(15361612). B. Grójec, Mazovia, Poland; educ. Kraków; Jesuit; court preacher to Sigismund III (see Poland, 3) 1588; helped reunite Ruthenians who had reverted to Eastern Orthodoxy at the beginning of the 16th c. with RCm.
(from Gk. for to look). Antidogmatic philos. school which holds that truth may exist but cannot be known. Neither reason nor senses provide a trustworthy guide to existence. For every dogmatic statement there is an opposing statement of equal validity. Philosophically, one must suspend judgment. But the ancient skeptic does not despair; he continues to look for truth (hence the name skeptic). Practically, human action is possible by doing what is customary or gen. accepted. Thus one achieves quiet and freedom from fear, the goal of all philosophy.
Pyrrho (ca. 365ca. 275 BC; followers called Pyrrhonists, doctrine Pyrrhonism) founded a skeptic school at Elis, Greece. Other ancient skeptics include Carneades,* Aenesidemus (Gk. philos.; probably 1st c. BC or AD; taught in Alexandria, Egypt), Cicero,* Sextus Empiricus (2d3d c. AD; Gk. physician and philos.). Their doctrine was modified, e.g., by I. Kant* and B. Pascal.* EK
V. C. L. Brochard, Les sceptiques grecs (Paris, 1887); A. Goedeckemeyer, Die Geschichte des Griechischen Skeptizismus (Leipzig, 1905); L. Robin, Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec (Paris, 1944).
(18511925). Presb.; b. Inverurie, near Aberdeen, Scot.; educ. Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Leipzig, Göttingen; prof. Cambridge. Rejected Biblical account of creation as unscientific. Works include A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis.
(18661955). Dan. theologian. Pastor Alslev-Hostrup, Jutland, 1893; Maarum, N. Sjaelland, 1901. Head of Bible school in Copenhagen 191229; cathedral provost Roskilde 192936; mem. of commission that produced new Dan. Bible tr.; pres. Dan. Bible Soc. (see Bible Societies, 4) 193649. Noted for devotional writing. Works include Menneskheden uden Kristus; Evighedsordet i Slaegternes Gang; Korset i Kirke og Kunsten.
(18401910). B. near Lillehammer, SE Norw.; imprisoned as youth; converted; studied at school of Gossner* Miss. Soc., Berlin, 186163; miss. to India 1863; worked among Santals with H. P. Börresen.* Works include a grammar of the Santal language. See also Norwegian Foreign Missions, 3.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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