(October 11, 1857June 9, 1928). B. Convoy, near Van Wert, Ohio. Educ. Ohio Northern U., Ada, Ohio; Hiram (Ohio) Coll.; Tri-State Normal Coll., Angola, Indiana Prof. Lat. at Tri-State Normal Coll.; prof. Eng. at St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, 18941927; admitted to ministry 1900 after private study in theol. Works include A Treatise on Conscience.
(Scandelli; Antonius Scandellus, or Scandellius; 151780). Composer; b. Bergamo, It.; originally RC; became Prot. at Dresden, Ger., where he was mem. of the court orchestra, asst. conductor 1566, 1st conductor 1568. Works include masses; Passion acc. to John.
See Denmark, Kingdom of; Iceland; Norway, Early Christianity in; Norway, Lutheranism in; Norwegian Foreign Missions; Norwegian Lutheran Free Church, The; Sweden, Conversion of, to Christianity; Sweden, Lutheranism in; Swedish Missionary Societies.
Straight piece of cloth, ca. 14 to 18 in. wide, with a hole in the middle so that it can pass over the the head and hang down from the shoulders before and behind; various additions were made to the basic pattern; it became symbolic of Christ's cross and yoke; by ca. the end of the 11th c. it was worn by some orders of monks; later worn also by some lay persons assoc. with communities of monks or friars.
(ca. 1658/601725). Composer; b. Palermo, Sicily; regarded as founder of modern opera; said to have invented da capo (It. from the beginning; a part to be repeated). Works include oratorios (e.g., Agar et Ismaele esiliati; Christmas Oratorio); Stabat mater; masses; cantatas.
(Kaspar; 166698). B. Kühndorf (or Kündorf), near Suhl and Meiningen, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; diaconus Berlin, with P. J. Spener* as provost; hymnist. Hymns include Meine Seel', ermuntre dich; Meine Seel' ist stille.
(ca. 1788/891862). Son of J. G. Schadow (see Luther Monuments); painter; b. Berlin, Ger.; RC 1814; prof. Academy of Art, Berlin, 1819; dir. Academy of Art, Düsseldorf, 1826. Works include The Wise and the Foolish Virgins; Christ on the Mount of Olives; Christ and the Disciples of Emmasus. See also Nazarenes, 3.
(18611936). Ev. theol.; b. Clausthal, Ger.; taught at Greifswald, Königsberg, Göttingen, Kiel, Breslau; exponent of theocentric Biblical theol. as opposed to the anthropocentric system of F. D. E. Schleiermacher* and others. Works include Theozentrische Theologie.
(September 3, 1807November 23, 1879). Son of F. D. Schaeffer*; brother of D. F. Schaeffer*; b. Germantown, Pennsylvania; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; studied theol. under his father and brother-in-law, K. R. Demme*; licensed to preach 1829 by The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Maryland and Virginia (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 29); ordained 1831 by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of West Pennsylvania (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22, 23); pastor Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, New York Prof. Ohio Syn. sem., Columbus, 184043; Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, 185564; Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, 186479. Tr. various Ger. theol. works; other writings include a commentary on Mt.
(July 22, 1787May 5, 1837). Son of F. D. Schaeffer*; brother of C. F. Schaeffer*; b. Carlisle, Pennsylvania; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; learned theol. from his father and other Luth. pastors; licensed 1808; served a cong. in Frederick, Maryland; ordained 1812; pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1831, 1833; trained E. Greenwald,* C. Philip Krauth,* and others for the ministry.
(Friedrich David Schäffer; November 15, 1760Jan. 27, 1836). B. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; to Am. 1774; licensed by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1786; ordained 1788; served congs. in Pennsylvania Wrote Antwort auf eine Vertheidigung der Methodisten.
(18461914). B. Friedberg, Hesse, Ger.; educ. Giessen, Erlangen, Leipzig, Friedberg; pastor Paris; inspector of an institution for epileptics and feebleminded at Alsterdorf, near Hamburg; dir. deaconess institute at Altona 18721911. Works include Die weibliche Diakonie; Leitfaden der inneren Mission; Praktisches Christentum.
(18781961). Luth. artist; b. Altona, near Hamburg, Ger.; educ. Munich Academy of Arts, and Düsseldorf; settled at Rotenburg, Hannover. Illustrated hymns, folk songs, NT; noted esp. for illustrations in the so-called Schäfer-Bibel.
(181993). B. Chur, Switz.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Berlin; traveled through It. and Sicily as tutor; tutor Berlin 1842; to Am. 1843; prof. Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, 1844 (see also Mercersburg Theology); prof. Union Theol. Sem., NYC, 1870; prominent in Evangelical* Alliance and in the production of the RV Works include Christliche Glaubens- und Sittenlehre; The Creeds of Christendom; Theological Propaedeutic; History of the Christian Church; A Companion to the Greek Testament and the English Version; helped tr. and ed. The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge; tr. and ed. J. P. Lange, A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures; helped ed. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. See also Propaedeutic, Theological.
(May 5, 1813March 15, 1896). B. Hagerstown, Maryland; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and the Luth. Theol. Sem. at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pastor Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, 183541; Harrisburg, Pennsylvania;, 184149; Germantown, Pennsylvania;, 184975. Prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia. Pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1859; Pennsylvania; Ministerium many yrs.; General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (North) Am. 1868. Hymnist. Ed. The Lutheran; The Foreign Missionary; The Philadelphian. Tr. H. Sachs's Die Wittenbergisch Nachtigall; Halle Reports; W. Wackernagel's life of M. Luther. Other works include Family Prayer for Morning and Evening and the Festivals of the Church Year; Early History of the Lutheran Church in America. See also Fraternal Address; Hymnody, Christian, 8.
(16581733). B. Dürnberg, near Hallein, Salzburg, W Austria, near Ger. border; miner; banished 1685 (see Salzburgers, Banishment of); settled at Nürnberg. Works include tracts and the hymn Ich bin ein armer Exulant.
(March 23, 1868December 3, 1955). Son of J. M. G. Schaller*; brother of J. Schaller*; b. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis. Pastor Baltimore, Maryland, 18891901; Quincy, Illinois, 190106. Prof. Ger. St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 190642; ed. CPH 194255; philol.; lexicographer. Contributor to J. and W. Grimm's Deutsche Wörterbuch for more than 50 yrs.
(December 10, 1859February 7, 1920). Son of J. M. G. Schaller*; brother of F. F. W. Schaller*; b. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Northwestern Coll. (also called Northwestern U.), Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Little Rock, Arkansas, 188185; Cape Girardeau, Missouri, 188589. Prof. theol. dept. Dr. Martin Luther Coll., New Ulm, Minnesota 18891908; pres. 18931908 of the school as a normal school and preparatory school for the coll. dept. at Watertown, Wisconsin; pres. of the (Wisconsin Syn.) theol. sem. at Wauwatosa 190819. Works include Kurze Bibelkunde (tr. The Book of Books); Pastorale Praxis in der Ev.-Luth. Freikirche Amerikas; Biblical Christology.
(February 12, 1819November 19, 1887). Father of F. F. W. Schaller* and J. Schaller*; b. Kirchenlamitz, Upper Franconia, NE Bav., Ger.; educ. Nürnberg and Erlangen; vicar Windsbach (near Nürnberg) and (1847) Kattenhochstädt (near Weissenburg, Middle Franconia, Bav.); to Am. 1848, largely on encouragement by J. K. W. Löhe*; pastor Philadelphia 1849; joined Mo. Syn. 1849; vicar Baltimore, Maryland, 1850; won over from Löhe's view to C. F. W. Walther's* view on the Office of the Keys at the 1850 Mo. Syn. conv.; pastor Detroit, Michigan, 1850; vicar, then pastor, Trin. Luth. Ch., St. Louis, Missouri, 185472; pres. Western Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 185763; prof. Conc Sem., St. Louis, 1872.
(15321608). B. Strasbourg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; diaconus Regensburg 1554, Amberg (Upper Palatinate, Bav.) 1558; pastor Vilseck, near Amberg, 1568; court preacher and supt. Amberg 1576; gen. supt. Upper Palatinate and court preacher Heidelberg; deprived of office 1583 for refusing to sign FC; pastor Nürnberg 1585; hymnist. Wrote Herzlich lieb hab' ich dich, o Herr.
(14721551). B. St. Gall, Switz.; teacher St. Gall ca. 1503; preacher Memmingen, Swabia, SW Bav., Ger., 1513; follower of H. Zwingli*; opposed mass, claims of papacy, RC orders, oral confession, prayer to saints, tithing, purgatory; upheld Communion in both kinds and the universal priesthood of believers; supported peasant organization but opposed violence; fled Memmingen and in later yrs. was preacher elsewhere.
(December 28, 1910August 23, 1982). B. Nashville, Illinois Educ. Conc. Coll., Ft. Wayne, Indiana; Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Served congs. in Kendallville, Indiana; St. Louis, Missouri; Osseo, Minnesota. Pastor Athens, Wisconsin, 193941. Chaplain US Army and Air Force 194152. Prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, from 1952; acting pres. in a transition period 1974 (see Christ SeminarySeminex). Accused of liberalism, he came to identify himself with conservatives. Works include Toward Tomorrow; State and Church Under God; Social Responsibilities of the Church; Stephen: A Singular Saint; Ethics of Revolution; Proclaiming the Parables.
(Joannes Scharpius; fl. 161029). Ref. theol. in Geneva, Switz. Works include Tr. de misero hominis statu sub peccato; Tr. de justificatione hominis coram Deo; Cursus theologicus de conversione hominis contra Papistas; Symphonia prophetarum et apostolorum.
(17571825). B. Malmö, Swed.; educ. Lund; ordained 1780; served parishes in S Swed.; influenced by Ger. Pietism; noted preacher and catechist; emphasized psychology; held that an enlightened intellect affects the will; stressed the need to interpret the Word of God correctly. Students at Lund started a movement called Schartauanism; it spread through Lund and into Gothenburg. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 4.
(Franz Ludwig; 1810 [1811?]77). B. Maaria (or Niuskala?); Fin.; educ. Helsinki; instructor, then prof. Helsinki 183865; bp. Porvoo 186577; helped bring about reforms included in 1869 ch. law; helped est. pub. schools. Works include Handbok i Finlands kyrkorätt; Praktiska theologin.
(1850 [1847?]1915). Hebraist; b. Focsani, Rumania; educ. Lemberg, Vienna, Berlin; reader (or lecturer) in Talmud and rabbinical literature Cambridge 1890; prof. Heb., U. of London, 1899; pres. Jewish Theol. Sem. of Am., New York, 1901/0215; helped found Conservative Judaism (see Judaism, 3). See also Damascus Fragments.
(183588). RC theol.; b. Meckenheim, near Bonn, Ger.; rector and teacher of religion in Ursuline convent at Münstereifel; prof. dogmatics Cologne. Exponent of neo-scholasticism; defended papal infallibility.
(18381920). Luth. theol.; b. Stockholm, Swed.; educ. Uppsala; prof. Uppsala; bp. Visby (Wisby), on Gotland Is., in the Baltic Sea, 1885. Collaborator on O. Zöckler's* Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschaften; other works include writings on catechetics and symbolics.
(also called Angelus Silesius; 162477). B. Breslau, Silesia, Prussia, Ger.; studied medicine at Strasbourg, and in Holland and Padua, It.; interested in mysticism; private physician to the Duke of Wurttemberg-Öls 1649; RC 1653, assuming the name Angelus from a 16th-c. Sp. mystic; imperial court physician 1654; RC priest 1661; spent most of his last yrs. in a monastery at Breslau; hymnist. Issued Heilige Seelenlust, which includes many of his hymns, which include Jesu, komm doch selbst zu mir; Mir nach! spricht Christus, unser Held; Liebe, die du mich zum Bilde; Ich will dich lieben, meine Stärke.
(Schegkius; Degen; 151187). B. Sehorndorf, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. philos. and medicine Tübingen; humanist; tried to avoid metaphysical questions closely related to theol.; attacked by P. Ramus*; finally defended the theol. position of the Luth. faculty at Tübingen. Works include Ein collegium logicum im XVI. Jahrhundert; De causa continente; Philosophiae naturalis (quae Acroamata solitus fuit appellare Aristoteles) omnes disputationes, ac universa tractatio, duobus libris comprehensa; Tractationum physicarum et medicarum tomus unus.
(17831843). B. Breslau, Ger.; educ. Halle; preacher, then prof. Breslau; wrote against rationalism* and the Prussian* Union; suspended from office 1830; to Dresden 1832; ordered to leave because of a polemical sermon, he went to Hermsdorf, then to Glauchau, finally to Nürnberg. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 1.
(170961). B. Waldenburg, near Schwäbisch Hall, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Altdorf, Strasbourg, Halle, Göttingen; taught at the U. of Copenhagen; Hofrat and librarian Hanover; hymnist. Wrote the hymn Aus Gnaden soll ich selig werden.
(15871654). B. Halle, Ger.; pupil of J. P. Sweelinck*; organist Halle. Wrote settings of Luth. chorales for organ. His Tabulatura nova includes psalms, hymns, chorales, a mass, magnificats. See also Toccata.
(15861630). B. Grünhain, Saxony, E cen. Ger., in the Erzgebirge; educ. Leipzig; succeeded S. Calvisius* as cantor Saint Thomas, Leipzig; composer. Works include both text and music of hymns. See also Hymnody, Christian, 6.
(18741928). B. Munich, Ger.; educ. Munich, Berlin, Heidelberg, Jena; taught at Jena and Munich; prof. Cologne 1919, Frankfurt a.m. Main 1928. Influenced by F. Brentano,* R. C. Eucken,* and E. Husserl.* Investigated psychol. and sociol. aspects of phenomenology.*
(17751854). B. Leonberg, near Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Leipzig; taught at Jena, Würzburg, Munich, Berlin. At first he developed an Identitäts-philosophie (the ideal and the real are absolutely identical) and a pantheism opposed to rationalistic theol.; later, influenced by J. Böhme,* he became a theist; still later he approached Christianity. See also Philosophy.
(Schelgwi[n]g; 16431715). Luth. theol.; b. Lissa, Poland; educ. Wittenberg; opposed Pietism*; conrector Gymnasium, Thorn, 1668; prof. Danzig 1673; pastor St. Catharine's, Danzig 1681; pastor Trin. Ch. and rector Athenaeum, Danzig, 1685.
(Schenck; 163481). B. Ruhla, near Eisenach, Ger.; educ. Helmstädt and Jena; pastor Bibra 1662; diaconus Ostheim and pastor Völkershausen 1669; hymnist. Hymns include Nun Gott Lob, es ist vollbracht.
(Schenck; ca. 150846). Court preacher of Henry,* brother of George* the Bearded, at Freiberg, 1536; suspected of, and examined for, antinomianism; court preacher Weimar 1538; preacher and prof. Leipzig 1541; court preacher of Joachim II (see Joachim, 2) at Berlin 154446. See also Antinomian Controversy.
(February 7, 1785March 2, 1860). Luth. pastor; licensed by North Carolina Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16) 1810, ordained 1812; traveled extensively as missionary; helped organize Southwestern Virginia Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 29).
(March 16, 1861March 9, 1932). Educ. Roanoke Coll., Salem, Virginia; licensed 1881, ordained 1883, by Ev. Luth. Syn. of Virginia (see United Lutheran Church, Synods of, 29); pastor W Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina; pres. North Carolina Coll., at Mt. Pleasant, 189699; prof. Theol. Sem. of the United Syn. in the S., at Mt. Pleasant, near Charleston, South Carolina, 190105; pres. United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S. 191418; secy. ULC 191832. With F. H. Knubel* ed. Our Church; other works include Christian Liberty and Church Unity.
(17531823). Conductor, composer; b. Reichenau, near Zittau, Ger.; trained in piano, organ, and vocal music in Zittau; studied law at Leipzig; pianist 178185 at Gewandhaus concerts, Leipzig; conductor Gewandhaus concerts 1785; cantor Thomaskirche, Leipzig, from 1810. Comp. Choralbuch. Other works include oratorios (e.g., Das Ende des Gerechten) and other sacred music.
(February 25, 1831January 3, 1915). B. Homburg vor der Höhe, Hessen-Homburg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, Heidelberg, Paris; private tutor Leschnian, near Neuenburg and Marienwerder, Poland; asst. pastor Frankfurt am Main and vicar Kaiserslautern; differed with unionistic policy at Frankfurt; to Am. 1854; joined Mo. Syn. 1854; pastor Chicago, Illinois, 1854; prof. ancient languages Conc. Coll., St. Louis, Missouri, 1856, first as conrector, later rector; moved with the school to Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1861; resigned 1914.
L. E. Fuerbringer, Rector George Schick, 80 Eventful Years (St. Louis, 1944), pp. 4154.
(February 3, 1886December 31, 1964). B. Chicago, Illinois; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; studied at the Oriental Sem. of Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, Maryland; studied in Germany; instructor Johns Hopkins U.; prof. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, 191438, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 193864. Works include Fundamentals of Biblical Hebrew (mimeo); The stems dum and damám in Hebrew; tr. M. Luther's Lectures on Genesis, chap. 1 - nearly the end of chap. 27.
(March 12, 1815November 23, 1891). B. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; taught in various places; to Am. 1838 with the Saxon Immigration (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, II); taught school in Perry Co., Missouri, and in Saint Louis; ordained pastor Monroe Co., Illinois, 1841; also pastor Centreville, St. Clair Co., Illinois, 1849; accepted a call to Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri, 1849 and was installed there early in 1850; pres. Western Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1854. Divested 1857 first of membership in the Mo. Syn., and then of the pastorate of his cong., for his chiliasm, he joined the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States; renounced chiliasm (cf. Der Lutheraner, August 1, 1875); pastor Hillsdale and Coldwater, Michigan (installed September 12, 1875); rejoined the Mo. Syn. (Northern Dist.) 1876; pastor Neu Gehlenbeck, Madison Co., Illinois, 1877. Works include Geschichte der ersten deutschen lutherischen Ansiedlung in Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri.
(17591805). Poet, playright; b. Marbach, Württemberg, Ger.; military surgeon; went without leave to see performance of his Die Räuber 1781; arrested and forbidden to pub. anything except med. writings; escaped; in Mannheim 178385, Weimar 1787; prof. hist. Jena 1789; friend of J. W. v. Goethe*; in Weimar 17991805. Regarded as greatest Ger. dramatist and 2d only to Goethe in Ger. literature. Combined art, morality, and religion in his writing. His ideal was the schöne Seele (beautiful soul). Cofounder of the literary journal Die Horen; founded Musenalmanach. Other works include Geschichte des dreissigjährigen Krieges; Das Lied von der Glocke; Wallenstein; Wilhelm Tell; Maria Stuart; Die Jungfrau von Orleans.
Active in monastery at Augsburg, Ger. in the early 1520s; restless, rebellious preacher who laid bare abuses in ch. and state; held that the cong. has supreme authority, also to act if civil govt. fails; gathered a large following; championed the cause of peasants; probably died in Peasants'* War.
(Carl; 17811841). Architect, painter; b. Neuruppin, Brandenburg, Ger.; studied in Berlin and It.; mem. Royal Academy, Berlin, 1811. Designed many pub. bldgs., including chs.; known also for paintings of romantic landscape scenes.
(160673). B. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; subrector 1636, conrector 1651 Grey* Friars Gymnasium, Berlin; had many domestic and personal afflictions; hymnist. Hymns include Nun jauchzet all, ihr Frommen; Nun lieg' ich armes Würmelein; O heil'ger Geist, kehr bei uns ein.
(from Gk. schizein, to divide, tear, cleave asunder, open, cut apart).
1. Used in the NT of the tearing of the temple veil (Mt 27:51; Mk 15:38; Lk 23:45), the heavens opening (Mk 1:10), tearing a garment (Mt 9:16; Lk 5:36), divergent opinions (Jn 7:43; Acts 14:4). The ch. uses the term in the sense of dissension, division, discord (1 Co 1:10; 11:18; 12:25). Schismatics disrupt ch. harmony and unity.
2. Irenaeus* used the term in a technical sense (Adversus haereses, IV, xxxiii, 7). Jerome* distinguished bet. heresy* and schism, the former being perversion of doctrine, the latter rebellion against authority (In Epist. ad Titum, iii, 10). Augustine* of Hippo held that heretics wound faith, schismatics deviate from charity (De fide et symbolo, x). It is sometimes hard to distinguish bet. heresy and schism, since heresy leads to schism and schism presupposes heresy.
3. The early ch. suffered several schisms (e.g., Hippolytan [see Hippolytus]; see also Donatist Schism; Meletian Schisms; Novatian). The Easter* controversy included the element of liturgical practice. Some schisms included elements of nationalism or economics (see, e.g., Monophysite Controversy); others resulted from patriarchal rivalries (see, e.g., Nestorianism). In most of these schisms there was also an accompanying heresy.
4. Basis for the pol. separation of the Roman empire into E and W was laid when Diocletian* reorganized it (ca. 285ca. 293 AD). Pol., cultural, and linguistic differences accentuated the cleavage. Tensions arose in the ch. bet. Rome and Constantinople over pretensions of the latter to primacy (either equality with Rome or at least preeminence after Rome [the thrust is not altogether clear], Council of Constantinople,* 381 AD, canon 3; clear equality with Rome, Council of Chalcedon,* 451 AD, canon 28). Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem tended to follow the lead of Constantinople. Later factors affecting relations bet. E and W included the Filioque* Controversy and the Quinisext* Syn. By crowning Charlemagne* 800 the pope declared his separation from the E emp. and looked henceforth to the W emp. for pol. support.
5. Photian schism. In 858(857?) Michael* III made Photius* patriarch of Constantinople in place of Ignatius (ca. 798877; patriarch Constantinople 847858 [857?], 867877), who resigned in tension with the state. Legates of pope Nicholas I (see Popes, 5) confirmed the patriarchate of Photius 861, but Nicholas I anathematized Photius and restored Ignatius 863. Michael Ill continued to support Photius as patriarch. In 867 Photius excommunicated and anathematized the pope, but fell from power and was imprisoned in a convent when Michael III was murdered September 867. Michael Ill was succeeded by Basil I (the Macedonian; ca. 812886; caused death of Michael III; E Roman emp. 867886), who restored Ignatius as patriarch. Ignatius, who alienated the pope by consecrating bps. for Bulgaria, was succeeded 878(877?) by Photius, apparently with approval of John VIII (ca. 820882; pope 872882). In 886 Leo VI (the Wise; the Philosopher; son of Michael III; 866912; E Roman emp. 886912) deposed Photius, who disappeared from hist.
6. Schism of 1054 (sometimes called Eastern Schism, Great Eastern Schism, Great Schism, or Schism Between East and West). M. Caerularius* closed all Lat. chs. in Constantinople 1053. His main charge against the W was use of unleavened bread (Gk. azyma; see also Azymite Controversy) in Communion. Other charges included: omitting Hallelujah* in Lent; observing Saturdays in Lent in Jewish fashion; violating the rule regarding things strangled and blood (cf. Acts 15:20, 29). Leo* IX replied through legates with countercharges. Relations deteriorated. July 16, 1054, the papal representatives laid a writ of excommunication on the altar of St. Sophia Ch., Constantinople (see also Church Architecture, 6). This, in effect, sealed the schism, regardless of the reaction of Caerularius, which is variously reported. Antipathy bet. E and W was heightened by the Crusades,* which included capture and sack of Constantinople 1204. See also 4; Filioque Controversy; Florence, Council of; Lyons, Councils of.
7. Vatican Council II (see Vatican Councils, 2) addressed itself to the schism bet. E and W in the Decree on E Cath. Chs., evaluated by the E with reservations because of its W orientation and because Uniate* chs. are an obstacle to harmony. December 7, 1965, in ceremonies at Rome and Istanbul, pope and patriarch expressed desire to nullify the schismatic events of 1054.
8. Papal schism (also called Great Schism; Western Schism): schism in the W ch. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th c. After the death of Gregory XI (see Popes, 14) 1378, 16 cardinals at Rome elected Urban VI (see Jubilees) April 1378. Alienation soon developed among his electors. The Fr. cardinals among them joined others at Avignon, SE Fr., in electing Clement VII antipope (see Clement VII, 1) September 1378. Urban VI was supported by It., Ger., Eng., Den., and Swed., Clement VII by Fr., Scot., Savoy, Castile, Aragon, and Navarre. Urban VI was followed by Boniface IX (Pietro Tomacelli; ca. 13551404; b. Naples, It.; pope 13891404), Innocent VII (Cosimo de' Migliorati; ca. 13361406; b. Sulmona, It.; pope 140406), and Gregory* XII. Clement VII was followed by Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1). The 1409 Council of Pisa* tried to depose Gregory XII and Benedict XIII and elected Alexander V (Petros Philargos; Pietro di Candia; ca. 13401410; cardinal 1405; pope 140910), who was followed by John* XXIII. But Gregory XII and Benedict XIII refused to submit to the council, with the result that 3 claimed to be pope. The Council of Constance* declared April 6, 1415, that the pope must also obey an ecumenical council. It deposed John XXIII 1415; like the 1409 Council of Pisa, it tried to depose Benedict XIII 1417, but Benedict XIII, though almost wholly forsaken, defied all attempts to depose him till he died. The council elected Martin* V November 11, 1417, practically ending the schism. It ended completely 1429 when Clement VIII (Gil [or Aegyd] Sánchez Muñoz; d. 1446; antipope 1423; bp. of the is. Mallorca [Majorca], Sp. 1429), nominal successor of Benedict XIII, resigned. CAV
S. L. Greenslade, Schism in the Early Church (New York, n. d.); T. A. Lacey, Unity and Schism (London, 1917); F. Dvornik, The Photian Schism (Cambridge, Eng., 1948); W. Ullmann, The Origins of the Great Schism (London, 1948); S. Runciman, The Eastern Schism (Oxford, 1955).
(Schlaginhauff; Schlachin-hauffen; d. ca. 1560). Probably b. Neunburg, Upper Palatinate; recorded M. Luther's table talk 1531/32 (see also Luther, Table Talk of); pastor Zahna 1532; pastor 1533, later supt. Köthen; signed SA.
(18521938). Ref. theol.; b. St. Gall, Switz.; educ. Basel and Tübingen; influenced by J. T. Beck*; taught at Bern, Greifswald, Berlin, Tübingen. Works include Die Theologie des Neuen Testaments; Erläuterungen zum Neuen Testament. See also Bible Versions, M; Biblicism; Eisenacher Bund.
(171690). B. St. Gall, Switz.; probably educ. Helmstedt (Helmstädt); ordained Holland; sent by Holland syns. as miss. to Ger. Ref. in Am. in the 1740s; pastor Philadelphia and Germantown 1747; active in organizing chs. in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and New Jersey; resigned Philadelphia pastorate 1755 to become supt. of proposed Eng. charity schools, but unpopularity of the schools among Germans led to his resignation 1757; chaplain Royal Am. regt. 1757; pastor Philadelphia 1759; chaplain 2d Pennsylvania Battalion 1764; captured and imprisoned by British 1777.
(172193). Father of K. W. F. v. Schlegel*; b. Meissen, Ger.; diaconus and teacher Schulpforte, near Naumburg, 1751; head minister, and prof. theol. Gymnasium, Zerbst, 1754; at Hanover from 1759 in various capacities; hymnist.
(17721829). Son of J. A. Schlegel*; b. Hanover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen and Leipzig; studied Persian and Indian at Paris 180204; held Austrian govt. offices. In his early period he emphasized Gk. and Lat. classics; this led him to neo-humanism and J. C. F. v. Schiller*; later developed a secular mysticism of nature and spirit. Held that nature is supreme in ancient culture, spirit in later culture. After conversion to RCm in the 1st decade of the 19th c. he emphasized Christian culture. Works include Geschichte der alten und neuen Literatur; Philosophic des Lebens: Philosophie der Geschichte.
1. Founded modern Prot. theol.; b. Breslau, Ger.; entered Moravian sem. at Barby 1785; dissatisfied. he left 1787 for Halle, where he studied I. Kant* and Gk. philos.; engaged in private study at Drossen. near Frankfurt an der Oder; private tutor Schlobitten, West Prussia; taught at Berlin 1793; asst. pastor Landsberg an der Warthe 1794; Ref. preacher Berlin 1796. Wrote Über die Religion, Reden an die Gebildeten unter ihren Verächtern 1799 against the Enlightenment*; in it he sets forth his concept of religion (taste and feeling for the infinite) and the ch. and lays the foundation for his view of subjectivism in religion; it shows traces of the influence of Kant, G. W. v. Leibniz,* F. W. J. v. Schelling,* and B. Spinoza.*
2. Schleiermacher became court preacher Stolpe 1802; prof. Halle 1804, Berlin 1807; also preacher Berlin 1809; dean of the theol. faculty U. of Berlin 1810. In 1811 he wrote Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, which presents theology as a positive science directed to the solution of a practical problem. His chief work is Der christliche Glaube nach den Grundsätzen der evangelischen Kirche im Zusammenhang dargestellt (182122), which defines piety as the feeling of gen. dependence, since man becomes aware that the whole world and his own freedom depend on God. The divine attributes of omnipotence, eternity, omnipresence, and omniscience are derived from application of the absolute feeling of dependence to God. To Schleiermacher, redemption is the transition from restricted to unrestricted consciousness of God realized in a new soc. life regarded by the community as divinely founded and based on the activity of Christ; redemption involves the communication of the power of His consciousness of God to man. The Holy Spirit is regarded as the spirit pervading the whole community founded by Christ.
3. Though Schleiermacher attacked rationalism, he based his own theol. on inner consciousness rather than revelation.
(Michel; 182493). Conductor and writer on music; b. Ansbach, Ger.; taught at the U. of Heidelberg 185458; founded Augsburger Musikschule 1873. Works that he issued include Musica sacra (2 vols. of Luth. ch. music).
(Bauchwitz; 15921661). Educ. Raków (Poland), and Altdorf (Altorf); pastor Raków. Socinian; involved in controversies. Works include Confessio fidei christianae edita nomine ecclesiarum in Polania; De trinitate, de moralibus V. et N. Test., itemque de eucharistiae et baptismi ritibus.
(perhaps ca. 1455perhaps ca. 1525). Musicologist; b. perhaps Heidelberg, Ger., or in Boh.; blind, apparently at least as early as 1486; noted organist. Works include Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten; Tabulaturen etlicher Lobgesang und Liedlein.
(18741958). B. Calicut (now also called Kozhikode), cen. Kerala, S India, on the Malabar Coast; pastor Bottschow, near Frankfurt an der Oder; head North* Ger. Miss. Soc. in Bremen 190828; prof. Tübingen 1928; chm. Ger. Ev. Miss. Council. Works include Die Weltreligionen und das Christentum; Die Weltmission des Christentums.
(Schlueter; August 28, 1880March 9, 1952). B. Watertown, Wisconsin; educ. Wauwatosa, Wisconsin Wisconsin* Syn. pastor Kingston, Wisconsin, 1903, also serving neighboring congs.; Markesan, Green Lake Co., Wisconsin, 1909; Oshkosh, Wisconsin, 1921. Pres. Synodical* Conf. 194450.
The Imperial Recess of Augsburg, pub. November 19, 1530, gave Prots. 6 mo. grace. Prot. leaders met at Schmalkalden late in December 1530 to protest terms of the recess, request modification of the terms, and prepare for the formation of a league. The protest fell on deaf ears; the request was not granted; the league was organized February 1531 for defense against attacks threatened by emp., diet, and the leagues of Dessau* and Regensburg.* Temporary relaxation of RC-Prot. tension was arranged 1532 in the Nürnberg* Religious Peace by the emp., who needed national unity over against advancing Turks. A meeting of Luth. theologians was held in connection with the February 1537 meeting of the league (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2).
Charles* V was ready, when necessary or desirable, to follow a policy of reconciliation toward Prots. (see also Regensburg Conference). But when the Council of Trent* made reconciliation impossible, he moved to destroy the Schmalkaldic* League. John* Frederick (the Magnanimous) and Philip* of Hesse were put under the ban 1546 and defeated at Mühlberg 1547. The league was dissolved and the Augsburg and Leipzig Interim* imposed. But the purpose of the league was attained as follows: The Interim was to be enforced by Maurice* of Saxony, who turned against Charles V 1552 and, with help of Fr., forced him to sign the convention of Passau.* See also Alva, Duke of. TH
(May 30, 1860March 23, 1920). B. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where his father was Luth. pastor; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Luth., Theol. Sem., Philadelphia; ordained Pennsylvania Ministerium 1883; first asst. to his father, then pastor Lebanon, Pennsylvania; pres. General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. 190318; championed confessional Lutheranism; prof. Christian faith, apologetics, and ethics Luth. Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, 191120; helped organize ULC Ed. The Lutheran; The Lutheran Church Review. Other works include A History of The Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania (16381820) from the Original Sources; with C. T. Benze, The Confessional Principle and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church; The Christian Kindergarten; Bible Readings: Precepts and Outlines; How to Teach in Sunday School. JW
G. W. Sandt, Theodore Emanuel Schmauk, D. D., LL.D (Philadelphia, 1921).
(17771848). B. Cassebruch, on the Weser, Hannover, Ger.; fled to London to escape the Fr. 1803; converted; resolved to be a miss.; studied in Berlin under J. Jänicke* 180710; returned to London; LMS miss. to S Afr. 181148; pioneer in Namaqualand*; m. a Hottentot and tr. the 4 gospels with her help; his work was taken over 1842 by the Rhenish* Miss. Soc.
(17941852). B. Bickelsberg, near Sulz, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Denkendorf, Maulbronn, and Tübingen; taught at Tübingen; conservative Luth. Works include Biblische Theologie des Neuen Testaments; Christliche Sittenlehre.
(Johann Nepomuk Christoph Friedrich; 17681854. Canon Schmid; b. Dinkelsbühl, Bav., Ger.; RC theol. and teacher; tried to teach children religion in stories suited to their feeling and world view. Works include Biblische Geschichte.
(181185). B. Harburg, on the Wörnitz, near Nördlingen, W Bav., Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Berlin, Erlangen; prof. Erlangen. Coed. Zeitschrift für Protestantismus und Kirche. Other works include Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte; Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte; Die Dogmatik der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche dargestellt und aus den Quellen belegt (tr. C. A. Hay and H. E. Jacobs, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Exhibited, and Verified from the Original Sources).
(18681938). B. Hagenow, Mecklenburg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Berlin; prof. ch. hist. Berlin. Ed. Koptisch-gnostische Schriften; Manichäische Handschriften der staatlichen Museen. See also Gnosticism, 8.
(November 8, 1843October 14, 1925). B. Bonfeld, Württemberg, Ger.; to Am. 1852; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor NYC 1868; Elyria, Ohio, 1872; Indianapolis, Indiana, 1877; St. Louis, Missouri, 1887. Pres. Western Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 189198; held other dist. and syn. offices. Works include Erkenntnis des Heils; Glaube und Liebe; Katechismuspredigten; Leichenreden; Weg des Lebens; Lasst euch versöhnen mit Gott!
(Schmied; Schmid; 1570[1560?]1637). B. Delitzsch, Ger.; adjunct philos. Wittenberg 1596, then prof. Gk. and math. Works include an improved ed. of T. Beza's* Lat. NT See also Concordances, Bible; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 3.
(Frederick; September 6, 1807August 30, 1883). B. Dalddorf, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Basel; ordained Lorrach, Baden, 1833; sent by Basel* Miss. Soc. to Am. 1833; pioneer pastor and miss. in and around Ann Arbor, Michigan. See also Indians, Lutheran Missions to North American; Michigan Synod, 1, 2.
(Frederick Augustus; January 3, 1837May 15, 1928). B. Leutenberg, principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Ger.; to Am. as a child; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Eden, New York, 185759; Baltimore, Maryland, 185961. Taught at Luther Coll. (see Luther College, 1) 186172. Norw. Syn. prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 187276. Prof. Luther Theol. Sem. (see Luther Theological Seminary, 1) 187685; Anti-Missouri* Brotherhood sem., Northfield, Minnesota, 188690; Luther Sem. (see Luther Theological Seminary, 4) 18901912. Prominent opponent of C. F. W. Walther* in predestinarian* controversy. Ed. The Lutheran Watchman; Altes und Neues; Lutherske Vidnesbyrd; Luthersk Kirkeblad. Other works include Naadevalgsstriden; Intuitu fidei; Sandhed og Fred; Die Iowaischen Missverständnisse und Bemäntelungen. See also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 813.
(September 30, 1709August 2, 1785). B. Kunewalde, Moravia; to Herrnhut (see Moravian Church, 3) 1726; active in Salzburg 1728; imprisoned 1728 because of evangelical work; detained 6 yrs.; returned to Herrnhut 1734; sent as miss. to S. Afr. 1736; arrived Cape Town 1737; ordained by letter from N. L. v. Zinzendorf*; baptized Hottentots*; returned to Eur. 1743/44 becauuse of disagreement with the Dutch Ref.; served his ch. in minor capacities. See also Africa, B 5.
(18771953). B. Wolmirstedt, near Magdeburg, Ger.; co-worker of G. H. Dalman* at Ger. Ev. Inst. for Archaeology of the Holy Land in Jerusalem 191011; prof. Tübingen, Giessen, Halle; influenced by J. F. H. Gunkel.* Works include Die Grossen Propheten und ihre Zeit; Der Mythos vom wiederkehrenden König im Alten Testament; Hiob: Das Buch vom Sinn des Leidens; Das Gebet der Angeklagten im Alten Testament; Gott und das Leid im Alten Testament; Der heilige Fels in Jerusalem; Jona; Luther und das Buch der Psalmen; Die religiöse Lyrik im Alten Testament; Die Thronfart Jahves am Fest der Jahreswende im alten Israel.
(Heinrich? May 25, 1840March 6, 1911). B. Flensburg, Den.; spent some time with Herrnhuters at Christianfeld; soldier 1863; brought to Am. by J. C. F. Heyer* 1869; ordained Pennsylvania Ministerium 1869; pastor Carlisle, Pennsylvania; miss. to Rajahmundry, India, 1870; retired 1902. Completed Telugu ch. book begun by Heyer; helped rev. Telugu Bible. Interested in industrial missions.
(1669[1670?]1745). B. Hohenfelden, near Erfurt, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Jena, Erfurt, Leipzig; curate 1697, then pastor Siebleben near Gotha; hymnist. Hymns include Fahre fort, fahre fort, Zion, fahre fort im Licht.
(18911956). B. Frankfurt am Main; taught Berlin, Giessen, Jena, Bonn, Basel; exponent of Formgeschichte (see Isagogics, 3). Works include Der Rahmen der Geschichte Jesu; Die Polis in Kirche und Welt.
(March 25, 1846May 1. 1931). B. Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis. Pastor Weston, Platte Co., Missouri, 1868; served congs. in Town Dallas and at and near St. Johns, Clinton Co., Michigan, 186972; pastor Saginaw, Michigan, 187294; pres. Michigan Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 188291; prof. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 18941917, dir. 18941903.
(173694). B. Arnstein, Lower Franconia, NW Bav., Ger.; trained by Jesuits; separated from them and joined RC enlightenment movement; taught at Würzburg; imperial councillor and archivist Vienna. Works include Geschichte der Deutschen.
(Schmid; 161796). B. Lampertheim, Alsace; rector and preacher Lindau; prof. theol. Strasbourg. Works include Collegium biblicum; Lat. tr. of the Bible. See also Lutheran Theology Alter 1580, 3; Spencer, Philipp Jacob.
(18681954). Philol., ethnographer; b. Hörde, near Dortmund, Westphalia, Ger.; RC priest 1892; prof. Mödling, near Vienna, later in Vienna; dir. Vatican miss. exhibit 1924; dir. papal miss. museum in the Lateran Palace 1926; prof. Fribourg, Switz. Works include Der Ursprung der Gottesidee.
(December 11, 1803November 3, 1839). B. Dunsbach (or Dünsbach), Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Halle; tutor in family of Brit. consul Teneriffe, Canary Islands, 1826; to Am. 1826. Luth. pastor near Weinsberg, Holmes Co., Ohio, 182728; joined The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1828; pastor Canton, Ohio, 182830; prof. and pres. the Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem. that was begun 1830 at Canton, Ohio (see Ministry, Education of, VI C) 183037.
(July 26, 1855May 31, 1931). B. Hermannsburg, Hannover, Ger.; to Am. 1871; educ. Capital U., Columbus, Ohio. Pastor Hopewell Twp., Mercer Co., Ohio, 187881; Pomeroy, Ohio, 188186. Prof. hist. Luther Sem., Afton and St. Paul, Minnesota, 18861927 (see also Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 8). Assoc. ed. Lutherische Kirchenzeitung; with P. A. Peter wrote Geschichte der Allgemeinen Evang.-Lutherischen Synode von Ohio und anderen Staaten; with W. Schuette wrote Sighard: The Tale of a Centurion; with L. Schuh wrote Through Luther to Liberty: A Story of the Reformation Period. Other works include Sri Ramuldu.
(18511935). B. Zaukeroda (Zauckeroda; Zauckerode; Zaukerode), Saxony, Ger.; taught Jena and Zurich. Works include commentaries on 1 and 2 Co and 1 and 2 Th; arts. in Encyclopaedia Biblica; partial rev. of J. G. B. Winer's* NT grammar.
(17941893). B. Schulpforte (Schulpforta; Pforta), Hesse, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; embassy preacher Rome 1819; prof. and preacher Schulpforte 1824; at the Wittenberg theol. sem. from 1839; also mem. high consistory 1879; influenced by theosophy and mysticism of J. Böhme.* Contributed work on the prophets and apocrypha to K. F. O. v. Gerlach's* Bible commentary; other works include a devotional exposition of Jn 17.
(Alfried; Fred; April 3, 1888May 4, 1963). B. Malcolm, near Lincoln, Lancaster Co., Nebraska; educ. Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska. Teacher at Newton, Kansas; Mount Olive, Illinois; North Saginaw, Michigan Prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 192258. Works include Curriculum in Language for Lutheran Schools; Teaching the Bible Story; Reading in the Primary School; Understanding the Child; Sex in Childhood and Youth.
(16721737). B. Brauchitschdorf, near Liegnitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; asst. to his father at Brauchitschdorf 1701; diaconus 1702, archidiaconus 1708, senior 1712, pastor primarius and inspector 1714 Schweidnitz. Author; hymnist. Hymns include Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier; Der beste Freund ist in dem Himmel; Wer nut mit seinem Gott verreiset; Tut mir auf die schöne Pforte; Jesus soil die Losung sein; Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan (not to be confused with S. Rodigast's* hymn with the same 1st line).
(August 26, 1827October 15, 1888). Son of S. S. Schmucker*; b. Gettysburg. Pennsylvania; educ. Luth. theol. sem. Gettysburg. Pastor Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, Virginia, 184751; Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1852; Easton, Pennsylvania, 1862; Reading, Pennsylvania, 1867; Pottstown, Pennsylvania, 188188. Conservative. Mem. Pennsylvania Ministerium and General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. Coed. Hallesche Nachrichten.
A. Spaeth, Memorial of Beale Melanchthon Schmucker, D. D., The Lutheran Church Review, VIII (1889), 105127.
(August 18, 1771October 7, 1854). Father of S. S. Schmucker*; b. Michelstadt, Ger.; to Am. 1785; prepared for ministry by Paul Henkel (see Henkels, The, 2); attended U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; joined Pennsylvania Ministerium in the early 1790s; ordained 1800. Served congs. in York Co., Pennsylvania; Hagerstown, Maryland, 17941809; York, Pennsylvania, 180936; again in York Co., 183652; helped found The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA and the Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
(February 28, 1799July 26, 1873). Son of J. G. Schmucker*; father of B. M. Schmucker*; b. Hagerstown, Maryland; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; ordained 1821 The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Maryland, Virginia, and so forth (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 29); served the parish in and around New Market, Virginia, up to 1826; began to prepare students for the ministry in the early 1820s; 1st prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, from 1825/26; resigned 1864; helped found Gettysburg* Coll.
Works include Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Christlichen Kirche, auf der Grundlage des vortreflichen Busch'en Werks; Elements of Popular Theology; Fraternal Appeal to the American Churches, with a Plan for Catholic Union, on Apostolic Principles; The American Lutheran Church, Historically, Doctrinally, and Practically Delineated; Definite Platform, Doctrinal and Disciplinarian, for Evangelical Lutheran District Synods, Constructed in Accordance with the Principles of the General Synod; American Lutheranism Vindicated; The Church of the Redeemer, as Developed in the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in America; The True Unity of Christ's Church: Being a Renewed Appeal to the Friends of the Redeemer, on Primitive Christian Union, and the History of its Corruption; A Plea for the Sabbath-School System; A Tract for the Times, or Elemental Contrast Between the Religion of Forms and of the Spirit; The Peace of Zion; Discourse on the Spiritual Worship of God; Evangelical Lutheran Catechism; Lutheran Manual on Scriptural Principles. LEZ
P. Anstadt, Life and Times of Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D. (York, Pennsylvania, 1896); V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927); L. Schmucker, The Schmucker Family and the Lutheran Church in America (n. p., 1937); K. Koch, Influences that Contributed to the Theology of Samuel S. Schmucker (STM Thesis, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1960); A. R. Wentz, Pioneer in Christian Unity: Samuel Simon Schmucker (Philadelphia, 1967).
(ca. 14751559). Augustinian monk Alsfeld, Upper Hesse, Ger.; M. Luther's companion Erfurt and Wittenberg; joined ev. movement in Hesse 1521; forbidden to preach; left monastery and went 1523 to Luther, who sent him as preacher to Leisnig, on the Freiberger Mulde, near Döbeln; recalled to Hesse 1526 by Philip* of Hesse; leader in Reformation of Hesse.
(18521917). Luth. theol.; b. Chemnitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Erlangen; taught in Switz., Westphalia, and Leipzig; interested in the background of the life of Jesus. Works include exposition of 1 and 2 Co, Eph, Cl, Phmn, and Ph in Kurzgefasster Kommentar, ed. H. Strack and O. Zöckler.
(Cyriakus; 154697). B. Bufleben, near Gotha, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Jena; pastor Friedrichroda, near Reinhardsbrunn and Gotha 1573; also adjunct to the supt. of Weimar; hymnist. Hymns include Das neugeborne Kindelein; Herr Gott, Vater, wir preisen dich; Gib Fried, o frommer, treuer Gott.
(fl. 16th c.). B. Znaim (Znojmo), S Moravia, Czechoslovakia; court preacher of George* of Brandenburg-Ansbach; pastor Creilsheim (Crailsheim), N Württemberg, Ger., 1534; took part in Hagenau* Colloquy, Colloquy of Worms.* and Regensburg* Conference 154041; signed SA.
(17861853). Composer; b. Altwaltersdorf (now Waltersdorf), near Zittau, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; organist and music dir. Leipzig; music dir. at the Dessau royal chapel 1821. Works include oratorios (e.g., Die Höllenfart des Messias; Das Weltgericht; Die Sündflut; Das verlorene Paradies; Jesu Geburt; Christus der Meister; Christus das Kind; Pharao; Gideon; Absalon; Das befreite Jerusalem; Salomonis Tempelbau; Gethsemane und Golgatha; Christus der Erlöser); cantatas; masses; hymns.
(18571930). B. Höxter, on the Weser, Westphalia, NW Ger.; educ. Greifswald, Leipzig, and Bonn; pastor Warburg 1882, Lichtenau 1883, Elberfeld 1891; held various other positions. Ed. Kirchliches Jahrbuch für die evangelischen Landeskirchen Deutschlands from 1894; other works include Was leistet die Kirche dem Staat und dem Volk?
(18971939). Prediger von Buchenwald; ev. theol.; b. Pferdsfeld, near Kreuznach, Ger.; pastor 1926; his support of the Bekennende Kirche (see Kirchenkampf) led to conflict with Nazis; imprisoned 1937 at Buchenwald, where he died.
(190358). RC writer; b. Baden-Baden, Ger.; merchant; influenced by F. W. Nietzsche,* A. Schopenhauer,* S. A. Kierkegaard,* and M. de Unamuno* y Jugo; concerned with question of power and manifestation of God's activity in the world. Works include Philipp der Zweite; Die Hohenzollern; Das Inselreich; Innozenz der Dritte.
(182096). B. Erpfingen, S Württemberg, Ger.; school teacher 1838; housefather and teacher at the boys' training school at Vaihingen 1843; head of Pilgermission St. Chrischona* 1847; transferred 1854 to Jerusalem. See also Middle East, G.
(Schnepff; Erhardus Schnepfius; Schnepffius; Snepfius; Sunipes; 14951558). B. Heilbronn, Ger.; educ. Erfurt and Heidelberg; preacher 1520; helped reform Nassau and Württemberg (see also Blarer, Ambrosius; Grynäus, 1); signed SA; prof. Tübingen 1544; forced to leave 1548 for opposing Interim*; prof. Jena 1549; opposed Philippists* at Consultation of Worms* 1557. See also Regensburg Conference.
(18831948). B. Elberfeld, Ger.; educ. Bonn, Halle, Berlin, Marburg; prof. NT Halle 1914, Greifswald 1927, Königsberg 1929, Kiel 1935. Halle 1936; dismissed from office in Kirchenkampf*; opposed R. Bultmann's demythologization.* Works include commentaries on Mt and Mk in Das Neue Testament Deutsch.
(18591939). RC theol.; b. Lauingen, on the Danube, Swabia, W Bav., Ger.; prof. Dillingen 1893, Munich 1902; advocated reform; opposed encyclical Pascendi (see Encyclicals). Works include Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte Savonarolas; Savonarola; Hat Jesus das Papsttum gestiftet? (original title Das Papsttum eine Stiftung Jesu?).
(1794 [1795?]1872). Painter; b. Leipzig, Ger.; trained in Vienna; joined Nazarenes (see Nazarenes, 3) in Rome. Known for the pictures he contributed to an ed. of M. Luther's Ger. Bible; other works include Luther at the Diet of Worms.
(Shober; November 1, 1756June 27, 1838). B. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; trained in the Moravian faith; lawyer; North Carolina Syn. pastor Salem (now part of Winston-Salem), North Carolina, 1810; helped form The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA and was its pres. 1825; rationalist.
(Schoeberlein; 181381). Ev. theol.; b. Colmberg (or Kolmberg), near Ansbach, Ger.; prof. Heidelberg 1850, Göttingen 1855; consistorial councillor Göttingen 1862; abbot Bursfelde 1878. Works include Schatz des liturgischen Chor- und Gemeindegesangs nebst den Altarweisen in der deutschen evangelischen Kirche; Ueber den liturgischen Ausbau des Gemeindegottesdienstes in der deutschen evangelischen Kirche.
(April 15, 1854September 15, 1917). B. Allegheny (now part of Pittsburgh); educ. Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio, and Tübingen and Leipzig; specialized in Heb. and allied Semitic languages. Pastor Canal Winchester, Ohio, 1877; Martin's Ferry, Ohio, 1878. Prof. Capital U., Columbus, Ohio, 1880. Tr. Book of Enoch from Ethiopic. Other works include Outlines of Biblical Hermeneutics; The Protestant Church in Germany.
(18801959). Luth. theol.; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Leipzig; pastor Schweinfurt 1909, Hamburg 1922; syn. pres. 1929; territorial bp. Ch. of Hamburg 1933; founded divinity school Hamburg (later dept. of theol. U. of Hamburg) 1949; prof. systematic theol.
(from Gk. for school).
1. Occidental philos. movement dominant in the later Middle Ages; concerned with dogmatics; accepted the body of doctrine then current as complete; used dialectics (see Dialectic) and speculation in discussing and trying to comprehend, harmonize, and prove doctrines rationally; reasoning came to be patterned largely after that of Aristotle.* See also Anselm of Canterbury.
3. Other exponents of Scholasticism include P. Abelard,* Albertus* Magnus, Alexander* of Hales, G. Biel.* J. Duns* Scotus, Durandus,* Gilbert* de la Porree, W. of Ockham,* Peter* the Lombard, Roscellinus,* Thomas* Aquinas.
4. In the 12th c. Scholasticism fought for recognition; in the 13th it reached its zenith; in the 14th and 15th it declined.
See also Bérenger.
(Johann Heinrichs; 181185). Ref. theol.; b. Vleuten, Neth.; prof. NT, dogmatics, practical theol., and philos, of religion Leiden; at first exponent of Groningen* school, later leader of the modernism* of the Leiden School. Works include De leer der Hervormde Kerk en hare grondbeginselen; Symboliek en werkelijkheid.
(18841956). B. Berlin, Ger.; student of K. G. A. v. Harnack*; prof. Breslau 1917, Kiel 1919, Münster 1928; at first conceived of religion in the sense of R. Otto*; later influenced by K. Barth,* B. A. W. Russell,* and A. N. Whitehead.*
(Schöngauer; also called Martin Schön; or Hipsch, and Hübsch Martin; Bel Martino; Martinus Bellus; [le] Beau Martin; ca. 1425/53 [probably ca. 1450]1491). Painter, draftsman, engraver; b. Colmar, Alsace; influenced A. Durer.* Works include Madonna of the Rose Bower (variously entitled).
(Schoenherr; 17701826). Theosophist; b. Memel, Prussia; tried to develop a dualistic system (which posited 2 primitive potencies [named fire and water, or light and darkness], one male and active, the other female and passive, both personal and having intellect, will, form, and color; from their union resulted the universe, including God) in harmony with revelation.
In 1970, RC elementary schools enrolled 3 1/2 million students, secondary schools more than 1 million. Prot. chs. and ch.-related school assocs. enrolled 380,000 elementary, 55,000 secondary school students; of these, 190,000 elementary and 16,000 secondary school students attended Luth. schools. Heb. schools enrolled 58,000 elementary, 15,000 high school students. There are also some unaffiliated Christian schools. WAK
1. Alexandrian. At Alexandria, Egypt, a university developed out of the catechumenate school. Leaders: Pantaenus,* Clement* of Alexandria, Origen.* Chief characteristics: allegorical exegesis and speculative theol. influenced by Gk. philos., esp. Philo* Judaeus. See also Alexandria, School of.
2. Roman. Leader: Hippolytus.* Method: allegorical.
3. Caesarean. Begun by Origen,* discontinued at his death; his books formed the nucleus of the library of Pamphilus* of Caesarea, who reopened the school ca. 290. The school influenced the Cappadocian* Theologians.
4. Antiochene. Begun perhaps by Lucian* of Antioch. Used grammaticohistorical* method in opposition to allegorical method. After condemnation of Nestorius,* the school moved to Edessa,* later to Nisibis* (see 5 and 6). See also antioch, School of.
See also Exegesis.
(Schopp; ca. 1590ca. 1660/67 [probably 1667]). Composer, instrumentalist; b. Lower Saxony, Ger.; mem. Dan. court orchestra 1615; in Hamburg 1621, first as dir. Ratsmusik, later cityconductor and organist St. James. Works include melodies for hymns of J. v. Rist.*
(17881860). Ger. philos.; b. Danzig; to Hamburg 1793; educ. Göttingen and Berlin. His egotism and individualism made him unhappy. He rejected the moralism, philos. of religion, and idealism of his contemporaries in favor of aesthetics. He emphasized the transcendental aesthetic in the 1st section of I. Kant's Critik der reinen Vernunft. An examination of sensuous experience shows that man is driven by a will to live, an inner urge for sensations. This Schopenhauer regarded as part of a universal will, the process of becoming, a blind, irrational force that leads to desire, pain, and suffering. The indicated course for man is to negate the will by overcoming desire. Compassion is the highest moral principle. See also Pessimism.
(18751953). Catechist Nürnberg 1899; pastor Alfeld 1907; dean (or supt.; Ger.: Dekan) Ruth 1917; dir. state ch. archives Nürnberg 1933; lectured at Erlangen. Ed. Zeitschrift für bayerische Kirchengeschichte; Quellen zur Geschichte der Wiedertäufer. Coed. Die fränkischen Bekenntnisse.
(170050). Ref. theol.; b. Winschoten, Groningen prov., NE Neth.; educ. Groningen, Groningen prov. Pastor Weener, Ostfriesland, 1723; Midwolda, Groningen prov. Critical of institutional ch.; tried to awaken true Christianity. Works include Het innige christendom; De geborene Christus.
(November 8, 1839March 22, 1903). B. Bielefeld, Westphalia, Ger.; educ. Halle and Erlangen; trained for miss. work in London and Edinburgh; Rhenish* Miss. Soc. miss. to Sumatra 1866; returned to Ger. 1873 because of failing health of his wife; continued in Rhenish Miss. Soc. and was its head 18891903. Tr. NT into Batta.
(181782). Luth. miss.; b. Sogndal, Norw.; formed his own miss. committee; mem. The Norw. Miss. Soc. 184473; failed 1844 to gain admission to Zululand, NE Natal, E Union of S. Afr.; turned to China, but was discouraged by K. F. A. Gützlaff* because of his light hair; returned to Afr. and was admitted to Zululand; bp. of the miss. 1866; founded The Ch. of Norw. Miss. by Schreuder 1873. See also Africa, B 5; Norwegian Foreign Missions, 1, 4.
(17331808). B. Vienna, Austria; prof. Leipzig and Wittenberg, Ger.; moderate supernaturalist (see Supernaturalism). Works include Christliche Kirchengeschichte (35 vols.); Christliche Kirchengeschichte seit der Reformation (10 vols.; 910 by H. G. Tzschirner*).
(January 29, 1851November 21, 1909). B. Neustadt, Bav., Ger.; to Am. 1853; educ. Northwestern Coll. (Northwestern U.), Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Naugart (Marathon Co.) 1876 and Ridgeville 1881 (serving also Norwalk and Tomah), all in Wisconsin Prof. Northwestern Coll. 1889. Pastor St. Paul, Minnesota, 1893. Pres. Minnesota Dist. Syn. of the Joint Syn. of Wis. and Other States 190609.
(166799). B. Hallerspringe (later called Springe), Hannover, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; influenced by A. H. Francke*; pastor Meseberg, near Wolmirstedt.(Wolmirstädt), which is near Magdeburg, 1696; inclined toward Pietism; hymnist. Hymns include Eins ist not, ach Herr, dies eine.
(Schröter, Leonhart; Leonard; ca. 1532/40ca. 1595/1600). Composer; b. probably Torgau, Ger.; city cantor Saalfeld 156176; succeeded G. Dressier* as Lat. school cantor Magdeburg. Works include many hymns (e.g., the tune Freut euch, ihr lieben).
(17971828). Composer; b. Vienna, Austria; music teacher in Vienna; noted for songs. Works include Erlkönig; Stabat Mater; Kyrie; Salve Regina; Magnificat; masses; Hark, Hark, the Lark; Who Is Sylvia?
(17801860). Luth. philos. and naturalist; b. Hohenstein, Saxony, Ger.; studied theol. at Leipzig, medicine and natural sciences at Jena; physician Altenburg 1803; dir. Realinstitut Nürnberg 1809; prof. Erlangen 1819, Munich 1827. Works include Die Geschichte der Seele.
(18591931). B. Dresden, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Bonn, Strasbourg, Zurich, Tübingen, Halle; taught at Rauhe Haus, Hamburg (see Wichern, Johann Hinrich); prof. ch. hist. Strasbourg, Kiel, Heidelberg. Works include Geschichte der christlichen Kirche im Frühmittelalter; Lazarus Spengler und die Reformation in Nürnberg.
(Hermann; June 17, 1843August 11, 1926). B. Varrel, Hannover, Ger.; to Am. 1854; educ. Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio; pastor Delaware, Ohio, 186572. Prof. Capital U., Columbus, 1872; sem. prof. 1880; U. pres. 189094. Pres. The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1894, National* Luth. Council 1923. Hymnist. Hymn translations include O Holy, Blessed Trinity (sometimes altered to O Blessed, Holy Trinity). Other works include Zeugnisse zur Einigung und zum Frieden in der Wahrheit; Die Lehre von der Gnadenwahl in Fragen and Antworten gestellt (Eng. The Doctrine of Predestination in the Form of Questions and Answers); Church Members' Manual.
(May 30, 1890December 21, 1965). Son of L. H. Schuh*; b. Tacoma, Washington; educ. Capital U. and Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio; pastor Ashland, Ohio, 191516; asst. pastor Toledo, Ohio, 191631; dir. stewardship and finance ALC 193050; pres. ALC 195160 (elected 1950, took office January 1, 1951); honorary pres. The ALC 196165.
(December 29, 1851September 7, 1934). B. Bauernhoff of Maisbach, Ger.; to Am. 1853; educ. Capital U. and Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio. Pastor Canal Winchester, Ohio, 1874; Detroit, Michigan, 1882; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1885; Anna, Ohio, 191223. Pres. Capital U. (elected 1900; resigned 1901). Pres. Western Dist. of The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1923. Works include The Life of Louis Harms; Catechisations on Luther's Small Catechism; Lakeside Lectures on the Gospel Ministry; Sixteenth Century Reformation and the Lodge.
(July 7, 1858September 29, 1936). Father of H. F. Schuh*; b. Gallon, Ohio; educ. Capital U. and Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio Pastor Tacoma, Washington, 189095; Grove City, Ohio, 191214; Toledo, Ohio, 191435. Pres. Capital U. 190112. Works include Enjoying Church Work; How to Make Marriage a Success; The Happy Family; Life's Morning; Saved to Serve; The Hidden Life; with W. Schmidt (18551931), Through Luther to Liberty. Comp. and ed. Funeral Sermons; Missionary Sermons; Occasional Sermons.
(16861750). B. Groningen, Neth.; educ. Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht; Heb. and Arab. scholar; prof. Franeker and Leiden; stressed comparative study of Semitic tongues; noted for work in Heb. grammar. Works include Origines Hebraeae; commentaries on Jb and Pr.
(17751852). Son of C. E. Schultze (see Mühlenberg, Henry Melchior, and Family, 8); b. Tulpehocken, Pennsylvania; Luth. pastor 17961804 (assist to his father); representative and state senator for several yrs.; gov. Pennsylvania 182329.
(Viktor; 18511937). B. Fürstenberg, near Corbach [Korbach], Waldeck, Ger.; educ. Basel, Strasbourg, Jena [Bonn?], Göttingen; taught Leipzig 1879; prof. ch. hist. and archaeol. Greifswald 1884. Works include Das evangelische Kirchengebäude. Archäologie der altchristlichen Kunst; Die altchristlichen Bildwerke und die wissenschaftliche Forschung; Alchristliche Städte und Landschaften; Geschichte des Untergangs des griechisch-römischen Heidentums; Grundriss der christlichen Archäologie.
(17791854). B. Pürben, near Freystadt, Silesia; educ. Halle, Ger.; taught Halle 1806, Leipzig 1807; prof. Halle 1809, Frankfurt an der Oder 1809, Breslau 1811; mem. royal consistory Silesia; dismissed from consistory for signing 1845 declaration against conservatives; rationalist; opposed Pietism,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* E. W. Hengstenberg.* See also Rationalismus vulgaris.
(Schultz; 17471800). Musicologist; b. probably Lüneburg. Ger.; dir. of music Fr. Theater, Berlin, 177678; later active at Rheinsberg, and then at Copenhagen for ca. 7 yrs., then in Ger. again. Works include Lieder im Volkston; perhaps known best for his melody for Ihr Kinderlein, kommet.
(March 23, 1879January 30, 1950). B. Lindenau, West Prussia, Ger.; to Am. 1879; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis. Missouri Pastor Bradford, New Albany, and Brownstown. Indiana, 190004; Cincinnati, Ohio, 190421; Springfield, Illinois, 1921. Pres. Cen. Illinois Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 192732; mem. Mo. Syn. Bd. of Dirs. 193250.
(Ernest Carl Louis; January 29, 1854October 9 [10?], 1918). B. Hüllhorst, Rheinberg, Westphalia, Ger.; to Am. ca. 1856; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor NYC 187880; Schenectady, New York, 18801918. Pres. Atlantic Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 190618. Works include The Real Truth about Socialism; The Lodge Problem; Lebensversicherung.
(18331918). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin; taught NT exegesis and Biblical theol. at Berlin 1859; assoc. prof. theol. Königsberg 1863; head of theol. sem. Magdeburg 186674; prof. Rostock 1874. Works include August Neander; Friede im Herrn; Luther und die evangelische Kirche; Vom Menschensohn und vom Logos; Friedrich Adolf Philippi.
(181056). Composer; b. Zwickau, Ger.; educ. Leipzig. Founded and ed. Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift für Musik; other works include an opera; symphonies; overtures; piano pieces; songs; a Mass; a Requiem.
(Schuppe; Schuppius; 161061). B. Giessen, Ger.; studied philos., and theol. at Marburg; prof. Marburg 1635, also preacher 1643; court preacher, consistorial councillor, and inspector at Braubach 1646; pastor Hamburg 1649; advocated ch. reform, but his writings displeased many. Hymnist.
(18441910). B. Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, and Heidelberg; prof. Leipzig, Giessen, Kiel, and Göttingen. Founded and ed. Theologische Literaturzeitung; other works include Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte (2d ed. titled Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi). See also Harnack, Karl Gustav Adolf von.
(Schurf; Schcürpf; Hieronymus; ca. 14801554). Brother of A. Schurff*; b. Saint Gall, Switz.; educ. Basel and Tübingen; prof. law Wittenberg; accompanied M. Luther to Worms; prof. Frankfurt an der Oder. Works include Consiliorum centuries tres. See also Frederick III (14631525).
(Schürman; 160778). B. Cologne, Ger.; lived in Utrecht from 1623; linguist and artist; joined Labadists at 60 (see Labadie, Jean de). Works include Pensées sur la Réformation nécessaire à présent à l'Eglise de Christ.
(Augustus; 17801835). B. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Leipzig and Jena; held a mediating position bet. rationalism and supernaturalism. Writings include an epitome of Christian theol.; a work on eloquence; a historicocritical introd. to the NT
H. J. Moser, Heinrich Schütz: His Life and Work, tr. C. F. Pfatteicher (St. Louis, 1959); E. H. Müller von Asow, Heinrich Schütz (Leipzig, 1925); F. Spitta, Heinrich Schütz, ein Meister der musica sacra (Halle, 1925).
(164090). B. Frankfurt am Main; educ. Tübingen; lawyer Frankfurt; friend of P. J. Spener* (see also Pietism); later, under influence of J. W. Petersen,* he became a separatist. Hymnist; wrote Sei Lob und Ehr' dem höchsten Gut.
(181172). RC hist.; b. Hassfurt, Lower Franconia, N Bav., Ger.; priest 1834; prof. ch. hist. and canon law Würzburg 1840. Tried to reconcile RC consciousness with scientific world view. Retired 1851.
(April 5 [4?], 1819May 29, 1905). B. Horneburg, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen and Jena; private tutor Dorum, Hannover; ordained 1843; miss. Leopoldina, Bahia, Brazil; to US 1850; pastor Neu-Bielefeld (now Black Jack), St. Louis Co., Missouri, September 1850; joined Mo. Syn. October 1850; pastor 185181, asst. 188199 Cleveland, Ohio; helped popularize use of Christmas tree in Am. chs. Pres. Cen. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 186078; pres. Mo. Syn. 187899. Commissioned by the Mo. Syn. 1890 to prepare a catechism; it appeared 1896 and became known as the Schwan Catechism.
E. W. Meier, The Life and Work of Henry C. Schwan As Pastor and Missionary, CHIQ, XXIV, No. 3 (October 1951), 132139; No. 4 (January 1952), 145172; XXV, No. 2 (July 1952), 7285; No. 3 (October 1952), 97121; K. Niermann, Did Schwan Do Mission Work in Brazil? CHIQ, XXV, No. 3 (October 1952), 122124.
(October 22, 1726February 13, 1798). B. Sonnenburg, near Küstrin (Cüstrin). Brandenburg, Prussia: educ. Halle; ordained Copenhagen 1749; miss. to Tranquebar 1750; to Trichinopely 1762; severed connection with the Dan.-Halle Miss. 1767 and became a miss. of the Ch. of Eng.; moved to Tanjore in the late 1770s and d. there.
(18451920). B. Kornmünster, Württemberg, Ger.; taught in Jaffa 1869, Beirut 1880; pastor Rosenberg and Binau, Baden, 1887. Held that Jesus is the ideal of humanity; rejected Trin., sacraments, justification, ministry, and ch. organization. Works include 60 Sätze gegen die Irrlehren der Christenheit.
(March 21, 1813June 21, 1887). B. Hagenbüchach, near Langenzenn, Bav., Ger.; educ. Dresden miss. sem. (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission); ordained 1842; miss. to India 1843; 184549 dir. of sem. founded 1842 by J. H. K. Cordes*; head of miss. station Poreiar 185051; based at Trichinopoly 185259, Mayavaram (called Mayuram since 1949) 185969, Tranquebar 187084; resigned because of eye trouble; d. Tranquebar.
(181285). Ev. theol.; b. Wick, on Rügen is., Ger.; educ. Halle, Berlin, and Greifswald; taught at Halle; court preacher Gotha 1856; gen. supt. in state ch. 1877; advocated freedom for ch. in doctrine, cultus, and govt.; cofounder Deutscher Protestantenverein (Ger. Protestant* Union); rationalist. Works include Das Wesen der Religion.
(180985). RC theol.; b. Vienna, Austria; abp. Salzburg 1836; cardinal 1842; prince abp. Prague 1850. Opposed liberalism and Protestantism; championed ultramontanism*; opposed doctrine of papal infallibility.*
(Schweblin; ca. 14901540). B. Pforzheim, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Heidelberg; mem. Hospitallers of the Holy Spirit (brotherhood of knights that received papal sanction 1198); ev. preacher 1519; left Hospitallers 1521. Reformer of Zweibrücken. Works include Form und Maass, wie es von den Predigern des Fürstentums Zweibrücken in nachfolgenden Mängeln soll gehalten werden.
(Karl; 181957). B. Michelbach, near Schwäbisch-Hall, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; student of F. C. Baur*; prof. Tübingen. Works include Das nachapostolische Zeitalter in den Hauptmonlenten seiner Entwicklung; Gesehichte der Philosophic im Umriss; Römische Geschichte.
(18751965). Cleric, philos., physician, musician; b. Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace; educ. Strasbourg; med. miss. to Lambaréné, Fr. Equatorial Afr., 1913; emphasized apocalyptic element in the teaching of Jesus; did not adhere to fundamental Christian doctrines, e.g., deity of Christ; held that all world views based on nature are pessimistic, since nature is ultimately life-denying, and hence man must affirm his will to live, developing a philosophy of love; his ethics stressed reverence for life. Works include Kulturphilosophie; Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschang; Gesehichte der Paulinisehen Forschang von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart; Das Christentum und die Weltreligionen; Das Problem des Friedens in der heutigen Welt; Johann Sebastian Bach. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580. 13; Widor, Charles Marie Jean Albert.
(180888). Ref. dogmatician; b. Murten (Morat), Switz.; educ. Zurich and Berlin; prof. 1840, pastor 1844 Zurich; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher.* Works include Homiletik der evangehlisch-protestantisehen Kirche systematisch dargestellt; Die Glaubenslehre der evangelisch-reformirten Kirche dargestellt und aus den Quellen belegt; Pastoraltheologie, oder Lehre von der Seelsorge des evangelischen Pfarrers.
(Schwenckfeld; Schwenkfeldt; Kaspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig; Casper; Caspar; ca. 1489/901561). Prot. mystic; b. Ossig (Ossigk; Ossing), near Liegnitz, Silesia; educ. Cologne and Frankfurt an der Oder; not ordained; Hofrat Liegnitz 151823; supported the Reformation from probably 1517/18, helped introd. it in Silesia, but was soon estranged from it; rejected justification, Scripture as the only source and norm of faith, efficacy of sacraments as means of grace, pedobaptism, and the AC; fled persecution from place to place; followers called Schwenkfelders* or Schwenkfeldians. See also Flacius Illyricus, Matthias; Frecht, Martin.
2. After Schwenkfeld's death they met occasionally, called themselves Confessors of the Glory of Christ, but did not organize. Ca. 200 of them emigrated to Pennsylvania 1734 to escape persecution, settling esp. in Montgomery, Bucks, Berks, and Lehigh Cos.; by 1782 they organized a ch.; 1st ch. built 1790.
3. They hold a Eutychian monophysite theory of deification of Christ's human nature. The Lord's Supper, symbol of Christ's humanity and divinity, is regarded as a means of spiritual nourishment, but without change of elements. The mode of baptism is regarded as unimportant; the sacrament's efficacy as a means of grace is denied. Since 1895 they no longer object to war, secret societies, and oaths.
(Schwerdfeger; June 4, 17341803). B. Burgbernheim, Bav., Ger.; educ. Erlangen; to Am. 1753 or 1754; served congs, in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York; joined Pennsylvania Ministerium 1762; helped organize New York Ministerium 1786; served congs, in Dundas Co., Ont., Can., from ca. 1790/91. See also Canada, B 4.
Originally designating all knowledge or learning, the term science has come to be limited to the systematized knowledge and study of the physical world. Logic and math are sometimes called abstract sciences. Concrete sciences are either physical science (astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology) or biological science (zoology, botany, bacteriology, paleontology), or cut across both (biochemistry, biophysics).
The distinguishing characteristic of science compared to other fields of accurate knowledge is emphasis on the method used, i. e., the scientific method. In the early hist. of science, authority was held supreme, and for cents. the supreme authority was Aristotle.* The type of reasoning followed was deduction almost without exception. The generalized principle was cited, based on authority, and the specific point in question was settled by application of this gen. principle.
Revolting against this often unfruitful and inaccurate method, F. Bacon* gave impetus to the inductive method applied by G. Galilei* in his demonstration of laws governing falling bodies. Bacon's extreme view that only the inductive method should be allowed has been supplanted by a compromise. The scientific method in modern science involves observation, formulation of a hypothesis, directed and controlled experimentation, drawing of conclusions. Conclusions thus reached are tentative, subject to review and possible revision and/or change on discovery of new facts. The deductive method is used in visualizing possible results expected from experimentation after a hypothesis has been formulated.
Science tries to understand completely the nature of matter and the laws relating to its forms and manifestations. It assumes the principle of causality.*
Gen. reluctance to allow or consider nonphysical or nonmaterial evidence is perhaps part of the reason for so-called conflicts bet. science and religion. The Christian religion concerns itself with matters outside the realm of physical measurement. OTW
O. T. Walle, Toward an Evangelical Philosophy of Science, CTM, XXX (1959), 803823.
Organized 1939 to face the crisis in our culture by an experiment in corporate thinking, to build more secure foundations for democracy, and to explore the possibilities of collaboration between the various disciplines it represents. Sponsors various seminars, small group conferences, and publications. HQ NYC.
Thesis that factual knowledge based on rational interpretation of sensory evidence is the only valid knowledge. On a broader base it includes some nonsensory data drawn, e.g., from introspective observation. Excludes moral, aesthetic, and religious experience. Proponents include representatives of logical* positivism.
Originated in the early 1950s in the US by Lafayette Ronald Hubbard 191186; b. Tilden, Nebraska) The way was prepared for it 1950 by Hubbard's Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. Hubbard distinguished bet. the two as having very different uses, dianetics being secular and scientology religious; the latter uses such terms as thetan (soul, life energy) and conceives of the physical universe as MEST (acronym for matter, energy, space, time). Beliefs include immortality and reincarnation.
(Gasparus; Gaspar Sciopus; Kaspar [or Caspar] Schoppe; Schoppius; pseudonym Christoph von Ungersdorf[f], or Ungerssdorff; 15761649). B. Neumarkt, Upper Palatinate; educ. Heidelberg, Altdorf, Ingolstadt; RC 1598; worked in curia (see Curia, 2); conflict with Jesuits led to his retirement. Works include Commentatio de arte critica; Pro auctoritate ecclesiae; De variis fidei controversiis.
(18431921). B. Lenawee Co., Michigan; lawyer in Kansas 1869; converted in St. Louis, Missouri, 1879; ordained Cong. 1882. Pastor Dallas, Texas 188295, 190207; Northfield, Massachusetts 18951902. Spent later yrs. writing and lecturing. Held that there were 7 dispensations in each of which God's relation to man was different. Ed. The Scofield Reference Bible. Other works include Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth; Plain Papers on the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit; What Do The Prophets Say?
Kingdom (founded early in the 11th c.) united 1603 with England* under James* I in the Union of the Crowns or the Personal Union of England and Scotland; occupies the N ca. 37% of the main Brit. is., and the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland, and smaller islands. Area (including islands): ca. 30,400 sq. mi. The people are of diverse origin, including Celts, Angles, and Normans, with heavy Irish immigration in the 19th c. Human settlement dates to the 3d millennium BC Romans who occupied southern areas of the land from the 1st to the 4th cents. AD called it Caledonia. Languages include Gaelic, Lallans (Scots vernacular), and English. The Ch. of Scot. is the est. religion; the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. has 1 cong. in Scot., where it began work 1962; others include RC, Episc., Bap., Cong., and Meth. See also Celtic Church, 3, 7; Chalmers, Thomas; Great Britain; Scotch Confession of Faith; Scotland, Reformation in.
1. The 1st wave of the Reformation was Luth. (see Hamilton, Patrick). Calvinism was est. largely through the influence of J. Knox.* The struggle bet. Presbyterianism and Episcopalianism lasted more than a c. In 1560 parliament adopted the confession of faith drawn up by Knox et al. and the Ref. Ch. was est. on Presb. lines. Knox's confession was replaced 1647 by the Westminster Confession 1647 (see Presbyterian Confessions, 3) and the Westminster* Catechisms 1648. With the revolution of 1688 and the fall of James II (see England, C 1) Scot. became overwhelmingly Presb. Union with Eng. 1707 (see Great Britain) brought the ch. in Scot. no share in the pol. and industrial prosperity that followed. Religious indifference reflected in deism* and the claim of the crown and landed aristocracy to clerical patronage* conflicted with Presb. concepts. Resultant dissatisfaction led to secession (see Erskine, Ebenezer; Presbyterian Churches, 1) and organization of the Ref. Presb. Ch. (see Macmillan, John; Presbyterian Churches, 1) and the Relief* Ch. In course of a c. the no. of separatist organizations had grown to ca. 500 congs. The United Secession Ch. was formed 1820, the United Presb. Ch. 1847 (see Presbyterian Churches, 1).
2. At the beginning of the 19th c. a reawakening took place under T. Chalmers* et al. The patronage struggle resumed and led to The Disruption and the organization of the Free* Ch. of Scot. 1843 (see also Presbyterian Churches, 1). The Free Ch. doubled its membership in the next 60 yrs. The right of patronage was removed by parliament 1874. Subsequently the Est. Ch. gained in popularity.
At the end of the 19th c. there were 3 large Presb. chs.: the Est. Ch., the Free Ch., and the United Presb. Ch. The difference bet. them principally involved the relation bet. ch. and state. Negotiations for union of the Free and United chs. opened 1863, broke off 1873, resumed 1896, resulted 1900 in organization of the United* Free Ch. of Scot. A small minority in the Free Ch. opposed union, declared itself to be the only true and legitimate Free Ch., and claimed all property of the Free Ch. Settlement was reached 1904.
3. Scotch Episc. Ch. (Scottish Episc. Ch.; Episc. Ch. of Scot.). Restoration of Charles II 1660 (crowned king Scot. January 1, 1651; defeated by O. Cromwell* at Worcester September 1, 1651; see also England, C 1) was followed by imposition of episcopacy on Scot. The Episc. Ch. came to rival the Presb. Ch. But after the death of Anne (16651714; Stuart queen Gt. Brit. and Ireland 170214) the Episcopalians were supposed to favor James, the Pretender, were regarded with distrust, and suffered repression under The House of Hanover, beginning with George I (George Louis; 16601727; king Gt. Brit. and Ireland 171427). Episcopal clerics regained some freedom 1719 after taking the oath of allegiance; many mems. continued to be nonjurors. The 2d Jacobite Rebellion 174546 nearly completed the destruction of Scotch Episcopalianism, which was regarded with renewed suspicion by The House of Hanover. But at the time of George III (George William Frederick; 17381820; king Gt. Brit. and Ireland 17601820) Episcopalianism clearly ceased to be a nonjuring ch. Restrictive measures were nearly all successively removed 1792, 1840, 1864.
4. Congregationalists. J. Glas(s), deposed from the Presb. ministry for indep., views 1728, formed an indep. ch. at Dundee ca. 1730. Other indep. chs. were organized later. See also Disciples of Christ, 1. The Evangelical* Union was formed 1843, the Cong. Union 1863. The Cong. and Ev. Unions (except for a minority of the latter) united 1896 to form the Cong. Union of Scot. The Bap. Union formed ca. 1750/65 and was comparatively small, Calvinistic in doctrine, simple in worship, and cong. in organization.
6. When the Scot. parliament abrogated papal authority 1560 (see also 1), the RC Ch. in Scot. foundered almost completely. It survived only as a minority, esp. among Highlanders of Gaelic tongue. Its hierarchy was reorganized 1878.
(186796). B. near Glasgow, Scot.; to Am. 1879; Internat. Miss. Alliance (see Evangelistic Associations, 5) miss. to Banana, Congo, 1891; returned to US because of failing health; helped found the Afr. Inland Miss. (see Africa, E 5) 1895; helped found miss. at Nzawi (Nzawe), in Kenya Colony, which after his death spread to Tanganyika, Uganda, Congo (Kinshasa), Chad, and Sudan.
(various pseudonyms; 17721832). B. Edinburgh, Scot.; lawyer, poet, novelist, historian, biographer. Poetic works as hymnist include a condensed rendering of Dies* irae (That Day of Wrath, That Dreadful Day); When Israel of the Lord Beloved (from Ivanhoe).
(Lat. Scripture interprets Scripture). The hermeneutical principle that Scripture interprets itself, i. e., the meaning of a passage is to be understood in the context and light of other passages. The principle has also been stated: Scriptura sacra sui ipsius interpres (Lat. Sacred Scripture [is] its own interpreter). See also Analogy of Faith; Exegesis, 7; Hermeneutics, 4.
(pseudonym Gotthold; 162993). B. Rendsburg, Schleswig-Holstein, NW Ger.; educ. Rostock; archdeacon Stendal 1653; pastor Magdeburg 1667, where he also held other positions; court preacher Quedlinburg 1690; hymnist. Works include Seelen-Schatz and Gottholds Zufälliger Andachten Vier Hundert; hymns include Der lieben Sonne Licht und Pracht.
(from Lat. for search, investigate, examine). 1. In the early ch., examination of the faith and life of candidates for baptism; made on 7 days ending Ash Wednesday 2. In RCm, a mode of election (esp. of a pope by ballots of cardinals); also the examination of candidates for holy orders.
(17931855). B. Freehold, New Jersey; educ. coll. of New Jersey (later called Princeton U.) and Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons, NYC; Dutch Ref. Ch. miss. sent by ABCFM to Ceylon 1819; transferred to Madras 1836 for literary work; in the US 184246; from Madras to the Cape of Good Hope 1854 because of failing health.
Four sixth-century monks who came from the region south of the mouth of the Danube. They advocated a christology* which was both Chalcedonian and Cyrillian as well as an Augustinian doctrine of grace*. See Augustine of Hippo; Chalcedon, Council of, Christ Jesus; Christology; Cyril of Alexandria; Grace. These monks made an important contribution to christology in the wake of Chalcedon by proposing the formula one of the Trinity was crucified in the flesh. This formula served to refute the tendency, seen by the Scythian monks as Nestorian, (see Nestorianism) to interpret Chalcedon as ascribing Christ's miracles to his divine nature while ascribing his suffering only to his human nature. Led by John Maxentius, the Scythian monks argued for this formula at Constantinople but were opposed by legates from Rome and by the Sleepless Monks. Failing to gain acceptance in Constantinople, they traveled to Rome in 519 in hopes of winning Pope Hormisdas' support. Despite an initial warm reception and supportive letters from Justinian* who had by then changed his mind about them, they were unable to win over the pope. In 520, the pope sent them away without giving his judgment on their position. Finally, they wrote a letter to the bishops of North Africa who at that time were exiled by the Vandals to Sardinia. Fulgentius of Ruspe composed the reply of the African bishops accepting the christological formula as well as the monks' Augustinian doctrine of grace (though Fulgentius preferred to refer to Christ as one person of the Trinity rather than one of the Trinity). Eventually the Scythian formula was approved by the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. See Constantinople, Councils of. DRM
Patrick T. R. Gray, The Defense of Chalcedon in the East. Studies in the History of Christian Thought, ed. Heiko A. Oberman, v. 20 (Leiden, 1979); Aloys Grillmeier, S.J., Christ in Christian Tradition. Volume Two: From the Council of Chalcedon (451) to Gregory the Great (590604). Trans. John Cawte and Pauline Allen (Louisville, 1995); John Maxentius, Libellus Fidei. Ed. François Glorie. Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 85A (Turnholt, 1978) pp. 625; Edward Schwartz, Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum. Tome 4, vol. 2, Concilium Univerale Constantinopolitanum Sub lustiniano Habitum. Trübner, 1934, ixxxii.
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