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Spaeth, Philipp Friedrich Adolph Theodor

(October 29, 1839–June 25, 1910). B. Esslingen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; ordained 1861; tutor; to US 1864; pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1864–73; prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1873–1910; pres. General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am. 1880–88, Pennsylvania Ministerium 1892–95; liturgical and hymnological scholar; gifted pulpit orator. Works include Charles Porterfield Krauth; D. Wilhelm Julius Mann, ein deutsch-amerikanischer Theologe: Erinnerungsblätter; homiletical writings.

H. R. (Krauth) Spaeth, Life of Adolph Spaeth, D. D., LL. D. (Philadelphia, 1916).

Spain.

(Span. State). In SW Eur., occupying most of the Iberian peninsula. Area: ca. 194, 885 sq. mi.

1. A legend that arose in the 7th c. and acc. to which the apostle James the Elder preached in Sp. is now gen. abandoned as contrary to other tradition and to Ro 15:20, 24. Irenaeus (Adversus haereses, I, x, 2) and Tertullian (Adversus Jadaeos, vii) note that there were Christians in Spain. Cyprian (ca. 200–258) mentions Christians at León, Astorga, Mérida, and Saragossa (Epistle lxvii). The Syn. of Elvira* addressed itself to the problem of laxity in morals and discipline. Suevians (Germanic) settled in Sp. early in the 5th c., veered unsteadily bet. RCm and Arianism, surrendered to Arian Visigoth king Leovigild (coregent with his brother Liuva [or Leova] 568; sole king 572, when his brother died; d. 586), disappeared as an indep. nation 585. The 589 Council of Toledo* marked the conversion of Reccared (or Recared), son and successor of Leovigild, to RCm. Saracens invaded Sp. from Afr. 711, brought Islam, and were not completely defeated till the fall of Granada 1492.

2. Reform movements in Sp. before the Luth. Reformation* were basically oriented on a RC axis esp. by Isabella (see Inquisition, 6), F. Jiménez* de Cisneros, and J. de Torquemade.* Many outward abuses, reflecting, e.g., a low moral level in convents and among the clergy, were corrected; papal authority was at times challenged, at least indirectly; yet the Span. pre-Reformation saw the est. of the Span. Inquisition, not to oppose the “reform” but to undergird it.

3. The Luth. Reformation influenced, e.g., C. de Reina,* A. de Valdés,* J. de Valdés,* and F. de Enzinas.* M. Luther's writings and copies of Sp. Bibles found their way into Spain. See also Lutheran Confessions, A 5. But the Inquisition prevailed, esp. from 1557. See also Auto-de-fé. By 1570 Protestantism was practically dead in Spain.

4. 18th c. Fr. skepticism influenced Sp. and by the middle of the 19th c. helped bring a wave of liberalism and anticlericalism, with proclamation of religious freedom 1858 and 1868; but from 1876 religious dissidence was only tolerated, not recognized. Disestablishment was one of the main aims of the 2d Rep., installed 1931, but RCm gained the ascendancy after the 1936–39 civil war. The 1947 Const. assures official protection for RCm; no one shall be disturbed because of his religious beliefs or the private practices of his worship; but only RC outward ceremonies and demonstrations are permitted. A new const. was adopted 1978.

5. F. Fliedner* organized a Ger. Luth. cong. at Barcelona 1885; other Ger. Luth. congs. were est. elsewhere. Other Prots. in Sp. include Meths., Angls., Baps., and Plymouth Brethren.

See also Africa, D 5.

Spalatin, Georg

(family name: Burckhardt [Burkhardt]; changed to Spalatin from his birthplace; 1484–1545). B. Spalt, Middle Franconia, W cen. Bav., Ger.; priest 1508; tutored John* Frederick; served Frederick* III (“The Wise”) in several capacities; friend of M. Luther. Moved to Altenburg 1525, where he had received a canonry 1511; took part in 1526 Diet of Speyer*; active in ch. visitations; attended the 1530 Diet of Augsburg and wrote an account of it; took sick Luther home from Schmalkalden 1537; helped reform Albertine Saxony under Henry* (“The Pious”); helped install N v. Amsdorf as bp. Naumburg-Zeitz 1542. See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1.

E. Engelhardt, “Georg Spalatin's Leben,” Das Leben der Altväter der lutherischen Kirche, III, ed. M. Meurer et al. (Leipzig and Dresden), ix—xvi, 1–104.

Spalding, Henry Harmon

(Spaulding; ca. 1803/04–Aug. 3, 1874). B. Bath, New York; educ. Western Reserve Coll., Hudson, Ohio, and Lane Theol. Sem., Cincinnati, Ohio. ordained Presb. 1835; ABCFM miss. to Indians in the Northwest 1836; where he labored intermittently till his death. See also Indians, American, 13.

Spalding, Johann Joachim

(1714–1804). B. Tribsees, Hither Pomerania; educ. Rostock and Greifswald; private tutor; pastor Pomerania 1749, Berlin 1764; provost and mem. of high consistory. Opposed Fr. materialism. Works include Betrachtung über die Bestimmung des Menschen; Gedanken über den Werth der Gefühle in dem Christentum; Über die Nutzbarkeit des Predigtamtes und deren Beförderung.

Spangenberg, Augustus Gottlieb

(1704–92). B. Klettenberg, Ger.; educ. Jena; lectured at Jena; joined Moravians 1733; organizer and supervisor for his ch. in Eng., West Indies, Georgia (1735), North Carolina miss. to Am. Indians.* Hymnist. Works include Idea fidei fratrum, oder kurzer Begrif der Christlichen Lehre in den evangelischen Brüdergemeinen; Von der Arbeit der evangelischen Brüder unter den Heiden. See also Moravian Church, 5.

Spangenberg, Cyriacus

(Cyriakus; 1528–1604). Son of J. Spangenberg*; b. Nordhausen, Ger.; study at Wittenberg interrupted by the Schmalkaldic* War; preacher Eislenben 1550, Mansfeld 1553; gen. dean of the county and assessor of the Eisleben consistory 1559; helped est. Lutheranism in Antwerp 1566–67; defended M. Flacius* Illyricus's view of original sin; excommunicated; fled to the dist. of Sangerhausen; expelled 1578; to Strasbourg; preacher Schlitzsee, on the Fulda, 1581; deprived of office 1591. Hymnist. Works include Christliche und Gottselige Tagübung; Christlichs Gesangbüchlein; Christliche Erklärung dess streitigen Artickels Von der Erbsünde.

Spangenberg, Johann

(1484–1550). Father of C. Spangenberg*; b. Hardegsen, near Göttingen, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; rector Lat. School at Stolberg, also preacher Stolberg (ca. 1520); supported M. Luther; pastor Nordhausen 1524, where he est. Lutheranism and reest. a school; gen. county inspector, based at Eisleben, 1546. Hymnist. Works include Postilla, Das ist: Auslegung der Episteln und Evangelien, Auf alle Sontage und vornehmsten Feste durch das gauze Jahr, Für die einfältigen Christen in Frag-Stücke verfasset; Cantiones ecclesiasticae Latinae. See also Medler, Nikolaus.

Sparks, Jared

(1789–1866). B. Willington, Connecticut; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; ordained Unitarian 1819; pastor Baltimore, Maryland; chaplain US Congress 1821; prof. Harvard 1829–39; pres. Harvard 1849–53. Historian.

Spaulding, Levi

(August 22, 1791–June 18, 1873 [1874?]). B. Jaffrey, New Hampshire; educ. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ordained Cong. 1818; ABCFM miss. to Ceylon (left 1819, arrived 1820). Educator. Hymnist. Helped tr. Bible into Tamil; revised Tamil OT Other works include Tamil dictionary; rev. and enl. Eng.-Tamil dictionary; tracts; hymns; Bible History; tr. J. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.

Speaker's Commentary, The.

Conservative Bible commentary pub. in England 1871–81 at the instance of the Speaker of the House of Commons.

Speckhard, Georg Philipp

(January 22, 1821–November 20, 1879). Father of H. Speckhard*; b. Wersau, Hesse, Ger.; educ. teachers' sem. at Friedberg; taught at a school for deaf, Friedberg; severed connection with state ch. for reasons of conscience 1859; to US soon thereafter; studied at the sem. in Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Ministry, Education of, X F). Pastor Hillsdale and Coldwater, Michigan, 1861; Sandy Creek, near Monroe, Michigan, 1863; Sebewaing, Michigan, 1867; Royal Oak, Michigan, 1873 (also 1st dir. of the Missouri Syn.. school for deaf [see also Deaf, 10] and head of the Missouri Syn. orphanage there).

Speckhard, Hermann

(August 5, 1859–December 28, 1916). Son of G. P. Speckhard*; b. Friedberg, Hesse, Ger.; bap. by F. A. Brunn*; to US soon thereafter; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Hillsdale 1882, Ionia 1885, Saginaw 1894, all in Michigan Vice-pres. Missouri Syn. and Synodical* Conf. 1914.

Spee, Friedrich von

(Spe; von Langenfeld; 1591–1635). B. Kaiserswerth, near Düsseldorf, Ger.; Jesuit 1610; educ. Fulda and Würzburg; ordained 1622; prof. philos. and cathedral preacher Paderborn 1623–26; then active 2 yrs. as teacher and miss. esp. at Cologne and Wesel; prof. moral theol. Cologne 1631–33, Trier 1633–35. Prominent leader in Counter* Reformation. Hymnist.

Speer, Robert Elliott

(1867–1947). Presb. layman; b. Huntingdon, Pennsylvania; educ. at the coll. and theol. sem. at Princeton, New Jersey; secy. Student* Volunteer Movement 1889–90; instr. at coll. in Princeton 1890–91; secy. Presb. Bd. of For. Missions 1891–1937; made 4 extensive visitation tours to Asia, 2 to S. America. Works include Presbyterian Foreign Missions; South American Problems; Studies of Missionary Leadership.

Spegel, Haquin

(Haqvin; 1645–1714). Abp. Uppsala, Swed., 1711; hymnist; collaborated with others in the hymnal prepared by J. Swedberg.* Hymns include “Waar Herres Jesu Kristi död” (“The Death of Jesus Christ, Our Lord”).

Spencer, Herbert

(1820–1903). B. Derby, Derbyshire, N cen. Eng. His philos., a materialistic monism* influenced by A. Comte's* positivism,* distinguishes bet. the knowable and the unknowable. To explain the knowable, he developed a system of philos. influenced by the theory of evolution, which he applied also to mental and soc. phenomena; coined the phrase “survival of the fittest.” Held that all religion began in ancestor* worship. Works include a series projected as A System of Philosophy, of which the following appeared: First Principles; The Principles of Biology; The Principles of Psychology; The Principles of Sociology; The Principles of Ethics. See also Agnosticism; Skepticism.

Spencer, John

(1630–93). Angl. theol.; b. Bocton (Boghton), near Blean and Canterbury, Kent, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; served several parishes; prebendary at the cathedral of Ely 1671; archdeacon Sudbury 1677; dean Ely 1677. Pioneer in comparative religion. Works include Dissertatio de Urim et Thummim; De legibus Hebraeorum ritualibus, et earum rationibus, libri tres.

Spener, Philipp Jacob

(Jakob; 1635–1705). “Father of Pietism*”; b. Rappoltsweiler, Upper Alsace; educ. Strasbourg (instructors included J. K. Dannhauer* and S. Schmidt*); asst. preacher at the Strasbourg cathedral 1663; minister and “senior” (supt.) Frankfurt am Main 1666. where he introd. (1670) collegia pietatis, private devotional gatherings, twice a week, in his house. Pub. Pia desideria 1657, in which he pictured the deplorable conditions in the ch. as he saw them and proposed measures for improvement (stressing Bible study and personal piety); result: controversy, in which some of his adherents left the ch., some emigrating to Pennsylvania 1683. Spener became court preacher Dresden 1686. Influenced P. Anton* and A. H. Francke.* Provost St. Nicolai, Berlin, 1691. Helped est. Halle U. 1694. Spener's Lutheranism was marred by elements evidently from Ref. sources. Held a form of millennialism.* Hymnist. See also Spizel, Theophil; Urlsperger, Samuel.

Spengler, Lazarus

(1479–1534). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; studies at Leipzig terminated by his father's death; town clerk 1507, mem. of council 1516 Nürnberg; met M. Luther 1518; leader of Reformation in and around Nürnberg; instrumental in opening a Gymnasium there; opposed P. Melanchthon's tendency to yield at Augsburg 1530. Hymnist. Hymns include “Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt.”

T. Pressel, Lazarus Spengler, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862).

Spengler, Oswald

(1880–1936). Philos.; b. Blankenburg am Harz, Ger.; educ. Halle, Munich, Berlin: taught high school Hamburg 1908–11. Influenced by F. W. Nietzsche.* Works include Der Untergang des Abendlandes (Eng. tr. The Decline of the West).

Spenser, Edmund

(ca. 1552–99). Poet; b. London. Eng.; educ. Cambridge. Works include The Faerie Queene, an allegory vindicating Protestantism and Puritanism over against enemies including RCm.

Speratus, Paul

(Paulus; Spret; 1484–1551). B. Rötlen, near Ellwangen, Ger.; educ. various univs.; ordained ca. 1506; active in Salzburg, (Austria) and in Dinkelsbühl and Würzburg; (both in Bavaria); held ev. views; married; fled Würzburg; expelled from Salzburg; excommunicated at Ofen. Hung.; imprisoned at Iglau and condemned to death; escaped on condition he would leave Moravia; helped M. Luther prepare 1st Prot. hymnal; castle preacher Königsberg. Luth. bp. Pomerania 1530. Hymnist. Helped prepare Luth. Prussian ch. order. Hymns include “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her.”

T. Pressel, Paul Speratus, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862).

Speyer, Diets of

(Spire[s]; Speier). 1. 1526. First ordered to meet February 1 at Esslingen, later at Speyer May 1; began deliberations June 26 under Ferdinand (see Reformed Confessions, E 3) in the name of Charles* V; recess August 27.

Background includes threatened invasion of Ger. by Turks and formation of the League of Torgau* (formed at Gotha February 1526, ratified at Torgau in May, enlarged in the first part of June [and in September]).

Charles V had claimed Lombardy, N It., for his empire. Francis I (see France, 8) challenged the claim with an army but was defeated and captured at Pavia 1525. To obtain release, he renounced claims in It. and over other disputed territories in the January 1526 Peace (or Treaty) of Madrid. This would have left Charles V free to enforce the 1521 Edict of Worms.* But Francis I soon claimed that his concessions had been obtained by coercion and helped form the Holy League of Cognac (see Holy Leagues and Alliances, 5) in May. Problems besetting the emp. forced a tempering of imperial views in the interest of consolidating forces by winning evangelicals. Ferdinand agreed to a council within a yr.; meantime every state should be allowed so to arrange its religious affairs that it would be able to give account thereof to God and the emp. This opened the door for the spread of Lutheranism, allowing indep. from Rome; it divided Ger. religiously, gave Lutheranism a recognized existence, and offered hope for territorial constitutions on a formally legitimate basis. It was a great hist. landmark. See also Augsburg, Peace of.

2. 1529. Charles V neither signed nor opposed the 1526 edict of Speyer. The contemplated council did not materialize. The emp. dealt with the intractability of Francis I by engaging in a war (1527–29) against the Holy League of Cognac; Rome was sacked 1527 by rampant imperial forces, unpaid and mutinous; the pope was besieged in the Castle of St. Angelo. Naples was invaded by Fr.; but Genoa revolted (with indep. promised by the emp.) and a plague epidemic forced the Fr. to return home. See also Cambrai, Peace of.

Victorious over the Holy League of Cognac, Charles V appointed commissaries, headed by Ferdinand, and ordered another diet at Speyer, first set for February 1, later for February 21, finally March 15. RCs were in the majority, strengthened and embittered by the O. v. Pack* episode. Decisions of the 1526 Diet of Speyer were declared ineffective. The 1521 Edict of Worms was declared in effect where it had been recognized; where RCm could not be reinstated without danger, evangelicals were to be tolerated but put under certain restrictions till the next gen. council. The evangelicals drew up and presented (April 19/20) a protest (“We protest …”; hence the name Protestant), holding that in matters concerning God's honor and the salvation of souls each one must for himself stand before God and give account, so that herein no one can in any way (or to any extent) excuse himself by the action or resolution of others. Ferdinand rejected the protest. The recess of the diet was issued April 22. Subsequent efforts by Prots. to present their case to the emp. himself resulted in temporary imprisonment of their delegation late in 1529. Meanwhile the protest was pub. in Germany beginning in May.

3. 1542. The 3d Diet of Speyer opened February 9, 1542, under Ferdinand; purpose: to deal with needs for defense against Turks. Prots. refused support unless the 1532 Nürnberg* Religious Peace (extended by the 1541 Regensburg Interim [see Regensburg Conference] to the next gen. council) be observed. The April 11 recess of the diet included a compromise recognizing Prot. claims in exchange for support against Turks.

4. 1544. The 4th Diet of Speyer opened February 20, 1544, under Charles V, who appealed for support against Turks and Francis I (who, he claimed, had made an alliance with Turks), with the first move to be made against Francis I. The Prots. demanded settlement of religious questions before giving war support. RCs were dissatisfied with some imperial proposals. Neither side was satisfied with the final compromise, which provided for maintenance of an army and a diet to be held at Worms within a yr..

In the upshot, Charles V defeated Francis I September 1544 and so became free to move against Prots. (see Schmalkaldic War).

Spiecker, Johannes

(1856–1920). B. Boppard, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Bonn; pastor Herchen 1883–85; instructor Barmen Missionary Institute 1885; dir. Rhenish Missions 1908; visited Afr. twice and Dutch E Indies once in the interest of missions.

Spieker, George Frederick

(November 17, 1844–September 7, 1913). B. Elk Ridge Landing, Howard Co., Maryland; educ. Baltimore City Coll., Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Sem., and at Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (grad. 1867); tutor Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, 1864–66; pastor 1867–83 Kutztown, Pennsylvania, and prof. Keystone Normal School, Kutztown, 1867–68; pastor Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1883–94; prof. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1887–94; prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Mt. Airy (Philadelphia), 1894–1913. Coed. The Lutheran Church Review and Documentary History of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States: Proceedings of the Annual Conventions from 1748 to 1821. Joint tr. with H. E. Jacobs* of L. Hutter's* Compendium locorum theologicorum under the title Compend of Lutheran Theology, and of Karl August Wildenhahn's (1805–68) Martin Luther. Other works include a commentary on 2 Co..

Spieth, Jakob

(1856–1914). B. Hegensberg (Württemberg), Ger.; educ. Basel; North* German Mission Soc. in Bremen miss. to Togo (E. Ghana), Afr.; tr. Bible into Ewe.

Spina, Alfonso de

(d. ca. 1491). Sp. Franciscan; taught theol. at Salamanca; titular abp.. Thermopylae. Works include Portalitium fidei.

Spina, Bartolomeo de

(1475–1546). B. Pisa, It.; Dominican; prof. Verona, Bologna, Padua; magister sacri palatii at Rome 1542; helped organize Council of Trent. Works include Tutela veritatis de immortalitate animae.

Spinola, Christoph Royas de

(ca. 1626–95). RC prelate; b. Roermond (Upper Gelderland), Neth.; bp. Knin, Dalmatia (later Bosnia); tried to unite RCs and Prots..

Spinoza, Baruch

(Benedict de; Despinoza; Baruch is Heb. for “blessed,” Lat. benedictus; 1623–77). Philos.; b. Amsterdam of Port.-Jewish parents, who, persecuted in Port., had sought refuge in the Neth.; excommunicated by synagog because of his religious views; spent uneventful life in the Neth., gaining livelihood by grinding lenses. One of the most influential philosophers of modern times. In Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670) he attacked the Christian view of revelation and the authenticity of the OT Religiously the work contained principles of rationalism that appeared a c. Later. Politically it anticipated J. J. Rousseau's* ideas in the latter's Du Contrat social. In his main work, Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstreta (pub. 1677), he developed, in contradistinction to R. Descartes'* dualism, a pantheistic monism.* There is only one infinite substance, God (or nature), with an infinite number of “attributes,” of which man can comprehend only two, thought and extension. Ideas and physical objects are “modes” of these attributes. See also Enlightenment, 2; Higher Criticism, 4; Menasseh ben Israel; Natura naturans; Pantheism, 2.

Spirit

(Spirit of Christ; Spirit of God). See Holy Spirit.

Spiritism

(Spiritualism). Belief in intercommunication bet. mortals and departed spirits. Spiritists study psychic phenomena and explain them in terms of discarnate spirits. They believe development is continued in the hereafter, but deny the deity of Christ and the existence of devil, demons, and angels and try to unite evil and good, falsehood and truth, vice and virtue.

Marriage is not regarded as a divine institution but as based on laws of human nature and as the result of natural and spiritual affinities; the two parties united are not so much united into one flesh as virtually into one spirit and soul; divorces are to be freely given when desired by one or both.

The Nat. Spiritualists' Assoc. of the USA was organized 1893; name changed later to Nat. Spiritualist Assoc., Inc., and (in the 1950s) to Nat. Spiritualist Assoc. of Chs.. The Morris Pratt Institute Assoc., founded 1901, supports and promotes the work of the NSAC.

Cf. Dt 18:9–14; see also Ancestor Worship; Fox, Margaret.

“Spiritual Exercises”

(Sp. Ejercicios espirituales). Book written by I. (of) Loyola* bet. 1521 and 1548; became a chief instrument of Jesuits. Consists of meditations in 4 divisions: 1. sin and its consequences; 2. kingdom of Christ; 3. Passion of Christ; 4. resurrection and ascension of Christ.

See also Gerhard of Zutphen.

Spiritual Realism.

Theory that only truly good will is free; causality based on spiritual activity; full realization of personality is achieved through self-forgetfulness.

Spirituals, Franciscan.

Franciscans* who claim strictly to follow the rule and testament of Francis* of Assisi; accepted the teaching of Joachim* of Floris on the approaching “age of the Holy Spirit.”

Spirituels.

Pantheistic antinomian sect of the Reformation period; called Libertines* by opponents; originated perhaps at Lille, ca. 130 mi. NNE of Paris, Fr.; spread in Neth, and Fr. Held that since all visible existence is a manifestation of the one Spirit, nothing can be essentially bad; regenerate man attains the innocence that Adam had before he knew good and evil and recognizes that the distinction bet. good and bad is baseless.

Spitta, Friedrich Adolf Wilhelm

(1852–1924). Son of K. J. P. Spitta*; brother of J. A. P. Spitta*; b. Wittingen, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Göttingen; asst. preacher Bonn 1879; pastor Oberkassel, near Bonn, and privatdocent Bonn 1881; prof. Strasbourg 1887, Göttingen 1919. Assoc. ed. with J. Smend* Monatschrift für Gottesdienst and kirchliche Kunst. Other works include Zur Reform des evangelischen Kultus; Zur Geschichte und Litteratur des Urchristentums; Über Chorgesang im evangelischen Gottesdienst; Heinrich Schütz, ein Meister der musica sacra.

Spitta, Julius August Philipp

(1841–94). Son of K. J. P. Spitta*; brother of F. A. W. Spitta*; b. Wechold, near Hoya, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; taught at Reval, Sondershausen, Leipzig; prof. Berlin 1875; helped est. Leipzig Bach-Verein 1874. Ed. complete works of H. Schütz*; organ works of D. Buxtehude.* Other works include Johann Sebastian Bach.

Spitta, Karl Johann Philipp

(1801–59). Father of F. A. W. Spitta* and J. A. P. Spitta*; b. Hanover, Hannover, Ger.; Hugenot ancestors, originally named de L'Hôpital (hence probably the name Spitta as abbreviated from Ger. Hospital), had fled Fr. to Brunswick after revocation of the Edict of Nantes* (see also France, 10); educ. Göttingen under rationalistic influence; private tutor Lüne, near Lüneburg, 1824–28; asst. pastor Sudwalde, near Hoya, 1828–30; military and prison chaplain Hameln 1830–37; pastor Wechold, near Hoya, 1837–47; supt. Wittingen 1847, Peine 1853, Burgdorf 1859. Hymnist. Works include Psalter und Harfe; hymns include “O selig Haus, wo man dich aufgenommen”; “Wir sind des Herrn, wir leben oder sterben.”

Spittler, Christian Friedrich

(1782–1867). B. Wimsheim near Leonberg, Württemberg, Ger.; Luth. layman distinguished for services in behalf of missions; in civil revenue and administrative service 1796–1800; asst. in the Deutsche Christentumsgesellschaft* 1801; helped found Basel Bible Soc. 1804 (see Bible Societies, 2, 4); founded a pub. house at Basel 1812; helped found Basel* Miss. Soc. and (1834) a lending library; in 1841 he limited his est. to Bibles, tracts, and Christentumsgesellschaft literature. See also Chrischona.

Spittler, Ludwig Timotheus von

(1752–1810). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Göttingen; prof. Göttingen 1779. Works include Grundriss der Geschichte der christlichen Kirche, which emphasizes ch. govt. and constitution.

Spizel, Theophil

(Spitzel; Gottlieb; 1639–91). B. Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Wittenberg, Leiden, Strasbourg, Basel, Tübingen; pastor Augsburg; polymath; friend of P. J. Spener*; helped introd. Pietism in Augsburg.

Spleiss, David

(1786–1854). B. Schaffhausen, Switz.; prof. physics and math Schaffhausen 1812, also pastor Buch, near Schaffhausen, 1813; revivalist; active in soc. and miss. work.

Spohr, Louis

(bap. Ludewig; called himself Louis; 1784–1859). Luth. composer, violinist, conductor; b. Brunswick, Ger.; dir. music Theater an der Wien; conductor opera Frankfurt am Main; court kapellmeister Kassel. Works include 4 oratorios: Das jüngste Gericht; Die letzten Dinge; Des Heilands letzte Studen; Der Fall Babylons. See also Passion, The.

Sponsors

(godparents; godfather; godmother). Persons making required professions and promises in the name of infants presented for Christian baptism (see Grace, Means of, III). Luths. follow ancient custom in having such persons present at baptism. Sponsors are 1. to testify that the children have been properly baptized; 2. to be concerned for the Christian educ. and training of their godchildren; 3. to pray for them.

Sprague, William Buell

(1795–1876). B. Hebron (now in Andover), Connecticut; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; Cong. pastor West Springfield, Massachusetts, 1819–29; Presb. pastor Albany, New York, 1829–69. Works include Annals of the American Pulpit.

Sprecher, Samuel

(December 28, 1810–January 10, 1906). B. near Williamsport and Hagerstown, Washington Co., Maryland; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pastor Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Principal of Emmaus Institute, Middletown, Pennsylvania, 1840–42. Pastor Martinsburg, W. Virginia, 1842–43; Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 1843–49. Influenced by S. S. Schmucker.* Pres. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio, 1849–74; continued as prof. till 1884. At first supported the Definite* Syn. Platform; later regarded it as hopeless. See also American Lutheranism.

Spurgeon, Charles Haddon

(1834–92). B. Kelvedon, Essex, Eng.; joined Baps. 1851; pastor Waterbeach 1852; pastor London 1854; trained young students for the ministry; est. a preachers' coll.; preacher Metropolitan Tabernacle (seated 6,000) from 1861; rejected the doctrine of baptismal regeneration; withdrew from Baptist Union (organized 1813 Southwark, London) 1887, but remained Bap.; nonconformist. Works include The Treasury of David; Lectures to My Students.

Spurling, Richard G., Sr.

(ca. 1812–86). Bap. minister near Cokercreek, Monroe Co., Tennessee; with son R. G. Spurling Jr. et al. organized Christian* Union in Barney Creek Meetinghouse, a crude log bldg. in Monroe Co., near confluence of Barney and Coker Creeks, ca. 2 mi. from Tennessee-North Carolina boundary 1886. See also Church of God, 2; Latter Rain Movement.


Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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The Lutheran Witness

LCMS Communications

Interpreting the contemporary world from a Lutheran Christian perspective.
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