Christian Cyclopedia

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Sibbs, Richard

(Sibbes; 1575–1635). B. Tostock (or Sudbury?), Suffolk, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; noted preacher Cambridge and London; leading Puritan.

Sibel, Kaspar

(1590–1658). Dutch Ref.; b. Unterbarmen, near Elberfeld, Ger.; educ. Herborn, Siegen, and Leiden. Pastor Randerath and Geilenkirchen, in principality of Jülich, 1609; Jülich 1611; Deventer 1617. Helped prepare for 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht.* Helped rev. Dutch Bible.

Sibylline Books and Oracles.

A Sibyl (from a Gk. word of uncertain derivation) was an old prophetess. Acc. to tradition, the earliest was at Erythrae in Asia Minor (or at Marpessus, near Troy) and spoke of Helen and the Trojan war (ca. 1200 BC); next, say some, is the Sibyl of Cumae in Campania, It. (late 6th c. BC); the Cumaean Sibyl is often identified with the Erythraean. The next Sibyl was assoc. with Delphi, Greece. Sibyls were connected with many different places. All their old prophecies, in verse form, were apparently in Gk. Collections of them (called Sibylline Books) were lost or destroyed, some in Rome ca. 82, when the Capitol burned, and the rest ca. 400 AD. Jewish and Christian adaptations (called Sibylline Oracles) were mainly for propaganda. The 1st Jewish adaptation was probably made in Alexandria, Egypt, in the 1st half of the 2d c. BC. Some Christian writers, with Hermas apparently the 1st, speak of Sibyls and their oracles; some Christians were suspected of coining oracles for their own purposes. Fragments of oracles speak of a reign of peace and happiness; the coming of Christ, the Messiah; and eschatological details. See also Apocrypha, B 4, C 5; Roman Religion, 2.

Sicarii.

Party of Jewish terrorists that arose ca. 52 AD; mems. carried a hidden knife (Lat. sica, “dagger”) as murder weapon used in attempts to drive the Romans out of the land. Some fled to Egypt, where they continued resistance against Roman authority (cf. Josephus, Wars, VII, x, 1).

Sichardus, Johannes

(Ioannes; ca. 1499–1552). Humanist; jurist; b. Tauberbischofsheim, N Baden, Ger.; educ. Erfurt and Ingolstadt; taught at Munich and Basel; inspected monasteries and cathedral chaps. in the Rhineland; studied law in Freiburg; prof. Tübingen; held various positions, including that of counselor to Christoph* of Württemburg; irenic adherent of the Reformation. Ed. Divi Clementis recognitionum libri X; Antidotum contra diversas omnium fere seculorum haereses.

Sickingen, Franz von

(1481–1523). B. Ebernburg, near Kreuznach, Lower Palatinate, W Ger.; champion of knights against princes (see Knights' Revolt); provided refuge in his castles for K. Aquila,* M. Bucer,* J. Oecolampadius.* Wrote in support of the Reformation.

Sidgwick, Henry

(1838–1900). Philos.; b. Skipton, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Rugby and Cambridge; prof. Cambridge 1883–1900; cofounder Soc. for Psychical* Research; advocated a form of utilitarianism.* Works include The Methods of Ethics. See also Metaphysical Society, The.

Sidney, Philip

(1554–86). Prot. poet, statesman, soldier; b. Penhurst, Kent, Eng. Tr. a treatise by P. de Mornay* on the Christian religion from Fr. into Eng.; collaborated with his sister on a paraphrase of the Psalms.

Sieck, Henry

(Heinrich; July 1, 1850–September 7, 1916). Father of L. J. Sieck; b. near Mannheim, Baden, Ger.; to US at age 4; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Memphis, Tennessee, 1873; South Bend, Indiana, 1879; Erie, Pennsylvania, 1882; St. Louis, Missouri, 1886; Stillwater, Minnesota, 1889–93: Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1895–1905. Dir. St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, 1893–95. Field Secy. (Ger. Missionsdirektor) Wisconsin Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1905. Works include Adventspredigten über ausgewählte Texte nebst Anhang: Reden zur Christfeier; Passionspredigten; Lenten Sermons; Sermons on the Gospels of the Ecclesiastical Year; Sermons on the Epistles of the Ecclesiastical Year.

Sieck, Louis John

(March 11, 1884–October 14, 1952). Son of H. Sieck*; b. Erie, Pennsylvania; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; asst. to F. Pfotenhauer, Hamburg, Minnesota, 1904. Asst. Zion Luth. Ch., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor 1914–43. Teacher, pub. speaking, Walther Coll., St. Louis, 1909–10. Pres. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1943–52. Mem. Bd. of Dirs., Valparaiso (Indiana) U., 11 yrs. Pres. The Luth. Publicity Organization of St. Louis (organized January 14, 1917); pres. St. Louis City Miss. Soc. (see also Herzberger, Frederick William); charter mem. Conc. Hist. Institute. Coauthor The Glory of Golgotha.

Sieffert, Friedrich Anton Emil

(Fridericus Antonius Aemilius; 1843–1911). Prot. theol.; b. Königsberg, Prussia; educ. Königsberg, Halle, Berlin; privatdocent Königsberg 1867; inspector theol. sem. Bonn 1871; assoc. prof. U. Bonn 1873; prof. Erlangen 1878, Bonn 1889. Works include Die Heidenbekehrung im Alten Testament und im Judentum; Nonnulla ad Apocryphi Libri Henochi originem et compositionem nec non ad opiniones de Regno Messiano eo prolatas pertinentia.

Siegler, Richard

(July 20, 1859–November 6, 1941). B. Wolin (Wollin), Pomerania; to US 1863; educ. Northwestern Coll., Watertown, and the Luth. theol. sem. Milwaukee, Wisconsin Pastor first at Ellington, Wisconsin, then at Barre Mills, Wisconsin Field representative of educ. institutions and missions of the Joint Ev. Luth. Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States (see Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod) 1910–35.

Sieker, Johann Heinrich

(October 23, 1839–December 30, 1904). B. Schweinfurth, Bav., Ger.; to US 1850; educ. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; ordained Ev. Luth. Syn. of Wisconsin and Other States 1861. Pastor Granville, Wisconsin, 1861–67; St. Paul, Minnesota (Minnesota Syn.), 1867–76. Pres. Minnesota* Syn. 1869–76; induced it to withdraw from the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am. 1871 and help form the Synodical* Conf. 1872. Pastor St. Matthew Luth. Ch., NYC, 1876; joined Mo. Syn. (Eastern Dist.) 1882, his cong. joined 1886. Helped found Conc. Collegiate Institute (see Concordia College, Bronxville, New York) 1881 at St. Matthew Luth. Ch., which had an academy.

P. Rösener, Ehrendenkmal des weiland ehrwürdigen Pastor Johann Heinrich Sieker (West Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1905).

Sieveking, Amalie Wilhelmine

(1794–1859). B. Hamburg, Ger.; orphaned at early age; influenced by Thomas* à Kempis and A. H. Francke*; served Hamburg hospitals during 1831 cholera epidemic; founded a women's soc. to care for poor and sick 1832.

Sievers, Georg Ernst Christian Ferdinand

(May 18, 1816–September 9, 1893). B. Lüneburg, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; private tutor Amelungsborn, Brunswick; postgraduate work Berlin 1842, Halle 1842–43; private tutor Grünenplan, Brunswick, 1843–46; emergency asst. pastor Husum 1846–47; won through F. C. D. Wyneken's* “Notruf”; ordained 1847 for North Am. service but not with power to administer the sacraments; contacted J. K. W. Löhe*; to US 1847 with E. A. Brauer*; pastor Frankenlust, Michigan, 1848; traveled as miss. in Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, founding congs. in Bay City, Michigan, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and elsewhere. Chm. Mo. Syn. Bd. for Missions 1850–93. Mo. Syn. chronologist 1864–66, 1872–90.

A. R. Suelflow. “The Life and Work of Georg Ernst Christian Ferdinand Sievers,” CHIQ, XX (1947–48), 135–141, 180–187; XXI (1948–49), 36–41, 75–87, 100–114, 175–180; XXII (1949–50), 43–48, 77–84.

Siger de Brabant

(Sigerus de Brabantia; Sigerius; Sighier; Sigieri; Sygerius; ca. 1235/40–ca. 1281/85). Fr. Averroist philos. (see Arabic Philosophy); opposed by Thomas* Aquinas and Albertus* Magnus; summoned to appear before Inquisition* 1276; said to have fled to Roman curia at Orvieto, It., where he was probably condemned to stay and was assassinated by a berserk attendant. Works include Impossibilia; Quaestiones de necessitate et contingentia causarum; De aeternitate mundi; Tractatus de anima intellectiva.

Sigismund

(1368–1437). Margrave of Brandenburg 1378; king of Hung. 1387–1437, Boh. 1419–37; Holy Roman emp. 1411–37 (crowned 1433); moved the pope to convoke the Council of Constance* (see also John XXIII, 1). See also Hussites.

Signorelli, Luca

(Luca d'Egidio di Ventura de' Signorelli; Luca da Cortona; ca. 1441/50–1523). Painter; b. Cortona, Umbria, It.; applied anatomical knowledge to painting. Works include Life of Moses; Conversion of St. Paul; Last Judgment.

Sigtuna Foundation

(Sigtunastiftelsen). Center of Luth. faith and culture est. 1915 at Sigtuna, near Uppsala, Swed. A folk high school stressing religion and morals was est. 1917; a coll. was added 1926. Activities include conferences of pastors, doctors, artists, authors, workingmen. The Scand. Ecumenical Institute was est. there 1940. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 6.

Sihler, Wilhelm

(November 12, 1801–October 27, 1885). 1. B. Bernstadt, near Breslau, Silesia; studied at Berlin 1826–29; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; private tutor Breslau 1829–30; instructor at a private coll. Dresden 1830; hitherto a rationalist, he came under influence of J. G. Scheibel,* A. G. Rudelbach*; because of resultant confessional Lutheranism he found himself incompatible with the coll. at Dresden; private tutor in the Baltic area 1838–43.

2. Won through F. C. D. Wyneken's* “Notruf”; contacted J. K. W. Löhe*; to US 1843; preacher and teacher Pomeroy, Ohio, and vicinity 1844; ordained Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States June 1844.

3. Called to Fort Wayne, Indiana, spring 1845; withdrew from Ohio Syn. 1845 (see Document of Separation); pastor Fort Wayne, Indiana, and vicinity July 1845; fostered Christian educ. of the young.

4. Prominent in organization of the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, I, 1–III, 2); as its first vice-pres. he was overseer of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan 1847–54. First pres. Cen. Dist. 1854–60 Helped est. a practical sem. (Nothelferseminar) at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and served as pres. and prof. 1846–61. Pres. of the teachers sem. that moved from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Fort Wayne 1857. Pres. and instructor Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne.

5. Works include Gespräche zwischen zwei Lutheranern über den Methodismus (Eng. tr. A Conversation Between Two Lutherans on Methodism); Lebenslauf von W. Sihler; Predigten über die Sonn-und Festtags-Evangelien des Kirchenjahres; Zeit- und Gelegenheits-Predigten; Predigten über die Sonn-und Festtags-Episteln des Kircheniahres.

W. Sihler, Lebenslauf von W. Sihler, I (St. Louis. 1879), II (New York, 1880); E. G. Sihler, “Memories of Dr. William Sihler (1801–1885),” CHIQ, V (1932–33), 50–57; L. W. Spitz, Life in Two Worlds: Biography of William Sihler (St. Louis, 1968); J. H. Jox, “Zum Ehrengedächtniss des am 27. October 1885 selig heimgegangenen Dr. W. Sihler, treuverdienten Pastors zu St. Paul in Fort Wayne, Indiana,” Der Lutheraner. XLII (1886), 17–18, 26–28, 34–35, 42–43, 50–51, 59–60, 67–69, 83–84, 91–92.

Sikhs

(from Hindi for “disciple”). Mems. of a sect of dissenters from Brahmanical Hinduism; founded in the Punjab, India, by Nanak (Nanok; 1469–ca. 1533/39; b. near Lahore, India; in early yrs. a Hindu; 1st of 10 Sikh gurus [from Hindi for “teacher”]; comp. part of Adi* Granth; tried to unite Islam and Hinduism, rejecting the soc. and ceremonial restrictions of the latter). Chief tenet is monotheism in the Hindu-pantheistic sense. Defeated in the 1840s by Brit., who annexed the Punjab to Brit. India. Involved in incidents that led to the assassination of Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India, 1984. They number perhaps ca. 6 million. See also India, 2; Singh, Sadhu Sundar.

Siloam Inscription.

Heb. inscription found 1880 in a water tunnel near the pool of Siloam; describes work in the construction of the tunnel; cf. 2 K 20:20; 2 Ch 32:2–4; Ecclus 48:17.

Silvesterabend

(Sylvestorabend; Ger. “evening of silvester's [or Sylvester's] day”). New Year's Eve; named after Sylvester I (see Popes, 1), commemorated December 31, traditional day of his death.

Simeon, Charles

(1759–1836). Angl.; b. Reading, Berkshire, S Eng.; educ. Eton and Cambridge; priest Cambridge 1783. Led evangelicals; helped found CMS. Works include Helps to Composition; Horae homileticae (reprint. 1956 as Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible); tracts.

Simeon ben Yohai

(bar Yochai). See Cabala.

Simeon Stylites

(Symeon; ca. 390–ca. 459/460). Syrian ascetic; began living on pillars (the first ca. 6 ft. high) at ca. 30; built and lived on pillars of increasing height; spent ca. last 30 yrs. of life on a pillar ca. 60 ft. high; exercised considerable influence through preaching and disciples. See also Stylites.

Simler, Johann Jakob

(1716–88). Descendant of Josias Simler*; supt. Alumnat (boarding school; sem.) at Zurich, Switz.; gathered hist. documents (originals and copies) relating largely to events connected with the Reformation. Issued Sammlung alter und neuer Urkunden zur Beleuchtung der Kirchengeschichte, vornemlich des Schweizerlandes.

Simler, Josias

(1530–76). Ancestor of Johann Jakob Simler*; son-in-law of J. H. Bullinger; b. Kappel, Switz.; educ. Basel, Strasbourg, Zurich; asst. pastor, teacher, and prof. Zurich. Works include De republica Helveticorum.

Simmel, Georg

(1858–1918). B. Berlin, Ger.; sociologist; neo-Kantian philos.; taught at univs. of Berlin (1885–1914) and Strasbourg (1914–18); held that religion is the abstraction and heightening of various human relations and, like Reinhold Niebuhr,* regarded faith in a deity as the transmutation and highest development of a relationship bet. individuals; influenced M. Buber. See also Kant, Immanuel.

Simon, Martin Paul William

(February 16, 1903–September 23, 1969). B. Zachow (or Angelica?), Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. to China 1926–28. Pastor Eugene, Oregon; Brussels and Okawville, Illinois Ed. The Children's Hour; My Chum; The Christian Parent. Other works include The Unequal Yoke; How to Know and Use Your Bible; Meeting Current Family Problems. Coauthor Little Visits with God; More Little Visits with God.

Simon, Richard

(1638–1712). “Father of Biblical criticism”; RC theol.; b. Dieppe, Fr.; his critical study of the OT was opposed by RCs and Prots. Works include Histoire critique du Vieux Testament; Histoire critique du Texte du Nouveau Testament; Histoire critique des versions du Nouveau Testament.

Simon Magus

(from Lat. magus [from Gk. magos], magician; simon the Magician; Simon the Sorcerer; 1st and/or 2d c. AD). Probably a native of Gitta (or Gitthon), Samaria; regarded by some as an exponent if not founder of gnosticism*; teacher of Menander also a Samaritan (cf. Irenaeus,* Adversus haereses I, xxiii, 5); identified by some with the Simon of Acts 8:9–24 (who offered to buy the power to give the Holy Spirit; see Simony), by others with a Jewish magician of the same name, a native of Cyprus and friend of Felix, procurator of Judaea.

Simony

(for derivation see Simon Magus). Buying or selling things spiritual or connected with the spiritual. Early ch. councils and syns. (e.g., Council of Chalcedon,* Canon II; 533 Council of Orléans,* Canons II and IV; 786–787 Council of Nicaea,* Canon V; Quinisext* Syn., Canons XXII and XXIII) condemned simony. Gregory I (see Popes, 4) vigorously and repeatedly denounced it. In the mid-11th c., until Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) opposed it, the papacy was bought. Simony also lent itself as an abuse that led to and was involved in the investiture* During the Reformation many efforts to eliminate simony originated within and outside the ch. See also Benefice.

Simpson, Albert Benjamin

(1844–1919). Presb.; b. Cavendish, Prince Edward Is., Can., of Scot. background; educ. Knox Coll., Toronto, Can. Pastor Hamilton, Ont., 1865; Louisville, Kentucky, 1873; NYC 1880. See also Evangelistic Associations, 5.

Simpson, Matthew

(1811–84). Meth. bp. and educ.; b. Cadiz, Ohio; deacon 1835, elder 1837. Pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1835; Williamsport, Pennsylvania, 1836. Vice-pres. and prof. Allegheny Coll., Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1837. Pres. Indiana Asbury (now De Pauw) U., Greencastle, Indiana, 1839–48. Bp. 1852 with residence at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pres. Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois, 1859. Supported Union in Civil War; gave eulogy at Abraham Lincoln's funeral, Springfield, Illinois, 1865.

Sin.

Transgression of God's law (Ro 4:15; 1 Jn 3:4). Sin may be divided into original sin (see Sin, Original) and actual sin. Actual sin (every act, thought, emotion (e.g., lust*) conflicting with God's law) may be involuntary or may be done ignorantly (Acts 17:30) and includes sins of commission (cf., e.g., Mt 15:19; Ja 1:15) and sins of omission (Ja 4:17). Sin arouses God's righteous wrath and deserves His punishment. Willful sin sears conscience*; repeated, it hardens the heart; may lead to, but is not identical with, the unpardonable sin against the Holy Spirit (see Sin, The Unpardonable). See also Apple of Sodom.

Sin, Original

(inherited; hereditary; principal; capital; Adam's sin; nature-sin; person-sin). 1. In its ordinary meaning this term does not refer to the origin of sin but to the guilt of Adam's sin imputed to his offspring (hereditary guilt, Ro 5:12–19; Eph 2:3; cf. FC SD I 9) and the corruption of man's nature that occurred when sin entered and which inheres in the human will and inclinations. Cf. Gn 5:3; 6:5; 8:21; Jb 15:14; Ps 51:5; Jn 3:6; Ro 14:23. Original sin is not an activity but a quality, a state, an inherent condition. It exists, though there be no conscious, voluntary act of internal or external powers, of mind or body. It is “the chief sin, a root and fountainhead of all actual sins” (FC SD I 5).

2. FC Ep I 1: “There is a distinction between man's nature and original sin.… No one except God alone can separate the corruption of our nature from the nature itself.… We … reject the Manichaean error that original sin is an essential, self-existing something which Satan infused into and mingled with human nature.” AC II: “Since the fall of Adam all men who are propagated according to nature are born in sin. That is to say, they are without fear of God, are without trust in God, and are concupiscent. And this disease or vice of origin is truly sin, which even now damns and brings eternal death on those who are not born again through Baptism and the Holy Spirit.” “Concupiscent” (drawn from the Lat. text) is explained in the Ger. text as “unable by nature to have true fear of God and true faith in God.”

3. The Luth. Confessions condemn Pelagianism,* which denies the reality of original sin. FC SD I 10: “Original sin is the complete lack or absence of the original concreated righteousness of paradise or of the image of God according to which man was originally created in truth, holiness, and righteousness, together with a disability and ineptitude as far as the things of God are concerned.” FC SD I 11–12: “Original sin in human nature is not only a total lack of good in spiritual, divine things, but … at the same time it replaces the lost image of God in man with a deep, wicked, abominable, bottomless, inscrutable, and inexpressible corruption of his entire nature in all its powers, especially of the highest and foremost powers of the soul in mind, heart, and will. As a result, since the Fall man inherits an inborn wicked stamp, an interior uncleanness of the heart and evil desires and inclinations. By nature every one of us inherits from Adam a heart, sensation, and mind-set which, in its highest powers and the light of reason, is by nature diametrically opposed to God and his highest commands and is actually enmity against God, especially in divine and spiritual matters. True, in natural and external things which are subject to reason man still possesses a measure of reason, power, and ability, although greatly weakened since the inherited malady has so poisoned and tainted them that they amount to nothing in the sight of God.” FC Ep I 8: “Original sin is not a slight corruption of human nature, but … it is so deep a corruption that nothing sound or uncorrupted has survived in man's body or soul, in his inward or outward powers. It is as the church sings, 'Through Adam's fall man's nature and essence are all corrupt.' ”

4. Escape from the consequences of original sin is only by rebirth through Baptism and the Holy Spirit (see 2); cf. Mk 16:16.

Separation of the corruption of our nature from the nature itself (see 2) “will take place wholly by way of death in the resurrection. Then the nature which we now bear will arise and live forever, without original sin and completely separated and removed from it”; cf. Jb 19:26–27. (FC Ep I 10). FC SD L 46: “Precisely the substance of this our flesh, but without sin, shall arise, and … in eternal life we shall have and keep precisely this soul, although without sin.” FC Ep I 6: “Christ … will not quicken [original sin] in the elect, will not glorify it or save it. On the contrary, in the resurrection it will be utterly destroyed.”

See also Accident; Traducianism.

Sin, The Unpardonable.

1. Cf. Is 22:14; Mt 12:31; Mk 3:29; Lk 12:10; Heb 6:4–6; 1 Jn 5:16. The sin against the Holy Spirit, or the unpardonable sin, involves conscious, stubborn, malicious opposition to divine truth once recognized as such and blasphemous hostility against it. J. Gerhard (Loci theologici, Locus XI: “De peccatis actualibus,” par. 109) defines it: “intentional denial of evangelical truth (which [truth] was acknowledged and approved by conscience) connected with a bold attack on [this truth] and voluntary blasphemy [of it].” J. A. Quenstedt* (Theologia didactico-polemica, ch. 2, section 1, thesis 104) has a similar definition.

The stubborn and malicious opposition, which is the essence of the unpardonable sin, may be further distinguished as follows: (1) Some have internally experienced the truth, given their assent to it, and outwardly confessed it, but have set themselves against it; all apostates belong to this class, to which Heb 6:4 applies. (2) Others have not outwardly confessed it but inwardly assented to it, yet obstinately and wickedly oppose it; to this class belong the scribes and Pharisees, who opposed Christ's teaching but were convinced by His works that He was true God and revealed divine truths.

Though Peter denied Christ and the truth and Paul was a reviler, blasphemer, and persecutor of divine truth before his conversion, they are not to be classed with those who commit the sin against the Holy Spirit; Peter transgressed hastily, through fear of men, and Paul did so through ignorance (1 Ti 1:13).

2. The unpardonable sin is called the sin against the Holy Spirit not with reference to the person of the Holy Spirit (who has no precedence over Father or Son) but to His office, in that He reveals and testifies to the heavenly truths. It is conscious resistance to the special work of the Holy Spirit, who calls, enlightens (Eph 1:17–18), converts, renews (Eph 1:19; Tts 3:5) and sanctifies man (1 Co 6:11; Eph 4:30; 2 Th 2:13).

3. This sin is unpardonable, not because of any unwillingness in God, or because His mercy and Christ's merits are not great enough, but because of the condition of him who commits it: he continues to the end (the action of his sin is linear, rather than punctiliar) in obdurate rejection of the Word of God, divine grace and mercy, and Christ's merits; cf. 1 Jn 5:16. Augustine of Hippo calls it final impenitence. One who does not repent does not receive forgiveness; cf. Rv 2:22.

Singh, Sadhu Sundar

(1889–1929?). B. a Sikh (see Sikhs) at Rampur, near Ludhiana North Punjab, NW India; became Christian under Presb. influence; began preaching; went to Sabathu; bap. 1905; donned saffron robe of a sadhu (Skt. “straight”), or “holy man,” in an attempt to help make Christianity acceptable to others; miss. Punjab (including Rampur), Kashmir, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Tibet; disappeared on 1929 trip to Tibet.

Singmaster, Elsie

(Mrs. Harold Lewars; August 29, 1879–September 30, 1958). Daughter of J. A. Singmaster*; Luth. novelist and hist. writer; b. Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania; educ. Radcliffe Coll., Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts Works include The Story of Lutheran Missions; Martin Luther; Stories of Pennsylvania.

Singmaster, John Alden

(August 31, 1852–February 27, 1926). Father of E. Singmaster*; b. Macungie, near Allentown, Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. and Lutheran Theol. Sem., both at Gettysburg; ordained E. Pennsylvania Syn. 1876 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23); pastor Pennsylvania and New York 1876–1900; prof. Biblical theol. 1900–03, systematic theol. from 1903, pres. from 1906 Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg. Pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1915–17. Ed. The Lutheran Quarterly; other works include A Handbook of Christian Theology.

Sins, Venial and Mortal.

The Luth. Confessions speak of sin* that is mortal, or deadly, i. e., irreconcilable with faith (Ap IV 48, 64, 109, 115). When believers fall into open sin, faith has departed (SA-III III 43–44). One who obeys his lusts does not retain faith (Ap IV 144). Original sin (see Sin, Original) is mortal; it brings eternal death on those who are not born again (AC II 2 Lat.). One who is dead in sin is insensitive to sin (LC, V: The Sacrament of the Altar, 77–78). Sins remain in believers (SA-III III 40; FC SD II 34). Many regard the following as 7 deadly sins, fatal to spiritual progress: pride,* covetousness,* lust,* anger, gluttony, envy,* sloth. But man cannot weigh, distinguish, or differentiate sins; all sins manifest total corruption (SA-III III 36–38), merit God's wrath (Mt 5:18–19; Gl 3:10; Ja 2:10), and are deadly (Eze 18:4; Ro 6:23); every sin loses its deadly effect when Christ, apprehended by faith, intervenes (Ro 8:l; 1 Jn 1:7, 9; 2:1–2).

In RCm, mortal sin is held to be that which deprives the soul of sanctifying grace and supernatural life (and so causes death to the soul), makes one an enemy of God, takes away the merit of all good works, deprives one of everlasting happiness in heaven, and makes him deserving of hell. It is a seriously wrong thought, word, deed, or omission of which one is mindful and to which he fully consents. Venial sins are less seriously wrong (or seriously wrong sins which one believes to be only slightly, i. e., not seriously, wrong) and do not deprive of sanctifying grace. EL

See also Confession, 4; Sacraments, Roman Catholic.

Sisterhoods.

RC sisterhoods (communities, institutes, or socs. for women) not treated in separate arts. (see, e.g., Benedictines; Joseph, Sisters of St.) include (1) Sisters of the Good Shepherd (popular name for Sisters [or the Religious] of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd). Founded 1641 Caen, Fr., by J. Eudes* to help delinquent girls and young women. (2) Cong. of the Little Sisters of the Poor. Founded 1839 St. Servan, on the N coast of Fr., to care for elderly, esp. those who are poor. (3) Soc. of the Holy Child Jesus. Founded 1846 Derby, Eng., for educ., esp. of girls. (4) Felician Sisters. A papal institute of the 3d Order Regular of St. Francis* of Assisi, known also Sisters of St. Felix of Cantalice (Capuchin lay brother; 1515–87; b. Cantalice, It.; patron of children and infirm). Founded 1855 Poland to care esp. for poor girls and aged women. (5) Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Two orders by this name: (a) Founded 1845 Monroe, Michigan Stress the apostolate of teaching. (b) Founded 1850 Quebec, Can. Stress rehabilitation of wayward girls and Christian educ. of youth. See also Brotherhood and Sisterhood; Servites.

Sisters of Charity.

Name of many RC congs. for women. See also Grey Nuns; Vincent de Paul.

Situation(al) Ethics

(New Morality). Approach to human behavior that claims to make love the starting point and dominant control for every facet of human existence; cites such Bible passages as Lv 19:18; Mt 22:37–39; Ro 13:8–10; Gl 5:14; Ja 2:8; 1 Jn 2:10. Does not try to eliminate laws but seeks flexibility in their application; holds a midway position bet. antinomianism and legalism. Based on presuppositions: (1) Persons are more important than things; (2) Love is the ultimate criterion for making ethical decisions; (3) What love demands in any specific instance depends on the situation; (4) Situation(al) ethics is in harmony with Scripture and great teachers of the ch.

The name and some proponents of situation(al) ethics have caused the term to be assoc. with sexual freedom, anarchy, relativism, and lawlessness. EL

See also Ethics, 10; Human Manifesto, A.

J. A. T. Robinson, Christian Morals Today (Philadelphia, 1964); J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics: The New Morality (Philadelphia, 1966); J. Knox, The Ethic of Jesus in the Teaching of the Church: Its Authority and Its Relevance (New York, 1961); C. H. Dodd, Gospel and Law: The Relation of Faith and Ethics in Early Christianity (New York, 1951); O. S. Barr, The Christian New Morality: A Biblical Study of Situation Ethics (New York, 1969).

Sitz im Leben

(Ger. “place [or situation] in life; origin in life situation”). Term used for hist. con text (e.g., activity of a community). Exegetes try to determine the Sitz im Leben of a book or passage to help determine its meaning. See also Gunkel, Johann Friedrich Hermann; Hermeneutics, 5; Higher Criticism, 16.

Sixtus of Siena

(1520–69). RC of Jewish descent; b. Siena, It.; Franciscan; condemned by Inquisition*; pardoned through intercession of M. Ghislieri (see Popes, 21); Dominican 1551. Noted for Biblical studies; distinguished proto- and deuterocanonical books. Works include Bibliotheca sancta.


Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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