A sin against the 8th Commandment (Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor); specifically, to speak evil of someone and so injure or destroy his good name. Cf. Ps 31:13; 50:20; 101:5; Pr 10:18; Jer 6:28; 9:4.
Slavery was practiced among Jews from the time of Abraham, but consciousness of caste is hardly noticeable in patriarchal days; master and slave lived together as mems. of a household (cf. Gn 15:23; 24; 1 Sm 9:510; Pr 29:1921). During the period of the kings the condition of slaves became more intolerable (2 K 4:1; Am 2:6; 8:6). Nehemiah tried to rectify conditions that fostered slavery (Neh 5:411).
Servitude of Heb. slaves was regulated by laws that regarded them as hired servants (cf. Ex 21:111; Lv 25:3955; Dt 15:1218). The lot of for. slaves was less tolerable (cf. Dt 20:1015; Ju 1:28), but they, too, lived as mems. of a religious community (Dt 12:12, 18; 16:11, 14; 21:1014). The nations that sold Israelites into slavery were denounced (Jl 3:6; Am 1:6). The number of slaves in Israel was never as large as among the Gks. and Romans.
Christianity did not require masters to release their servants (cf. Eph 6:59) but invited all to be children of God, without soc. distinction (1 Co 7:2122; Gl 3:28; Cl 3:11; Phmn 10, 16).
Luths. in Am. were in gen. opposed to slavery, but some owned slaves. The Franckean* Syn. was the 1st to adopt antislavery resolutions (1837). The Eng. Dist. Syn. of Ohio, Alleghany Syn., and Pittsburgh Syn. adopted similar resolutions in the 1840s, the Wittenberg Syn. and the Northern Indiana Syn. in the 1850s. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 4.
Disagreement over the slavery question in the Mo. Syn. was comparatively slight. The other syns., whose congs. were concentrated in N states, gen. opposed slavery and were not adversely affected by the issues. Northern and southern Luths. were reunited 1918 in United* Luth. Ch. in Am. ARS
C. W. Heathcote, The Lutheran Church and the Civil War (New York, 1919).
Slavs apparently developed as a people NE of the Carpathian Mountains several cents. BC. Ancient Slavs shared religious concepts of other peoples and developed them variously under influence of neighbors (Nordic, Indo-Iranian, Gk., Roman, Christian [the latter esp. among Slavs who remained pagan longest]). There was no Slavic mythology and cosmogony. Demonology was more important than theol. Chief aims of worship and magic rituals: to insure fertility and gain divine favor for military victory. Religion (basically animism influenced by fetishism and perhaps by totemism [see Primitive Religion]) lacked ethical content, came to include ancestor* worship. Death was gen. followed by cremation, but not as a denial of continuing life.
Early gods included Perun (god of stormy heavens), Svarog (god of sun, fire, and light), Veles (or Volos; god of flocks and herds, and perhaps agriculture). Stribog (wind god; sometimes war god) and Mokosh (or Mkosh; female god personifying mother earth; also god of trade) were worshiped esp. by E Slavs. Statues of gods were in stele form and many-faced, housed in temples (esp. among Baltic Slavs); priests offered sacrifices (sometimes human), served as oracles, and carne to form a powerful caste; magicians, who claimed power over demons, exerted even more influence. Echoes of primitive beliefs continued far into the Christian era. RR tr. MSF)
L. Niederle, Slovanské Starozitnosti. Oddíl 2, kulturní, díl 1 (chaps. 15), Zivot starych slovanu, 2 vols. (Prague, 1911, 1913) and Manuel de l'antiquité slave, II (Paris, 1926); B. O. Unbegaun, La Religion des anciens Slaves,; in A. Grenier, Les Religions étrusque et romaine (Paris, 1948), pp. 389445, and Slawische Religion, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3d ed. H. v. Campenhausen et al., VI (Tübingen, 1962), cols. 105107; The Mythology of All Races, ed. L. H. Gray, III: J. Machal, Slavic Mythology (Boston, 1918).
(Joannes; Philippi; Philippson; ca. 150656). Hist.; b. Schleiden, near Aachen, Ger.; educ. Liège, Cologne, Paris, and Orléans; diplomatic representative of Francis I (see France, 8) in 1537 negotiations with the Schmalkaldic* League; represented Strasbourg at Council of Trent* 1551. Annalist of the Reformation. Works include De statu religionis et reipublicae, Carolo Quinto Caesare, commentarii.
2. Jan Kollár (17931852; b. Mosovce, W Slovakia; educ. Pressburg [Bratislava] and Jena, Ger.; pastor Pest [now part of Budapest]; prof. Vienna 1849; poet), M. M. Hodza,* and Karol Kuzmány (Karel; Karl; Carl; 180666; b. Brezno, cen. Slovakia; educ. Jena, Ger.; pastor Banska Bystrica [Neusohl]; prof. Vienna; hymnist) were influenced by Hegelian idealism. The most significant 19th c. theol. figure was J. M. Hurban.* JP
See also Czechoslovakia.
J. Borbis, Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche Ungarns in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (Nördlingen, 1861).
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