harvest 1621. In course of time other days of thanksgiving were observed. Thanksgiving Day as a nat. religious festival observed on the same day throughout the country dates from 1863. It was observed on the last Thursday in November through 1938. In 1939 it was moved to the 2d-last Thursday in November This met with widespread objection and led to confusion as to date of actual observance 193941. On basis of December 1941 congressional action, Thanksgiving Day is the 4th Thursday in November See also Church Year, 17.
(18281901). Congr. scholar; b. Boston, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard Coll., at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; pastor Salem, Massachusetts, 185964. Tr. J. G. B. Winer's* Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms. See also Grammars, B; Lexicons, B.
Ancient heathen authors (e.g., Xenophon, Plato, Plutarch, Ovid, Seneca, Tacitus) pointed out dangers of the theater. Early Christian leaders (e.g., Ambrose, Chrysostom, Clement of Rome, Cyril of Jerusalem, F. Lactantius, Salvianus, Tertullian) opposed the theater of their day as incompatible with Christianity. Classical drama was crushed for ca. 1,000 yrs.
On the theater in the Middle Ages see Religious Drama, 2.
M. Luther was interested in tragedies and comedies (St. L. ed. 22, 1826). He felt that comedies, despite their obscenity, should be read by youths in order that they might learn Lat. and because comedies urged youth to marry and taught the duties of various stations in life (WA-T 3, 278 and 690). Though opposed to their immorality, idolatry, and other anti-Scriptural thought, Luther quoted ancient dramatists to illustrate or elucidate (e.g., WA 20, 122123; 28, 523; 31 I, 440; 42, 511 and 534; 51, 228). He opposed theatrical (Ger. schauspielerartig) religious dramas as presented by RCs, but encouraged drama used for spreading the Word, pointing out that when preaching of the Word was forbidden in the Neth., many were converted through religious plays (St. L. ed. 21b, 2856). See also Religious Drama, 3.
Luth. theologians in Ger. (e.g., J. K. Dannhauer, J. F. Buddeus) included comedies among plays objectionable because they arouse evil desires. Luths. in Am. (e.g., C. F. W. Walther, A. L. and T. C. Graebner, C. C. Schmidt, L. Fuerbringer) continued to warn against the evils of the theater of their day.
1935 NLC resolutions include: Motion-pictures might be at all times, and often are, legitimate entertainment as well as an important educational factor. But at the present time many pictures stand charged with serious offenses against decency and morality. We appeal to our Lutheran people to withhold their patronage from all motion-pictures which have a degrading influence and are a menace to home, church, and country. We call upon them to make their influence felt in creating a public opinion which will demand the suppression of that which corrupts and distorts life. We hold that as citizens they must bring pressure to bear to secure legislation which will deal with the evil at its source, that is, where the pictures are made.
The 1940s witnessed improvement in the type of pictures shown in response to aroused pub. opinion. There were indications that movies and theaters were at times being used for cultural and educ. purposes. EM
C. F. W. Walther, Tanz und Theaterbesuch (St. Louis, 1887), pp. 59118, and Etwas, den Theaterbesuch betreffend, Der Lutheraner, XXV 186869), 9294; A. L. Graebner, Das heutige Theater, Der Lutheraner, LVI (1900), 1720; C. C. S[chmidt], Das Theater im Gegensatz zum Christenthum, Der Lutheraner, XLVIII (1892), 72; L. Fuerbringer, Das heutige Theater, Der Lutheraner, LX (1904), 1819; T. C. Graebner, Das heutige Theater, Der Lutheraner, LXX (1914), 154157; The National Lutheran Council Holds Its Election and Issues Pronouncements on War and Movies, CTM, VI (1935), 305308.
(Theatine Fathers; Cong. of Clerics Regular). Founded 1524 Rome by Cajetan* of Thiene and others, including G. P. Caraffa (see Paul IV), first superior of the group, who had been bp. Chieti, It. (Lat. Teate, or Theate; hence the name Theatines); purpose: to elevate clerical and lay morality and combat Lutheranism; known for miss. work. See also Christian Church, History of the, III 9; Counter Reformation, 6; Somascha, Order of Clerks Regular of.
(180474). Brother of J. A. Theiner*; RC theol.; b. Breslau, Prussia; prefect of Vatican archives 1855; dismissed 1870 under charge of collaboration with the opposition. Works include Geschichte der geistlichen Bildungsanstalten.
(17991860). Brother of A. Theiner*; RC theol.; b. Breslau, Prussia; prof. exegesis and canon law Breslau 1824; opposed celibacy. Works include Die Einführung der erzwungenen Ehelosigkeit bei den christlichen Geistlichen und ihre Folgen (2d ed. 1845 with A. Theiner).
(from Gk. theos, God). Basic and original meaning ed. the term: belied in one Supreme Being, in distinction from atheism,* pantheism,* and polytheism*; now gen. assoc. with knowledge gained through revelation or the teaching of a church, rather than by reason and natural knowledge of God alone, and may thus be distinguished up to a point from deism.*
Theism is belief in a personal God, who is Creator, Preserver, and Ruler of the world.
T. C. Graebner, God and the Cosmos (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1932); L. S. Keyser, A System of Natural Theism (Burlington, Iowa, 1917).
(Johannes Wilhelm; September 20, 1863March 3, 1932). B. Zelienople, Pennsylvania; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Madisonville, Ohio, 188689; Portland, Oregon, 188993; Santa Rosa, California, 18941904; Los Angeles, California, 190428. Pres. California and Nevada Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 192024. Watercolorist. Poet Works include Gepflückt am Wege; Sang und Klang fürs Christenhaus; Heimwärts; In der Feierstunde: Lieder und Gedichte.
(from Gk. theos, God, and dike, right, judgment). Vindication of God, esp. in His justice, wisdom, goodness, and love. The name is drawn from use of the term in the title of a work by G. W. v. Leibniz.*
(ca. 350ca. 428). Brother of Polychronius*; exegete of the Antiochene school; presbyter Antioch ca. 383; bp. Mopsuestia, Cilicia, Asia Minor, on the Pyramus (Ceyhan) R., ca. 392. Works include commentaries on books of the Bible. See also Exegesis, 4; Schools, Early Christian, 4; Three Chapters, Controversy of.
(Theodore of Studios; Theodore of the Studion; Theodore the Studite; Theodorus Studita; Theodoros Studites; ca. 759826. Brother of Joseph* of Thessalonica; b. Constantinople; priest ca. 787/788; abbot Saccudium, near Mt. Olympus, Bithynia, 794; banished to Thessalonica 796 for opposing adulterous 2d marriage of Constantine VI (771ca. 797; Roman emp. 780797 [under maternal guardianship 780790]; killed by mother Irene, who usurped throne); recalled 797; moved with Saccudium community to dormant monastery of Studion (or Studios), Constantinople, 799; in conflict with Nicephorus*; in banishment 809811; banished again ca. 814/815 for opposing iconoclasm; lived at various monasteries. Works include Sermones catechetici; commentaries; orations. See also Hymnody, Christian, 2; Iconoclastic Controversy.
(or of Cyr;; ca. 386/393-before 466). B. Antioch; lector Antioch; monk Apamea, W cen. Turkey; bp. Cyrrhus (Cyr), Syria, 423; influenced by Theodore* of Mopsuestia; deposed 449 by Robber Syn. of Ephesus,* reinstated by Council of Chalcedon* 451. See also Exegesis, 4; Three Chapters, Controversy of; Tripartite History.
(Lat. Theodoricus; Ger. Dietrich; ca. 454526). The Great; b. Pannonia; succeeded his father ca. 474 as king of Ostrogoths; invaded It. 488, completing conquest by 493. Called Dietrich von Bern (Theodoric of Verona) in Teutonic legends. Used as example of fable by M. Luther (e.g., LC, Longer Preface, 11).
(Flavius Theodosius; ca. 346395). The Great; grandfather of Theodosius* II; b. Sp.; co-Augustus (with Gratian*) for the E 379; made peace with Goths along the Danube 379386; bap. 380; opposed Arianism* and other heresies and sects; ordered a massacre as countermeasure against a riot at Thessalonica ca. 390 and was barred from ch. and suspended from Communion by Ambrose* till performing pub. penance; sole emp. September 5, 394, till his death January 17, 395. See also Christian Church, History of the, I 4; Church and State, 3; Constantinople, Council of, ##
(401450). Grandson of Theodosius* I; E Roman emp. 408450 (minority 408421); fought against Persia, Vandal pirates, Huns; pub. Code of Theodosius (collection of imperial constitutions). See also Ephesus, Third Ecumenical Council of; Justinian I; Natural Law.
(Theodotus of Byzantium [Constantinople; Istanbul]; the Cobbler; the Tanner; fl. end of 2d c. AD). Leading exponent of dynamic monarchianism at Rome; excommunicated by Victor* I. See also Adoptionism; Gnosticism, 7 g; Monarchianism, A 2.
(ca. 750/760821). B. apparently Sp.; abp. Orléans, Fr. 800; employed by Charlemagne* in affairs of state; cultural leader; banished 817/818 under charge of conspiracy. Hymnist. Hymns include Gloria, laus et honor.
(Lat. theol. of the cross). Term used by M. Luther* in reference to the fact that true theology derives from study of the humiliation and suffering of Christ, in contrast to the theologia gloriae (Lat. theol. of glory) of mystic and scholastic speculation, which holds that true knowledge of God derives from the study of nature, which reflects God's glory. Cf., e.g., WA 1, 353374, 613, 614. See also Heidelbeng disputation.
Several Luth. sems in Am. offer graduate theol. educ. Two (former Augustana Theol. Sem., Rock lsland, Illinois, and former Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem., Maywood, Illinois) began to offer it in the 1890s; these schools are now consolidated in Luth. School of Theol. at Chicago, Illinois. Others that have offered it beginning in the I st part of the 20th c. include Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Hamma School of Theol., Springfield. Ohio; Luth. Theol. Sem. at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
(partial list; background given when emphasized by the journal). 1. Scholarly; quarterly unless otherwise indicated.
Archive for Reformation HistoryArchiv für Reformationsgeschichte; annually; Am. Soc. for Reformation Research and Verein für Reformationsgeschichte; Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, Gütersloh, NE North Rhine-Westphalia, West Ger.
Biblical Archaeologist, The; The American Schools of Oriental Research, 126 Inman St., Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Christian Scholar's Review; 955 La Paz Rd., Santa Barbara, California.
Communion (continues Verbum Caro); La Communaute de Taize; Taizé-Communauté, Fr.
Concordia Theological Ouarterly (CTG); (January 1977 ); faculty of Conc. Theol. Sem., Ft. Wayre, Indiana; continuation of The Springfielder, pub. by the faculty of Conc. Theol. Sin., Springfield, Illinois.
Criterion; The Divinity School of the U. of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Cross Currents; 103 Van Houten Fields, West Nyack, New York.
Dansk teologisk Tidsskrift; G. E. C. Gads Forlag, Copenhagen, Den..
Diakonia; 6 yearly; Matthias-Grünewald-Verlag, Mainz, and Herder Verlag, Vienna, Austria.
Duke Divinity School Review, The; 3 yearly; The Divinity School of Duke University; Durham, North Carolina.
Greek Orthodox Theological Review, The; 2 yearly; 50 Goddard Ave., Brookline, Massachusetts.
History of Religions; The U. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Indian Journal of Theology, The; 224 Acharya Jagadish Bose Rd., Calcutta, India.
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion; Martinus Nijhoff, 911 Lange Voorhout, P. O. B. 269, The Hague, Neth..
International Journal of Religious Education (see Spectrum under II below).
International Review of Mission; 150 route de Ferney, 1211 Geneva 20, Switz..
Japan Christian Quarterly, The; Kyu Bun Kwan, 45-1 Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104, Jap..
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion; U. of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.
Journal of Bible and Religion (see Journal of the Academy of Religion below).
Journal of Ecumenical Studies; Temple U., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Journal of Religious Thought, The; 2 yearly; The Howard U. Press, Washington, D.C.
Journal of the Academy of Parish Clergy, The; 2 yearly; 3100 W. Lake, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Journal of the American Academy of Religion (formerly Journal of Bible and Religion); U. of Montana, Missoula, Montana.
Journal of the American Society for Church Architecture; irregular; 15 Montevideo Rd., Avon, Connecticut.
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, The; Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, Illinois.
Journal of Theological Studies, The; 2 yearly; Clarendon Press, Oxford, Eng.
Mennonite Quarterly Review, The; Goshen Coll., Goshen, Indiana.
Muslim World; The Hartford Sem. Foundation, Hartford, Connecticut.
Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift; Postbus 5176, The Hague, Neth..
Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie; 3 yearly; W. de Gruyter, Berlin and NYC.
Norsk Teologisk Tidsschrift; Postboks 307, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norw..
Novum Testamentum: An International Quarterly for New Testament and Related Studies; E. J. Brill, Leiden, Neth.
Numen; 3 yearly; E. J. Brill, Leiden, Neth..
Princeton Seminary Bulletin, The; Princeton, New Jersey.
Pulpit Preaching and Pulpit Digest (see New Pulpit Digest, The above).
Quaker Religious Thought; Rio Grande Coll., Rio Grande, Ohio.
Recherches de Science Religieuse; 15, rue Monsieur, Paris, Fr..
Recherches de Théologie ancienne et médiévale; Abbaye du Mont Cesar, Louvain, Belg..
Revue Biblique; L'Ecole Pratique D'Etudes Bibliques; J. Gabalda et Cie, 90, rue Bonaparte, Paris, Fr..
Revue de Theologie et de Philosophie; 6 yearly; 7 chemin des Cedres, Lausanne, Switz..
South East Asia Journal of Theology, The; 2 yearly; Singapore.
Studia Theologica: Scandinavia Journal of Theology; 2 yearly; Universitetsforlaget, P.O. Box 307, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norw..
Svensk Teologisk Kvartalskrift; C. W. K. Gleerup, Lund, Swed..
Teologinen Aikakauskirja Teologisk Tidskrift; 6 yearly; Fabianinkatu 33, Helsinki, Fin..
Theologische Rundschau; J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen, Ger.
Theologische Zeitschrift; 6 yearly; Basel, Switz.
Tidsskrift for teologi og Kirke; Universitetsforlaget, Postboks 307, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norw..
Verbum Caro (see Communion above).
Vetus Testamentum; E. J. Brill, Leiden, Neth..
Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly; Northwestern Publishing House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft; 3 yearly; W. de Gruyter, Berlin and NYC.
Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft; W. de Gruyter, Berlin and NYC.
Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religions-wissenschaft; Internationales Institut für missions-wissenschaftliche Forschung; Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Gallitzinstr. 13, Münster, Westphalia, W. Ger.
A. D., Presbyterian Life Edition (formerly Presbyterian Life); monthly; Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
A. D. Correspondence; biweekly; RC; Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Indiana.
American Bible Society Record (formerly Bible Society Record); monthly except June and August; P. O. Box 3575, NYC.
Bible Society Record (see American Bible Society Record above).
Catholic World, (The) (see New Catholic World below).
Christian Herald; monthly; nondenom.; Chappaqua, New York
Christian News from Israel; quarterly; Ministry of Religious Affairs, Jerusalem, Israel.
Christianity Today; biweekly; nondenom.; 1014 Washington Bldg., Washington, D.C.
Contemporary Jewish Record (see Commentary above).
East Asia Millions (formerly The Millions); bimonthly; 237 W. School House Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Episcopalian, The; monthly; 1930 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Faith-Life; bimonthly; The Protes'tant Conference; Luth.; P. O. Box 130, Mosinee, Wisconsin.
Fellowship; monthly except for a combined July-August issue; Fellowship of Reconciliation, Box 271, Nyack, New York
HIS: Magazine of Campus Christian Living; monthly except July-September; Inter-Varsity Christian Fellow-ship, 5206 Main St., Downers Grove, Illinois.
Journal of Church Music; monthly, except July-August bimonthly; Fortress Press, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Lutheran, The; semimonthly except July and August; 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Lutheran Women; monthly except August; Lutheran Church Women; LCA; 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Lutherans AlertNational; monthly; P. O. Box 7186, Tacoma, Wash.
National Christian Council Review; monthly; Christian Council Lodge, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
New Catholic World (formerly [The] Catholic World); bimonthly; Paulist Fathers, 1865 Broadway, NYC.
positions lutheriennes; quarterly; Église Evangélique Luthérienne de France, 16, rue Chaucat, Paris, Fr..
Presbyterian Life (see A. D., Presbyterian Life Edition above).
Pulpit, The (see Christian Ministry, The above).
Reformed Journal, The; 10 yearly; 255 Jefferson SE, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Revelation (see Eternity above).
Social Progress (see Church and Society above).
Toward Wholeness: A Journal of Ministries to Blacks in Higher Education; quarterly; 890 Beckwith St., Atlanta, Georgia.
United Church Review, The (see North India Churchman, The above).
World Encounter; 5 yearly; Luth; 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Organized 1912 NYC to promote the interests of present-day constructive theology, by the holding of meetings for the discussion of theological problems and for the furthering of acquaintance and fellowship among those working in this field, and by arranging for cooperation in theological investigation. Membership limited to experts in the NYC area.
In the subjective concrete sense a practical, God-given ability, aptitude, habitude, quality, competence, or sufficiency (cf. 2 Co 3:56) by which one may understand, accept, expound, impart to others, and defend the truth of Scripture as containing the way of salvation. In the objective, abstract sense the whole body of knowledge pertaining to the understanding and exposition of Scripture. This knowledge is commonly divided into (1) exegetical theol., sometimes called Biblical theol. which includes Biblical isagogics* and the hist. of the Bible canon* and Bible* versions, hermeneutics* and textual* criticism, and OT and NT exegesis*; (2) systematic* theol., which includes dogmatics* or doctrinal* theol., study of Symbolic* Books, moral* philos. and Christian ethics (see Ethics, 2), and often Christian apologetics* and polemics*; (3) hist. theol., which includes Biblical archaeology* and hist. of the Christian* ch., hist. of Christian doctrine* and confessions (see Creeds and Confessions), and patristics*; (4) practical* theol., which includes pastoral* theol. and ecclesiastical. polity,* catechetics,* homiletics,* diaconics* and missions,* liturgics* and Christian hymnody,* and ecclesiastical and religious art* and church* architecture.
Man has a natural knowledge of God (Acts 14:1617; 17:2231; Ro 1:1823; 2:1415). This is not contradicted by passages which say that natural man does not know God (Gl 4:8; 1 Th 4:5), i. e., has no saving knowledge of Him. Saving faith through knowledge and acceptance of Christ is created by the Holy Spirit through the Word. Yet perception and reason are able to est. the existence of God and such of His attributes as power, wisdom, and justice. The mind of natural man, however, is vain, his understanding darkened, and his heart hardened; for the god of this world has blinded the minds of them which believe not (2 Co 4:4; Eph 4:1718). God's handwriting in nature bears with it a natural conviction; the power of Scripture is supernatural, effecting in the heart of the reader or hearer spiritual discernment and divine assurance of the truths set forth therein (1 Co 2:616). See also Apologetics, II A; Natural Knowledge of God.
View, defended esp. by adherents of Monophysitism,* that when Christ suffered and died the whole Godhead suffered and died; rejected by orthodox Christianity on basis of the fact that Scripture teaches that only the Son of God became incarnate, suffered, and died, not the Father and the Holy Spirit. See also Monarchianism, B; Patripassianism.
Doctrines of deistic soc. founded 1796 in Fr. by theophilanthropists (from Gk. for lovers of God and man), who believed in God as the father of nature, in immortality of the soul, and in virtue, and who derived their thoughts from philosophies and religions of all times. See also Kairis, Theophilos.
(345ca. 412). Uncle of Cyril* of Alexandria; patriarch Alexandria 385ca. 412; opposed remnants of paganism; first admired, then opposed Origenism (see Origen); opposed J. Chrysostom.* See also Sarapis.
(ca. 372ca. 287 BC; original name: Tyrtamus; said to have been called Theophrastus by Aristotle* for the grace of his conversation). B. Eresus, in the Gk. is. of Lesbos; philos.; disciple of Aristotle, continued his teachings, and became his successor as head of the Peripatetio (walking about) School or Lyceum, in a group of building and covered walks, in shady gardens, dedicated to Apollo Lyceius, God of Shepherds.
(ca. 1##5##ca. 1108). Probably b. Euripus, on Euboea, in the Aegean Sea; abp. Schrida (various spellings include Achrida) and metropolitan of Belg. ca. 1078 (or 1090?). Works include commentaries on some OT books and on the NT except Rv.
1. Term used rather loosely for philos. systems that claim to enable man to know God and divine things by direct inspiration and direct contact with deity. Buddhism* and Jainism* theosophical religions. Neoplatonism* is theosophical.
2. E. P. Blavatsky* founded The Theosophical Soc. 1875 NYC. Objects: (1) To form a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity, without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste, or color; (2) To encourage the study of comparative religion, philosophy, and science; (3) To investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in man.
3. Theosophy is pantheistic; rejects a personal God; teaches reincarnation (confined to the human race) and fatalism; has no place for prayer, repentance, forgiveness, resurrection, and other Christian teachings.
4. Yoga* plays a large part in theosophy.
(Gk. God-bearer). Term used to describe Mary, mother of Jesus Christ, as mother of God (cf. Lk 1:35); upheld at 3d ecumenical council of Ephesus* and the council of Chalcedon.* FC Ep VIII 12: Mary conceived and bore not only a plain, ordinary, mere man but the veritable Son of God; cf. FC Ep VIII 15, SD VIII 24. See also Mariology; Nestorianism, 1.
(Teresa of Lisieux; Thérèse Martin; 187397). Little Flower of Jesus; Fr. Carmelite nun; emphasized renunciation in the little things of life; held that the way to Jesus leads down, not up. Works include autobiography.
C. Harms, Das sind die 95 theses oder Streitsätze Dr. Luther, theuren Andenkens. Zum besondern Abdruck besorgt und mit andern 95 Sützen als mit einer Uebersetzung aus Ao. 1517 in 1817 begleitet (Kiel, 1817) and Briefe zu einer nähern Verständigung über verschiedene meine Thesen betreffende Puncte. Nebst Einem namhaften Briefe, an den Herrn Dr. Schleiermacher (Kiel, 1818).
1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, Repent [Mt 4:17], he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.
6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to his vicar, the priest.
8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
10. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.
11. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept [Mt 13:25].
12. In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.
13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near the horror of despair.
16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.
17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason of Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.
19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.
20. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words plenary remission of all penalties, does not actually mean all penalties, but only those imposed by himself.
21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese or parish.
26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.
27. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
28. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.
30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.
31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.
33. Men must especially be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.
35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.
36. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters.
37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.
38. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said [Thesis 6], the proclamation of the divine remission.
39. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.
40. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate themat least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.
42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
44. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.
45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath.
46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.
47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded.
48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.
50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
51. Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
52. It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
53. They are enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.
54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
55. It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
56. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.
57. That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.
59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.
61. For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.
62. The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.
63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last [Mt 20:16].
64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.
66. The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.
67. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.
68. They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence.
70. But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.
71. Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.
72. But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.
73. Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences,
74. Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.
75. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.
76. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.
78. We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written 1 Co 12[:28].
79. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers, is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this.
81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity,
82. Such as: Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church? The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.
83. Again, Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?
84. Again, What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, because of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake?
85. Again, Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force?
86. Again, Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?
87. Again, What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?
88. Again, What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?
89. Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?
90. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.
91. If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.
92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! [Jer 6:14]
93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross!
94. Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell,
95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace [Acts 14:22].
Adopted by a joint pastoral conf. of The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Australia and The United Ev. Luth. Ch. of Australia at Walla Walla, New South Wales, Australia, August 27, 1956. Contains I. Theses on Principles Governing Ch. Fellowship; II. Theses on Joint Prayer and Worship; III. Thesis on Conversion; IV. Theses on Election; V. Theses on the Ch.; VI. Theses on the Office of the Ministry; VII. Theses on Eschatological Matters; VIII. Theses on Scripture and Inspiration; IX. The Luth. Confessions. Appendix: I. Theses on Cooperation Between Chs.. Not in Ch. Fellowship; II. Statements on Practical Matters. See also Australia, C 1.
Theses of Agreement adopted by the Intersynodical Committees of The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Australia and The United Evangelical Lutheran Church in Australia (Tanunda, South Australia, n. d.).
Greenville, Pennsylvania See Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 24.
(Carl; 18621932). B. Spremberg, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Leipzig. Works include Die sittliche Triebkraft des Glaubens: Eine Untersuching zu Luthers Theologie; Die christliche Demut; Jesus und seine Predigt; Von der Gottheit Christi; Die Augsburgische Konfession und Luthers Katechismen auf theologische Gegenwartswerte untersucht.
(Theodoricus, or Terricus, Carnotensis, or Brito; Thierry the Breton; ca. 1100ca. 1156). Brother of Bernard* of Chartres; b. Fr., taught at Chartres and later at Paris; archdeacon Dreux 1136; archdeacon and chancellor Chartres 1141. Works include Heptateuchon. See also Bernard (Silvestris); Chartres, School of.
(181785). Ev. theol.; b. Munich, Ger.; taught at Basel, Switz.; prof. Marburg; joined Catholic* Apostolic Ch. 1847. Works include De pentateuchi versione Alexandrina; Vorlesungen über Katholicismus und Protestantismus.
On election, or predestination; adopted 1881 by the Mo. Syn.: 1. We believe, teach and confess, that God loved the whole world from eternity, created all men unto salvation, none unto damnation, and that He earnestly wills the salvation of all men; and we therefore reject and condemn with all our heart the contrary Calvinistic doctrine.
2. We believe, teach and confess, that the Son of God came into the world for all men, that He bore and expiated the sins of all men, and that He fully redeemed all men, none excepted; we therefore reject and condemn the contrary Calvinistic doctrine with all our heart.
3. We believe, teach and confess, that God calls through the means of grace all men earnestly, that is, with the purpose that they should, through these means, be brought to repentance and faith, also be preserved therein unto their end, and thus be finally led to blessedness, conformable to which purpose God offers them through the means of grace the salvation wrought by Christ's atonement and the power to embrace this salvation by faith; and we therefore reject and condemn the contrary Calvinistic doctrine with all our heart.
4. We believe teach and confess, that no one perishes because God was not willing that he be saved, passed him by with His grace, and because He had not also offered him the grace of perseverance and was not willing to bestow the same upon him. But all men that perish, perish because of their own fault, because of their unbelief and because they contumaciously resisted the Word and grace unto their end. The cause of this contempt of the Word is not God's foreknowledge (vel praescientia vel praedestinatio) but man's perverted will which rejects or perverts the means and the instrument of the Holy Spirit, which God offers unto it through the call, and it resists the Holy Spirit who would be efficacious and operate through the Word, as Christ says: Matth. 23:37, How often would I have gathered you together, and ye would not. (Form. of Concord p 718. par. 41.) Therefore we reject and condemn the contrary Calvinistic doctrine with all our heart.
5. We believe, teach and confess, that the elect or predestinated persons are only the true believers, who truly believe unto their end or yet at the end of their life; we reject therefore and condemn the error of Huber, that election is not particular, but universal and pertains to all men.
6. We believe, teach and confess, that the divine decree of election is unchangeable and that therefore no elect person can become a reprobate and perish, but that every one of the elect will surely be saved; and we therefore reject and condemn the contrary Huberian error with all our heart.
7. We believe, teach and confess, that it is foolish and soul-endangering, leads either to carnal security or despair to endeavor to become or be sure of our own election or eternal happiness by means of searching out the eternal secret decree of God; and we reject and condemn the contrary doctrine as an injurious fanatic notion with all our heart.
8. We believe, teach and confess, that a true believer ought to endeavor to become sure of his election from God's revealed will; and we therefore reject and condemn with all our heart the opposite Papistical error, that one may become or be sure of his election and salvation only by means of a new immediate revelation.
9. We believe, teach and confess: 1. That election does not consist in the mere fact that God foresaw which men will secure salvation; 2. That election is also not the mere purpose of God to redeem and save men, which would make it universal and extend in general to all men; 3. That election does not embrace those 'which believe for awhile'' (Luke 8:13.) 4. That election is not a mere decree of God to lead to bliss all those who would believe unto their end; we therefore reject and condemn the opposite errors of the Rationalists, Huberians and Arminians with all our heart.
10. We believe, teach and confess, that the cause which moved God to elect, is alone His grace and the merit of Jesus Christ, and not anything good foreseen by God in the elect, not even faith foreseen in them by God; and we therefore reject and condemn the opposite doctrines of the Pelagians, Semi-Pelagians and Synergists as blasphemous, dreadful errors which subvert the Gospel and therewith the whole Christian religion.
11. We believe, teach and confess, that election is not the mere divine foresight or prescience of the salvation of the elect, but also a cause of their salvation and of whatever pertains to it; and we therefore reject and condemn the opposite doctrines of the Arminians, Socinians, and of all Synergists with all our heart.
12. We believe, teach and confess, that God has also concealed and kept secret many things concerning the mystery of election and reserved them for His wisdom and knowledge alone, into which no human being is able and ought to search; and we therefore reject every attempt to inquire curiously also into these things which have not been revealed, and to harmonize with our reason those things which seem contradictory to our reason, may such attempts be made by Calvinistic or Pelagianistic Synergistic doctrines of men.
13. We believe, teach and confess, that it is not only not useless, much injurious, but necessary and salutary that the mysterious doctrine of election, in so far as it is clearly revealed in God's Word, be presented also publicly to Christian people, and we therefore do not agree with those who hold that entire silence should be kept thereon, or that its discussion should only be indulged in by learned theologians.
See also Predestinarian Controversy, 2.
Religio-pol. Eur. war 161848; main campaigns in Ger. Some provisions of the Peace of Augsburg* 1555 helped bring it on. Ferdinand* II introd. oppressive measures against Prots. in Boh. 1617. Prots. retaliated with force and uprising 1618 but were defeated 1620 by J. T. Tilly,* with more than 30,000 families driven out of the country. Prots. rallied under Dan. leadership but were defeated again by Tilly 1626. Den. was eliminated from the war 1629 by making separate peace with the emp. in the treaty of Lübeck. Gustavus* II (Adolphus) of Swed. took up the Prot. cause in Ger. but fell 1632 in the battle of Lützen, where the imperial army, now under A. E. W. v. Wallenstein,* was defeated. The Swed. Prot. army was defeated September 1634 at Nödlingen, Bav., Ger. The elector of Saxony made peace with the emp. and turned against the Swedes 1635 in the treaty of Prague. Brandenburg and most of the other Prot. states accepted the peace. But conflict continued when Fr. joined Swed. in war against Austria and its allies. Gen. exhaustion led to the peace of Westphalia* 1648. See also Christian IV.
(March 7, 1836-November 28, 1922). B. St. Clairsville, Ohio; educ. Allegheny Coll., Meadville, Pennsylvania; ME miss. to India 18591908; miss. bp. India and Malaysia 18881908. Works include My Missionary Apprenticeship; India and Malaysia; Light in the East; The Christian Conquest of India.
(Gotttreu; Gottgetreu; 17991877). B. Breslau, Ger.; educ. Breslau and Berlin; influenced by H. E. v. Kottwitz,* J. A. W. Neander,* and F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; prof. Berlin and Halle; opposed rationalism and Luth. orthodoxy, favored Prussian* Union. Contributed to E. W. Hengstenberg's* Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung and to J. J. Herzog's* Real-Encyklopädie; other works include commentaries on John's Gospel. Ro, and Heb. See also Evangelical Alliance.
(14921546). B. Siegelsbach, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg; pastor Flinsbach; teacher Bergzabern 1524; rejected M. Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper in favor of K. v. Schwenkfeld's*; discussed infant baptism with J. Denk* 1527.
(18611924). B. Oswestry, Shropshire, Eng.; Angl. priest 1885; vicar St. Paul's, Portman Sq., St. Marylebone borough, London, 18961905; taught at Oxford 190510; prof. OT Wycliffe Coll., Toronto. Ont., Can., 191019; moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; engaged in continentwide ministry. Works include The Principles of Theology; Grace and Power; The Apostle John.
(Thomas Hamerken [or Hemerken] von Kempen; other variants include Hamer, Hämerken, Hammerchen, Hämmerchen, Hämmerle, Hammerlein, Hämmerlein; Latinized: Malleolus [Little Hammer]; ca. 1379/801471). Ecclesiastic, mystic (see Mysticism); b. Kempen, former Prussian Rhine Province, near Cologne and Düsseldorf; educ. Deventer, Neth., by Brethren* of the Common Life; entered Mt. St. Agnes monastery, near Zwolle, Neth., 1399 and spent nearly all the rest of his life there; ordained 1413. See also Imitation of Christ.
(ca. 1224/271274). Doctor angelicus or communis; Princeps scholasticorum; philos. and theol.; b. Roccasecca, near Aquino, It.; educ. by Benedictines at Monte Cassino and Naples; Dominican 1243/44; studied in Paris and Cologne 124552, influenced by Albertus* Magnus; taught in Paris 125259, 126972; in It. 125969, 127274.
His Aristotelianism (see Aristotle) was opposed by Franciscans* (e.g., J. Peckham*) et al.; but his teaching was made official in the Dominican order; he was canonized 1323, made a Doctor of the Ch. 1567. Study of Thomas Aquinas was made part of all theol. training; cf. CIC 589.1, 1366.2. Made patron of all RC univs. 1880; authority as teacher reaffirmed 1923 by Pius XI (see Popes, 32).
In his thought, the relation of reason to faith is one of subalternation, in which the lower (reason) accepts principles of the higher (faith). He rejects Anselm* of Canterbury's ontological argument and accepts the cosmological and teleological arguments for the existence of God.* There is a level of knowledge attainable by reason alone; another level is attainable by reason for skilled thinkers and by faith for unskilled thinkers; the highest level is attainable only by faith. Arguments for the existence of God are at the 2d level.
Aristotle's distinction bet. matter and form raised a question regarding immortality of the soul (since matter individuates, how could a nonmaterial soul be individual?) and regarding the doctrine that angels are beings in which individual and species are coterminous (since there is no individuating matter in them). The movement of reality is conceived as transition from potential to actual being, God being actus purus.
He had little direct influence on the Reformation, which knew him mainly through late medieval nominalism.* He had greater influence on 17th c. Protestantism, esp. as regards understanding of concepts, but his scholasticism* differs from 17th c. Prot. scholasticism in evaluation of formal thought and in relation of reason to theol. and faith.
His system is called Thomism, his followers Thomists.
Works ascribed to him include Summa contra gentiles; Summa theologiae (or theologica); Quaestiones disputatae (De veritate; De potentia Dei; De malo; etc.); Contra errores Graecorum (in Opuscula theologica). RPS
F. C. Copleston, Aquinas (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng., 1955); M. Grabmann, Thomas Aquinas, tr. V. Michel (New York, 1963); R. P. Scharlemann, Thomas Aquinas and John Gerhard (New Haven, Connecticut, 1964).
(Latinized from Thomas; 16551728). Luth. philos. and jurist; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder; prof. Leipzig 1684; banished 1690 from the university for criticism of religion and of educ. methods; prof. Halle. Early champion of the Enlightenment* and territorial* system; opposed punishment for witchcraft and application of torture.
(180275). Descendant of C. Thomasius*; Luth. theol.; b. Egenhausen, Middle Franconia, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Halle, Berlin; pastor in various places 182542; prof. dogmatics Erlangen 1842 (and univ. preacher 184272); kenoticist. Works include Beiträge zur kirchlichen Christologie; Christi Person und Werk. See also Kenosis; Pericope, 2.
(fl. 1st half of 13th c. AD). B. Celano, near former lake Fucino, Aquila province, cen. It.; monk at Assisi; custos of some convents in Ger. Works include a life of Francis* of Assisi. See also Dies irae.
(August 5, 1842-April 18, 1892). B. Den.; miss. to India 1865; ordained 1868; returned to Den. ca. 1869/70; to US 1870. Pastor Indianapolis, Indiana, 1871; Neenah, Wisconsin, 1874; Gowen and Greenville, Michigan, 1881. Helped organize Kirkelig Missionsforening (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3); left Dan. Syn. ca. 1883/84. Ed. Kirkelig Samler.
(Thorgrims[s]en; Thergrimso; August 21, 1853February 7, 1942). B. Eyrarbakki, Iceland; to US 1872; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin Helped found Icelandic Ev. Luth. Syn. in (or of) (N.) Am. See also Canada, B 13; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 6.
(ca. 1541/421627). Icelandic Luth.; educ. Copenhagen, Den.; called to be bp. Holar, N Iceland, 1570; ordained 1571. Pub. Icelandic Bible which includes his tr. of some OT books and O. Gottskalksson's* NT tr. See also Iceland, 4.
(Torun). City in N cen. Poland. Birthplace of N. Copernicus.* Meetings of Polish and Lith. Prots. (1595) and of Polish Prots. and RCs (1645) held here. Insolent and provocative conduct by Jesuit students in a Corpus Christi procession 1724 so enraged Prots. that they destroyed the RC school in the city, but without loss of life; Jesuits succeeded in having 10 leading Prot. citizens executed in retaliation (Massacre of Thorn). See also Poland, 4; Reformed Confessions, D 3 c; Syncretism.
(18741949). Psychologist; b. Williamsburg, Massachusetts Educ. Wesleyan U., Middle-town, Connecticut; Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Columbia U., NYC Prof. Columbia U. Engaged in research on animal intelligence; developed educ. and psychol. tests and applications of psychol. to math. reading, handwriting, and language. Works include The Principles of Teaching; Educational Psychology; The Measurement of Intelligence. See also Adult Education; Educational Psychology, D 3.
(15981672). Angl.; probably b. Suffolk, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; prebendary Westminster 1661. Works include Of the Government of Churches; Of Religious Assemblies and the Publick Service of God; A Discourse of the Right of the Church in a Christian State; An Epilogue to the Tragedy of the Church of England; The Reformation of the Church of England Better Than That of the Council of Trent.
(181262). B. Marlborough Dist., South Carolina Educ. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; held various pastorates; prof. 184151, later pres. South Carolina Coll., Columbia; prof. Presb. Theol. Sem., Columbia, South Carolina Logician, scholar, organizer. Works include The Arguments of Romanists from the Infallibility of the Church and the Testimony of the Fathers in Behalf of the Apocrypha.
(Thorvaldur; Thorvaldr; Thorwald; 10th c. AD). Probably b. Iceland; said to have cruised the seas and met a bp. of Saxony, who bap. him; miss. in Iceland ca. 981; became unpopular; left Iceland ca. 985. See also Iceland, 2. SP
(Thuanus; 15531617). Lawyer, magistrate, statesman, bibliophile; b. Paris, Fr.; educ. Orléans, Bourges, and Valence; canon of Notre Dame, Paris; dir. of royal library 1593; pres. Paris parlement 1595, helped negotiate Edict of Nantes* with Prots.; opposed recognition of Council of Trent.* Works include Historia sui temporis; Némoirs.
The 3 Chaps. in tension with monophysitism*; 1. Person writings of Theodore* of Mopsuestia; 2. Writings of Theodoret* of Cyrrhus against Cyril* of Alexandria; 3. Letter of Ibas* to the Persian bp. Maris, in which he complains of outrages of Cyril's party in Edessa. Theodore was not mentioned, Theodoret and Ibas were upheld 451 at Chalcedon.* In hope of conciliating monophysites, Justinian* I condemned the 3 Chaps. 543/544 and 551. Controversy resulted. The 5th ecumenical council (see Constantinople, Councils of, 2) anathematized the 3 Chaps.. A lasting schism resulted. See also Christological Controversies; Popes, 3.
(18231903). Hymnist; b. Alford, Somersetshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; held several curacies; rector Alford, Somersetshire, 185893. Hymns include O God of Mercy, God of Might, In Love and Pity Infinite.
(19th c.) Eng. hymnist; daughter or wife of Joseph Francis Thrupp (Eng. hymnist; 182767; educ. Cambridge; vicar Barrington, Cambridge, 1852). Wrote stanzas 1 and 3 of Lord [or Thou], Who at Cana's Wedding-Feast.
(Thummius; 15861630). B. Hausen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; served in various capacities at several places; prof. Tübingen 1618; controversialist, opposing RCs and Reformed. Works include Synopsis praecipuorum articulorum fidei nostro saeculo maxime controversiorum.
(Thuerlings; 18441915). B. Kaldenkirchen, Ger.; RC priest 1867; deposed 1870 for opposing Vatican Council I (see Vatican Councils, 1); Old Cath. (see Old Catholics) pastor Kempten, Allgäu, Ger., 1872; prof. Bern Switz., 1877. Ed. Liturgisches Gebetbuch nebst Liederbuch; Gesangbuch der christkatholischen Kirche für die Schweiz.
(October 12, 1787March 11, 1868). B. Fitchburg, Massachusetts; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii*) 1819; stationed at Kailua, ancient residence of Hawaiian kings; instructed Kamehameha II (Liholiho; 17971824; son of Kamehameha I; king 181924) and Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli; 181354; brother of Kamehameha II; king 182554).
(15651640). B. Antwerp; educ. Geneva, Heidelberg, Leiden, and France. Prof. Harderwijk 1601, Leiden 1619. Attended 161819 Syn. of Dordrecht.* Infralapsarian (see Infralapsarianism). Opposed Remonstrants.* Works include Anglicana scripta de praedestinatione; Responsio in Remonstrantium remonstrantiam.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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