(Saadiah; Seadiah; Saadja; Arab.: Sa'id al-Fayyumi; ca. 882/892942). Jewish scholar and commentator; b. Dilaz, Faiyum, Egypt; gaon (head) of Talmudic academy at Sura, Babylonia. Tr. most of the Bible into Arabic. Other works include poetry; a grammatical treatise; polemical writings. See also Bible Versions, F; Grammars, A; Lexicons, A.
(439ca. 531/532). B. Cappadocia; anchorite; founder and cofounder of lauras* in Palestine, including the Great Laura (called Mar Saba) 483, SE of Jerusalem, and the New Laura (see also Leontius of Byzantium) 507.
(18391901). Prot. theol.; b. Vallon, Ardèche dept., S Fr.; educ. at the Prot. theol. faculty of Montauban and at Tübingen and Heidelberg; pastor 4 yrs.; prof. Ref. dogmatics Strasbourg ca. 1867/68ca. 1872/73; expelled for his Fr. sympathies; taught in École libre des sciences religieuses, Paris, 1873; prof. in the Prot. theol. faculty Paris 1877; joined the religious science dept. of the École des Hautes Etudes at the Sorbonne, Paris, 1886; dean of the theol. faculty 1895. Conservative at first, later liberal. Works include Esquisse d'une philosophie de la religion d'après la psychologie et l'histoire; Les Religions d'autorite et la religion de l'esprit. See also Fideism.
2. Belief that all enjoyment and unnecessary work should be avoided on Sunday, in order to enforce sobriety and pious devotion. In Eng. a controversy on the observance of the Sabbath arose in the last part of the reign of Elizabeth* I. To counteract Puritanism (see Puritans), James* I issued a Declaration for Sports on the Lord's Day (known as The Book of Sports) 1617/18, defining recreation permissible on Sunday (e.g., archery and dancing). But the Controversy continued and the book was publicly burned 1643 by order of parliament.
1. Day of rest corresponding to the day of rest after creation (Gn 2:3; Ex 20:8, 11; 31:17).
2. When God gave the Israelites manna in double portion on the 6th day, they asked Moses what it meant; Moses said that half of the double portion was for the Sabbath on the 7th day (Ex 16:2230). This has been regarded as the beginning of Sabbath observance. Cf. Dt 5:1215.
3. God gave the Israelites Sabbath laws requiring, e.g., cessation from work (Ex 20:10) and increased offerings (Nm 28:910). The Sabbath was to be a reminder of creation (Ex 20:8, 11) and of the exodus from Egypt (Dt 5:15).
4. Most Christians regard the OT Sabbath laws as not binding in the NT (see also Sabbatarianism). Jesus defended a breach of the Sabbath commandment (Mk 2:2328): (a) David broke a ceremonial law by eating showbread (1 Sm 21:16); (b) The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath; (c) The Son of Man is Lord also of the Sabbath.
5. Some OT observances, including the Sabbath. were only foreshadows of Christ (Cl 2:1617).
6. Jewish Christians continued to observe the 7th day as Sabbath for a time, but Sunday* soon emerged, by choice of Christians, as the day of worship because Christ had risen on that day (Mt 28:110); Christ's appearance on the following Sunday (Jn. 20:2629) and Pentecost (see Church Year, 10) helped mark the day. Cf. Acts 20:7; Rv 1:10. Civil regulations for Sunday observance were added at the time of Constantine* I and later. The view developed in 17th-c. Eng. that Sunday is the NT Sabbath (see also Presbyterian Confessions, 3).
7. There is no divinely appointed day of rest in the NT
8. AC XXVIII 5564: It is proper for the Christian assembly to keep such ordinances [e.g., regarding Sunday] for the sake of love and peace, to be obedient to the bishops and parish ministers in such matters, and to observe the regulations in such a way that one does not give offense to another and so that there may be no disorder or unbecoming conduct in the church. However, consciences should not be burdened by contending that such things are necessary for salvation or that it is a sin to omit them, even when no offense is given to others, just as no one would say that a woman commits a sin if without offense to others she goes out with uncovered head.
Of like character is the observance of Sunday, Easter, Pentecost, and similar holy days and usages. Those who consider the appointment of Sunday in place of the Sabbath as a necessary institution are very much mistaken, for the Holy Scriptures have abrogated the Sabbath and teach that after the revelation of the Gospel all ceremonies of the old law may be omitted. Nevertheless, because it was necessary to appoint a certain day so that the people might know when they ought to assemble, the Christian church appointed Sunday for this purpose, and it was the more inclined and pleased to do this in order that the people might have an example of Christian liberty and might know that the keeping neither of the Sabbath nor of any other day is necessary.
There are many faculty discussions of the transformation of the law, of the ceremonies of the New Testament, and of the change of the Sabbath, all of which have arisen from the false and erroneous opinion that in Christendom one must have services of God like the Levitical or Jewish services and that Christ commanded the apostles and bishops to devise new ceremonies which would be necessary for salvation. Such errors were introduced into Christendom when the righteousness of faith was no longer taught and preached with clarity and purity. Some argue that although Sunday must not be kept as of divine obligation, it must nevertheless be kept as almost of divine obligation, and they prescribe the kind and amount of work that may be done on the day of rest. What are such discussions but snares of conscience? For although they undertake to lighten and mitigate human regulations, yet there can be no moderation or mitigation as long as the opinion remains and prevails that their observance is necessary. And this opinion will remain as long as there is no understanding of the righteousness of faith and Christian liberty.
In RCm, privilege granted Carmelites* and related confraternities: special intercession of Mary and early release from purgatory, provided certain conditions have been fulfilled. The name is drawn from the fact that Saturday (the Sabbath*) is regarded as Mary's day.
(fl. early 3d c. AD). Leader of modalistic monarchians at Rome; excommunicated by Calixtus I ca. 220; his view, which included patripassianism,* was called Sabellianism, his followers Sabellians. See also Monarchianism, B 2, 6.
(14941576). Poet, dramatist; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; trained to be shoemaker; became Meistersinger; cen. figure in W. R. Wagner's* Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Works include Die Wittenbergisch Nachtigall, written in M. Luther's honor. See also Religions Drama, 3.
(170386). Father of F. S. G. Sack*; Ref. theol.; b. Harzgerode, Ger.; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Leiden; pastor Magdeburg 1731; court preacher Berlin 1740. Works include Vertheidigter Glaube der Christen.
(17381817). Son of A. F. W. Sack*; father of K. H. Sack*; b. Magdeburg, Ger.; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and in Eng.; tutor; preacher Magdeburg 176977; court and cathedral preacher Berlin 1777; mem. high consistory 1786; bp. of the Ev. Ch. 1816; advocated Prussian* Union. Works include Über die Vereinigung der beiden protestantischen Kirchenparteien in der Preussischen Mortarchie.
(ca. 1789/901875). Son of F. S. G. Sack*; b. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; soldier and chaplain; toured Ger., Holland, and Eng.; taught at Berlin and Bonn; also became pastor Bonn. Works include Die christliche Apologetik; Die christliche Polemik.
A. In ecclesiastical and late Lat., sacramentum (something to be kept sacred) has various meanings, e.g., (1) a secret; (2) the gospel revelation; (3) a mystery; (4) a sacrament (in the sense of ch. rites, e.g., Baptism and Communion); (5) the office of the ministry.
The term has been traced to the time of Tertullian, when it was applied, e.g., to Christian rites. The Vulgate uses sacramentum for the Gk. word mysterion Eph 1:9; 3:3, 9; 5:32; Cl 1:2627; 1 Ti 3:16; Rv 1:20; 17:7. In all these passages the KJV and RSV use the word mystery.
B. M. Luther: The sacred writings have only 1 sacramentum, i. e., Christ Jesus (WA 6, 97); he explains this by references to OT and NT passages in which he uses the word Geheimnis (mystery) in his Ger. Bible tr. He compares the great sacramentum of the incarnation of the Son of God with Jacob's ladder (WA 43, 582); here too sacramentum is tr. Geheimnis in the Walch eds. But when, in the same passage, he uses the pl. sacramenta, the Walch eds. tr. Sacramente (Eng.: He descends to us through the Word and the sacraments).
C. Luther (WA 56, 321322) quotes Augustine of Hippo (De trinitate, IV iii 6 and IV xx 27): To cause both our resurrections, He [Christ] appointed beforehand and set forth in sacramentum and type His own one resurrection. In it was wrought a sacramentum as regards the inner man. In this passage, sacramentum has been tr. mystery.
D. Without the mystery of the incarnation we would not have our liturgical sacraments. We are baptized into the death of the incarnate Son of God (Ro 6:3) and in Communion receive His body and blood (Mt 26:2628).
E. The doer, or agent (Lat. agens), in the sacraments is Christ Himself. The act performed by a minister is not simply a signum significans (sign that means something) but a signum efficax (creative sign). Hence Luther not only asks: What does such baptizing with water signify? but also says: It effects forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and grants eternal salvation to all who believe, as the Word and promise of God declare. Baptism [is] a gracious water of life and a washing of regeneration in the Holy Spirit, as St. Paul wrote to Titus (3:58). And: Forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation are given to us in the sacrament [of the altar]. (SC IV 6, 10; VI 6)
The community in which the sacraments are administered is the ch., the body of Christ. Luther: In the sacrament [of the altar] we are all, as it were, baked into 1 cake. For there is 1 [Ger. einerlei] faith, 1 confession, love, and hope. Christ instituted this sacrament to keep the Christians together. (WA 52, 209 and 210)
Irenaeus: Those who do not partake of [Christ] are neither nourished into life from the mother's breasts nor do they enjoy that most limpid fountain which issues from the body of Christ. (Adversus haereses, III xxiv 1)
F. The union effected by faith bet. Christ and the believer is called mystical union. We are baptized into Christ Jesus (Ro 6:3). In Communion, the cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread (1 Co 10:1617). But it is not the mere performance of a sacrament, nor even the reception of the body and blood of Christ, that creates the mystical union. For an unbeliever also receives the body and blood of Christ in Communion, but not to salvation; he does not thereby enter into the mystical union (1 Co 11:2729). Faith alone joins one to Christ and so effects the mystical union.
G. These sacraments have been called holy mysteries of sublime purity and awesome mysteries of trembling (not of fear, but of joy).
H. Proper observance of the sacraments follows the directions of Christ's institution. Communion is observed in remembrance of Him. To remember Christ is to remember His benefits and realize that they are truly offered to us (AC XXIV 31 [Lat.]). The remembrance of Christ is the remembrance of Christ's blessings and the acceptance of them by faith, so that they make us alive (Ap XXIV 72). The command of Christ, 'Do this,' which comprehends the whole action or administration of this sacrament (namely, that in a Christian assembly we take bread and wine, consecrate it, distribute it, receive it, eat and drink it, and therewith proclaim the Lord's death), must be kept integrally and inviolately. (FC SD VII 84)
I. Luther calls Baptism not only important and precious, but a priceless medicine, an inexpressible, infinite, divine treasure (LC IV 26, 34, 37, 43) and the Lord's Supper a great and precious treasure, gift, and blessing, a pure, wholesome, soothing medicine which aids and quickens us in both soul and body. (LC V 22, 29, 36, 56, 68, 78)
K. Fellowship with Christ involves fellowship with one another (1 Jn 1:67; cf. Ro 12:45; Eph 4:25). Luther: Disharmony and discord conflict with the Sacrament of the Altar. The name is 'Communion,' the reality [Lat. res] [is] the unity of hearts, as [there is] 1 faith, 1 Baptism, 1 Lord, 1 hope. (WA 1, 329)
L. The no. of sacraments depends either on arbitrary listing or on definition of sacrament. RCs list 7 sacraments, without defining sacrament. Ap XII 41: Absolution* may properly be called a sacrament of penitence; this must be understood in the sense of LC IV 74: Baptism comprehends also the 3d sacrament, formerly called Penance, which is really nothing else than Baptism. If we define sacraments as 'rites which have the command of God and to which the promise of grace has been added,' we can easily determine which are sacraments in the strict sense. The genuine sacraments, therefore, are Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and absolution (which is the sacrament of penitence). If ordination is interpreted this way, we shall not object either to calling the laying on of hands a sacrament. Ultimately, if we should list as sacraments all the things that have God's command and a promise added to them, then why not prayer, which can most truly be called a sacrament? (Ap XIII 3, 4, 12, 16). Luther: A sacrament must have 2 things for sure: God's Word and the instituted external sign [or means, or element; Ger. Zeichen]; these we find only in the 2 sacraments [Baptism and Communion]. (WA 11, 454) ES
A. C. Piepkorn, What the Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Church Have to Say About Worship and the Sacraments (St. Louis, 1952).
Eating and drinking that takes place only in the Lord's Supper: by it Christ's body and blood are received in, with, and under the bread and wine. See also Grace, Means of, IV, 3.
1. View and practice that assigns to sacraments a higher inherent saving power than the Word. 2. Belief that sacraments are inherently efficacious and necessary to salvation and can bestow grace on the soul. 3. Belief that nature and life have spiritual meaning and are symbols of the divine.
See also Sacramentarian.
In RCm, holy signs, similar to sacraments, but instituted by the ch., that signify effects, esp. spiritual, obtained not directly, but through the intercession of the ch.; they dispose men to receive the main effect of sacraments and make various occasions holy. Sacramentals include priestly blessings and the prayers and ceremonies of the RC ritual. Blessed objects (e.g., palms, candles, holy water, medals, scapulars) are not sacramentals in the strict sense but only in a derived sense.
Term applied by M. Luther to H. Zwingli,* J. Oecolampadius,* and others (cf. St. L. ed., XVII, 2176) who held that in Communion bread and wine are Christ's body and blood only in a sacramental (i. e., metaphorical) sense. The term has also been used to denote sacramentalists (see Sacramentalism).
See also Service Books.
The Council of Trent* fixed the no. of sacraments at 7 (baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, matrimony) and called them necessary for salvation (Sess. VII, Canons 1 and 4). Baptism and penance are called sacraments of the dead, because they are administered to those dead in sin; the others, sacraments of the living. Baptism, confirmation, and order are held to imprint an indelible character (see Character indelebilis) on the soul and therefore cannot be repeated. The validity of a sacrament is not made dependent on the personal worthiness of the officiating priest, provided he has the intention of doing, in the sacrament, what the ch. does. See also Grace, Means of, I 8; Opus operatum; Roman Catholic Church, The, B 4, 6, 7; Sacrament and the Sacraments; William of Auxerre.
Devotion paid in the RC Ch. to the physical heart of Jesus. An early exponent was Gertrude the Great (see Gertrude, 1). M. M. Alacoque* claimed private revelations in the matter 167375. Jesuits supported her claims with increasing success. Leo XIII (see Popes, 29) consecrated the world to the Sacred Heart 1899. See also Heart of Mary, Immaculate.
The Hinayana school of Buddhism* has its sacred canon in Pali, mainly in Tipitaka. The Mahayana school of Buddhism has its sacred literature in Skt.; it includes Saddharmapundarika (Lotus of Good Religion [or of the Good Law; or of the True Doctrine]), Sukhavativyuha (Detailed Account of the Land of Bliss), Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom), and Lankavatara Sutra (Narrative of an incarnation [of Buddha] in Ceylon; recognized text of the Zen school). Hinduism* began under influence of the Vedas,* the Rig-Veda alone consisting of ca. 1,000 hymns addressed to the gods during sacrifice. Later Hindu religious literature includes the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and 18 Puranas (which deal with cosmogony, hist., and religious philos.). See also Church of Christ, Scientist; Confucianism, 2; Holy Scripture; Islam, 2; Judaism; Latter Day Saints; Shastras.
All desecration, or profanation, of holy things by despising, polluting, or misusing things consecrated; cf. Lv 10:17; 19:8; Nm 3:4; 2 Sm 6:67; 2 Ch 26:1621; Mt 21:1213; Ro 2:22; 1 Co 3:17.
One in charge of sacred vessels, vestments, and whatever else is needed for sacred functions; in gen., one charged with the care of a ch. and its sacristy and furnishings; sometimes equivalent to sexton.* See also Verger.
Room in, or attached to, a ch. (and usually near the altar), where vestments, sacred vessels, altar linen and hangings, and sometimes ch. records are kept. Often used by officiants to prepare for a service. Often called vestry.*
(Holywood; perhaps ca. 1256). B. perhaps Halifax (Yorkshire) or in Ireland or Scot.; canon regular (see Canons Regular) of the order of St. Augustine (see Augustinian Hermits) in the monastery of Holywood, Nithsdale; later prof. math. Paris, Fr. Works include Sphoera mundi, seu de computo ecclesiastico; De algorismo.
(14771547). B. Modena, It.; bp. Carpentras, Fr., 1517; cardinal 1536; mem. Paul* III's commission for reform (see also Contarini, Gasparo); papal legate to Fr. 1542; active at Council of Trent.* See also Counter Reformation, 4.
Term coined by C. Baronius* for ca. 880ca. 1046 (last yrs. of the Carolingians to the beginning of the Gregorian reform [named after Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) but begun under Clement II (Suidger; Suitger; pope 104647)]), a period darkened esp. in Fr. and more esp. It. by inner decay and outer threats by Saracens, Vikings, and Hung., which adversely affected morals, civil order, and cultural development. See also Dark Age(s).
(Kaspar; Schütze; 164394). Nephew of T. Sagittarius*; b. Lüneburg, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt, Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena, and Altdorf; rector Saalfeld 1668; prof. Jena 1671; specialized in ch. hist. of Saxony and Thuringia. Works include Dissertatio de praecipuis scriptoribus historiae Germanicae.
(15771621). Uncle of C. Sagittarius*; poet; b. Stendal, Ger.; prof. Gk. and metaphysics Jena; rector Breslau. Works include Horatius christianus; Horatius profanus; Disputationes politicae extraordinariae.
(17511832). RC theol.; b. Aresing, near Augsburg, Upper Bav., Ger.; prof. dogmatics Ingolstadt 1780; prof. ethics Dillingen 1784; prof. Ingolstadt 1799, Landshut 1800; bp. Regensburg 1829. Influenced by RC enlightenment movement; avoided scholastic concepts; based his pastoral theol. on Scripture and primitive Christianity. Works include Vernunftlehre für Menschen wie sie sind; Vorlesungen aus der Pastoraltheologie.
Founded at St. Ansgar, Iowa, 1878; supported by St. Ansgar circuit of The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3); became school of The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.; discontinued 1910.
In the N part of the Leeward group of the Leses Antilles in the E Caribbean Sea. Area: ca. 100 sq. mi. Formerly a Brit. possession; indep. 1983. Language: English. Religions (1970): Prot. 76.1% (including Angl. 36.1%, Meth. 32.3%, Moravian 10.3%, other Prot. 7.7%), RC 7.7%, other 5.9%. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
(Josephites; Josephite Fathers; Josephite Missionaries). RC miss. soc. founded 1866 Mill Hill (now in Hendon, suburb of London), Eng., as St. Joseph's Soc. for For. Missions by Herbert Alfred Vaughan (18321903; b. Gloucester, Eng.; 2d bp. Salford 1872; abp. Westminster 1892; cardinal 1893); chief work among Negroes. St. Joseph's Sem., Baltimore, Maryland, was est. 1888. The Am. community formed the new Soc. of St. Joseph, est. 1932.
In the E Caribbean Sea, part of the Windward chain. Area: ca. 150 sq. mi. Former Brit. possession; indep. 1979. Ethnic composition: mostly of Afr. descent. Language: English. Religions (1970): Angl. 47%, Meth. 28%, RC 13%. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
In current ecclesiastical language, saints refers to the faithful departed who have been recognized by the ch. as deserving the title. In RCm this is done by canonization. Luths. have no rite of canonization and ordinarily do not grant the title saint to anyone except those who were canonized before the Reformation.
1. Paying special honor to departed ones (esp. those noted for holy life). In many religions a saint is a superhuman character who mediates bet. divine power and human beings. Cults of such saints existed in Gk. religion, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and other religions, sometimes with stress on ethical life.
2. Early Christian saints were martyrs (see Martyr), honored in their community and soon elsewhere. Services were held above their graves and altars and chs. erected. This developed into the custom of placing relics of saints under or in altars. By the 3d c., belief in the efficacy of the intercession of saints was est.
3. In the early ch., those who had suffered (e.g., imprisonment, torture, exile) for their faith were regarded as martyrs. By ca. the end of the 2d c., confessor* (one who suffered for the faith) and martyr (one who died for the faith) were distinguished. After the Roman persecutions (see Persecution of Christians), a confessor was a Christian noted for virtuous life. Confessors and ascetics were added to saints, making it possible to include Mary and John.
5. In Eastern* Orthodox Chs. the creation of saints is a proclamation rather than a process and is less formal than in the RC Ch. Moral perfection and miraculous acts are prerequisites for sainthood. Veneration of saints is incorporated into the liturgy. See also Menologion; Synaxarion.
6. As the Roman see extended its power it assumed right of canonization. The 1st canonization was that of Ulrich von Augsburg 993 (d. 973; bp. Augsburg 923). Alexander III (see Popes, 9) forbade honoring anyone as saint without permission of the Roman see. Acc. to CIC 1277, 1, only those canonized by the RC Ch. may be publicly venerated. CIC 19992141 prescribe the process of canonization. Acc. to RCm works of saints add to the treasury* of merits. CIC 1255, 1, distinguishes latria,* hyperdulia, and dulia. But the distinction bet. worship and veneration has not always been observed (e.g., D. Attwater, A Catholic Dictionary, 2d ed., rev. [New York, 1956], p. 512, speaks of veneration as worship). Some contemporary RCs affirm the all-sufficient mediation of Christ and try to justify veneration of saints and prayer for their intercession on basis of the doctrine of mystical body of Christ and the communion of saints.
8. The Luth. confessions assume the existence of saints and include them in the communio* sanctorum. Saints pray for the ch. in gen. (Ap XXI 9) but are not mediators of redemption (Ap XXI 1430). Gen. the saints are given the same attributes they had on earth. Prayers to saints are prohibited (SA-II II 25).
9. The Luth. confessions approve honoring the saints (AC XXI 1). They are honored in 3 ways: 1. By thanking God for examples of His mercy; 2. By using the saints as example for strengthening our faith; 3. By imitating their faith and other virtues. (Ap XXI 47) EL
(Seldenus; Willem Salden; pseudonym Christianus Liberinus; 162794). Ref. theol.; b. Utrecht, Neth.; educ. Utrecht; pastor at various places in the Neth.; worked for peace in the ch. Works include Neerlands interest, tot vrede der Kercke.
(18191904). B. Dublin, Ireland; educ. Trin. Coll. (=U. of Dublin); deacon 1844; priest 1845; regius prof. divinity 186688, provost 18881904 Dublin; chancellor St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 18711904. Works include A Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament; The Infallibility of the Church. See also Isagogics, 3.
Pagan superstition regarded salt as effective against demons and corruption. Christian usage included the blessing of salt for various uses, e.g., in connection with Baptism (see also Baptism, Litur gical, 3) and in preparation of holy water. Scripture background includes Lv 2:13; Nm 18:19: Mt 5:13; Mk 9:50; Cl 4:6. See also Amulets.
(16661724). B. Haverhill, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard Coll., Cambridge, Massachusetts; ordained Cong. minister New London, Connecticut, 1691; gov. Connecticut 1707; suggested the Syn. of Saybrook (Connecticut); influential in chartering Yale Coll. and in its removal from Saybrook to New Haven.
1. Founded 1865 in London, Eng., by William Booth (18291912; General Booth; b. Nottingham, Eng.; began revival preaching when he was ca. 16; regular preacher of the Meth. New Connection [see Methodist Churches, 1] 1852); the Salv. Army movement began in a series of informal open air and tent meetings designed to reach the unreached. The 1st name, Christian Mission, was changed to the present name 1878. The movement soon spread to the US, Can., and elsewhere.
2. The Salv. Army has no formal creed and gives little attention to doctrinal differences. In gen., it is Arminian (see Arminianism) and regards sacraments as unessential. Admission to membership is based on pledges to Christian conduct, understood to include total abstinence from intoxicating liquors and harmful drugs. Services are largely informal and include preaching by women, junior meetings, and S. S.
4. Work is divided into field work (spiritual regeneration) and soc. work.
The hist. of Protestantism in Salzburg, long ruled by abps., is largely a hist. of oppression and persecution. In 1588 Prots. in the city of Salzburg were ordered to recant or abandon their property and leave the country; many went to Austria, Swabia, and elsewhere. The strictures were extended to the entire region of Salzburg 161315. Some Prots. went underground. In the 1680s J. Schaitberger* led a group that tried unsuccessfully to gain legal recognition under terms of the Peace of Westphalia.* The last edict of banishment was issued 1731. Many thousands went to Prussia 173233. A small group settled 1734 near Savannah, Georgia, at a place they called Ebenezer. See also Bergmann, Christopher; Bergmann, John Ernest; Boltzius, Johann Martin; Child and Family Service Agencies, 3; Gronau, Israel Christian; Urlsperger, Samuel.
G. G. G. Göcking, Vollkommene Emigrations-Geschichte von denen aus dem Ertz-Bissthum Saltzburg vertriebenen Lutheranern, 2 vols. (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 173437); W. J. Finck, Lutheran Landmarks and Pioneers in America (Philadelphia, 1913); P. A. Strobel, The Salzburgers and Their Descendants (Baltimore, 1855); C. Mauelshagen, Salzburg Lutheran Expulsion and Its Impact (New York. 1962).
(17441811). B. Sömmerda, Ger.; pastor, later teacher, Dessau; founded school at Sehnepfenthal, Thuringia; emphasized the role of nature and family in educ. Works include Über die wirksamsten Mittel, Kindern Religion beyzubringen; Conrad Kiefer. See also Philanthropinism.
(14831533). B. Rottenacker, near Ehingen, Ger.; educ. Freiburg and Tübingen; preacher Brackenheim, near Heilbronn; adherent of M. Luther; dismissed from office; preacher and reformer Ulm; sided with H. Zwingli on the Lord's Supper.
(Samoa Islands; formerly Navigators Islands). Fertile volcanic islands in SW cen. Pacific Ocean; formerly ruled by native chiefs. Divided: Am. Samoa (Eastern Samoa; area: ca. 76 sq. mi.; administered by US, Brit., and Ger. 188999; granted to US 1899) and Territory of Western Samoa (area: ca. 1,133 sq. mi.; granted 1879 to Ger. by treaty with native ruler; ruled by US, Brit., and Ger. 188999; Ger. colony 18991914; occupied by New Zealand 1914; mandate of New Zealand 1919; indep. mem. of Brit. Commonwealth 1962 as Western* Samoa.
A Samoan visited Tonga 1828, learned Christianity from Meths. and brought it to Samoa. J. Williams* visited Samoa 1830 and left some Cong. Tahitian teachers. LMS entered the field in the 1830s. Most of the pop. is Christian. RCs began work 1845. Assemblies of God and Seventh-day Adventists also have missions.
In a narrow sense, sanctification is the spiritual growth (1 Co 3:9; 9:24; Eph 4:15; Ph 3:12) that follows justification (Mt 7:1618; Jn 3:6; Eph 2:10). By God's grace (Gl 5:2223; Ph 2:13) a Christian cooperates in this work (2 Co 6:1; 7:1; Ph 2:12; 1 Ti 4:14; FC SD II 6566); through the Holy Spirit's work faith is increased daily, love strengthened, and the image of God renewed (cf., e.g., Jn 14:26; 16:1314; Ro 6:1523; 8:1516, 26; 14:17; 15:13; 1 Co 12:711; Gl 5:1618; 2 Ptr 3:18). A believer's good works are not perfect; but sins of weakness are forgiven (Jn 15:3). Sanctification differs in the same Christian at different times (Ro 7:1419; Gl 2:11; 5:17; 1 Jn 1:8).
God works sanctification only through the means of grace.*
The most comforting part of the doctrine of sanctification is that which speaks of the completion of sanctification in heaven (Ps 17:15; I Co 13:12; 15:2057; Rv 7:917; 21:47). RLS
R. L. Sommer, Sanctification, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 275298; A. Köberle, The Quest for Holiness, tr. J. C. Mattes (Minneapolis, 1936); C. G. Carlfelt, The Work of the Holy Spirit, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947); C. J. I. Bergendoff, The Secular Idea of Progress and the Christian Doctrine of Sanctification (Rock Island, 1933); R. Hermann, Luthers These Gerecht und Sünder zugleich (Gütersloh, 1960); K. Barth, The Christian Life, tr. J. S. McNab (London, 1930); W. E. Hulme, The Dynamics of Sanctification (Minneapolis, 1966).
(18431920). Angl. scholar; b. Holme Pierrepont, near Nottingham, Eng.; educ. Oxford; priest 1869; prof. Oxford; canon Christ Ch., Oxford. Works include The Authorship and Historical Character of the Fourth Gospel; An Examination of Harnack's What Is Christianity?; The Criticism of the Fourth Gospel; The Gospels in the Second Century.
(November 20, 1883November 15, 1962). B. Madura, S India; son of a Swed. Luth. miss.; educ. Uppsala, Swed.; ordained 1906; miss. to India 1907; pres. The Fed. of Ev. Luth. Chs. in India 1926; bp. Tamil Ev. Luth. Ch. (see India, 10) 1933; taught at Tranquebar (see Ministry, Education of, XI B). Works include The Suffering God.
(November 30, 1671May 11, 1744). B. Hallnas parish, Roslagen, Swed.; Luth. pastor; to Am. 1702 at request of A. Rudman*; pastor in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; returned to Swed. 1719; pastor Hedemora. See also Provost.
(18681956). Philol.; b. Livermore, Maine; educ. Michigan, Berlin, and Munich univs.; taught at U. of Michigan, U. of Minnesota, U. of Illinois; noted for studies of Biblical MSS Works include The New Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection; A Third-Century Papyrus Codex of the Epistles of Paul.
(February 22, 1854January 8, 1931). B. Belfast, Pennsylvania; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia; pastor of several congs. in Pennsylvania; prof. Augustana Coll., Rock Island, Illinois, 188489; dir. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, 190431. Ed. The Lutheran. Other works include How to Become a Christian; Ninety-five Theses for Protestant Church Doors; Should Lutherans Get Together?
Adopted by the ALC assembled in conv. October 1420, 1938, Sandusky, Ohio; read in part: Resolved, 2. That we declare the Brief Statement of the Missouri Synod, together with the Declaration of our Commission, a sufficient doctrinal basis for Church fellowship between the Missouri Synod and the American Lutheran Church.
3. That we are firmly convinced that it is neither necessary nor possible to agree in all non-fundamental doctrines. Nevertheless, we are willing to continue the negotiations concerning the points termed in our Declaration as 'not divisive of Church-fellowship,' and recognized as such by the Missouri Synod's resolutions
4. We expect that henceforth by both sides the erection of opposition altars shall be carefully avoided and that just coordination of mission work shall earnestly be sought.
5. We believe that the brief statement viewed in the light of our Declaration is not in contradiction to the Minneapolis Theses which are the basis of our membership in the American Lutheran Conference. We are not willing to give up this membership.
The resolutions also reported progress in negotiations with the ULC.
Official Minutes, Fifth Convention of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, Ohio, 1938), pp. 255257; Resolutions of the American Lutheran Church, The Lutheran Witness, LVII (1938), 373; The Resolutions of the American Lutheran Church with Reference to Lutheran Union, CTM, X (1939), 5961; The Fellowship Convention, Lutheran Standard, XCV, No. 46 (November 12, 1938). 313; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 400401.
Ancient Jewish supreme council and tribunal.
(18631952). Poet, philos.; b. Madrid, Sp.; to US 1872; educ. Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts) and Berlin, Ger.; taught at Harvard 18891912; lived in Eng., Paris, and Rome. Baptized RC; professed agnostic; tried to justify religious myth on intellectual grounds. Works include The Sense of Beauty; The Life of Reason; Realms of Being; The Idea of Christ in the Gospels, or God in Man; Sonnets and Other Verses.
(August 6, 1833July 23, 1911). B. Wolfenbüttel, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Hermannsburg (see Hermannsburg Mission); ordained in Ger.; to Am. 1866; pastor Carondelet, near St. Louis, Missouri, and Bloomington, Illinois Coed. (Die) Missions-Taube.
(Serapis; perhaps a combination of Osiris* and Apis*). Graeco-Egyptian god of the sun, healing, and fertility; worshiped in temples (each called Sarapeum) esp. at Saqqarah and Alexandria; destruction of his temple at Alexandria AD 391 by Theophilus* of Alexandria and his followers, with permission of Theodosius* I, marked the triumph of Christianity throughout the empire.
(Sorck; 150159). B. Annaberg, near Chemnitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; taught at Lübeck, Graz, Vienna, and Siegen; supt. and chaplain to Count William the Rich (151659) of Nassau-Katzenelnbogen 1537; promoted the Reformation in Nassau; supt. of the county (Grafschaft) and (1541) court chaplain and preacher Dillenburg; compelled by the Augsburg Interim (see Interim, I) to leave Nassau, he went to Annaberg, then as pastor to Leipzig 1548; supt. Eisleben 1554 as G. Major's* successor; pastor Magdeburg 1559; gnesio-Lutheran.* Writings include a catechism, commentaries, sermons, and other theol. works.
(from Gk. for flesh-eating). Originally, limestone used for coffins and held to disintegrate entombed bodies. Then, coffin in gen., often adorned with bas-reliefs, with OT and NT designs common from the 4th c.; examples at Arls, Fr., at Ravenna, It., and in the Lateran Museum, Rome.
(Serdica; modern Sofia [Sophia; Bulgarian: Sofiya], capital of Bulgaria). Convened ca. 343 by Roman emps. Constituted the bp. of Rome a court of appeal for accused bps. in certain cases. Deposed Acacius* of Caesarea.
(Pietro; Fra Paolo; Paulus Venetus; Paulus Servita; Brother Paul; 15521623). Prelate, hist., scientist, statesmen; b. Venice, It.; Servite (see Servites); opposed Jesuits and temporal power of pope; counselor of state to Venice in conflict with papacy; suspected of heresy by the Inquisition. Works include a hist. of the Council of Trent.
(190580). B. Paris, Fr.; educ. Paris; taught at Le Havre, Laon, and Paris; philos., novelist, playwright, and exponent of existentialism.* Works include L'Être et le néant (Eng. tr., Being and Nothingness). See also Christian Faith and the Intellectual, 4.
(18951976). B. Sonnewalde, Lower Lusatia, Ger.; educ. Berlin; ordained 1920; pastor Berlin, Templin, and Oranienburg; prof. Erlangen 1933; prof. Melbourne, Australia, 194969. Works include Church Union in South India; Here We Stand; In Statu Confessionis (a selection of articles); This Is My Body; Vom Sakrament des Altars; Was heisst lutherisch?; Die Weltkonferenz für Glauben und Kirchenverfassung.
(ca. 14901527). B. Staufen, S Baden, Ger.; Benedictine prior Freiburg; converted by reading epistles of Paul; active in Zurich 1525; banished; in conflict with M. Bucer* and W. F. Capito*; to Austria; helped formulate basic tenets of Anabaps. in 7 arts.; martyred at Rottenburg.
(15921646). Father of J. Saubert* 163888); b. Altdorf, Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Altdorf, Tübingen, Giessen, and Jena; preacher 1617, prof. 1618 Altdorf; preacher 1622, pastor 1627 Nürnberg; head of Nürnberg clergy 1637; loyal to Luth. confessions; hymnist. Works include Miracula Augustanae confessionis; Zuchtbüchlein der evangelischen Kirche; Psychopharmakum. See also Hymnody, Christian, 6.
(163888). Son of J. Saubert* (15921646); b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Altdorf, Leipzig, and Helmstädt (Helmstedt); taught at Helmstedt; became syncretistic (see Syncretism); prof. theol. and supt. Altdorf 1673; hymnist. Issued Nürnbergisches Gesangbuch; hymns include Es donnert sehr, o lieber Gott.
Prot. (Ref.; Huguenot) school in W Fr.; founded in the 1590s or early in the 17th c. under leadership of P. de Mornay.* Strongly influenced Ref. orthodoxy in the 17th c. Closed 1685 with revocation of the Edict of Nantes.* See also Amyraut, Moïse; Burgersdyk, Francis; Cameron, John (ca. 15791625; Cappel, Louis; Gomarus, Francis(cus); Place, Josué de la.
(1822July 6, 1893). B. Haag, near Wunsiedel, Upper Franconia, NE Bav., Ger.; attended teachers' sem. Altdorf; sent by J. K. W. Löhe* to Am. 1844; completed training at the sem. of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio and Other States. in Columbus, Ohio; pastor Evansville, Indiana, 184593; ordained Mo. Syn. 1847; founded many congs. in the Evansville area.
(16391703). Ref. theol.; b. Usseau(x), Dauphiné, Fr.; pastor Venterol and Embrun; banished; served Walloons at Delft and Utrecht, Neth.; theol. influenced by mysticism and rationalism. Works include Réflexions sur les droits de la conscience; Défense de la véritable doctrine de l'Eglise réformée.
(16771730). Prot. pulpit orator; b. Nimes, Fr.; educ. Geneva, Switz.; pastor London, Eng., and The Hague, Neth. Works include Discours historiques, critiques, théologiques, et moraux, sur les événemens les plus mémorables du Vieux, et du Nouveau Testament; Sermons.
(Sabas; Rastko; ca. 1169/76ca. 1235/36). Serbian nat. saint; fled to Mount Athos, Greece, 1193 and est. the Serbian monastery Chilandar(iu) (or Hilandar); organized autocephalous ch. of Serbia with Sava as abp. 1219.
Adopted by the ULC at Savannah, Georgia, 1934; reads in part: We recognize as Evangelical Lutheran all Christian groups which accept the Holy Scriptures as the only rule and standard for faith and life, by which all doctrines are to be judged, and who sincerely receive the historic Confessions of the Lutheran Church (especially the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Small Catechism) 'as a witness of the truth and a presentation of the correct understanding of our predecessors' (Formula of Concord, Part II, Intro.; ed. Jacobs, p. 538); and we set up no other standards or tests of Lutheranism apart from them or alongside of them.
We believe that these Confessions are to be interpreted in their historical context, not as a law or as a system of theology, but as 'a witness and declaration of faith as to how the Holy Scriptures were understood and explained on the matters in controversy within the Church of God by those who then lived' (Formula of Concord, Part I, Intro.; ed. Jacobs, p. 492).
The ULC reiterated this position at Minneapolis. 1944, declaring: in addition to [the hist. Confessions of the Luth. Ch. (esp. the UAC and SC)] we will impose no tests of Lutheranism and beyond [these Confessions] we will submit to no tests of Lutheranism. We regard ourselves as in full fellowship with all those other Lutheran Church bodies in America which with us accept the established Confessions.
See also Lutheran Church in America, II.
Minutes of the Ninth Biennial Convention of The United Lutheran Church in America, Savannah, Georgia, October 1724, 1934 (Philadelphia, ), p. 416; Minutes of the Fourteenth Biennial Convention of The United Lutheran Church in America, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 1117, 1944 (Philadelphia, ), pp. 241242; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 355357; Doctrinal Declarations (St. Louis, 1957), p. 59; E. Rinderknecht, Lutheran Unity and Union from the Point of View of the United Lutheran Church, The Lutheran Church Quarterly, XIX (1946), 1334.
(Hieronymus; 145298). Dominican monk, reformer; b. Ferrara, It.; studied Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas, and the Bible; eloquent, passionate, and bold preacher of repentance at Florence; rebuked the sins of the people and of the rulers, including the pope, and insisted on clean living. Held that men are not saved by their own good works or by indulgences, but by the grace of God, through Christ, and that really good works are found only where the heart has been regenerated by faith. Held that he was a divinely inspired prophet and believed himself chosen to reform not only the ch. but also the state. Many of his predictions proved true. Became the idol of Florence and vicinity; people began to put into practice his moral, religious, and pol. ideals of a democratic theocracy. But pol. rancor developed against him; popular favor began to waver when some of his predictions failed; and fires of repressed youthful passion began to break out. He was excommunicated 1497; Florence was threatened with interdict.* Savonarola appealed to Eur. rulers for a council to depose the pope. In Florence an ordeal by fire was arranged; when circumstances combined to cancel it, a mob took Savonarola prisoner. Records of his trial are confused, but he was condemned to be hanged and burned. Writings include an exposition of Ps 51 and the first part of Ps 31, issued by M. Luther with a preface by the latter (cf. WA 12, 245248); other works include Trionfo della croce.
W. H. Crawford, Girolamo Savonarola (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1907); P. Misciattelli, Savonarola, tr. M. Peters-Roberts (New York, 1930); A. G. Rudelbach, Hieronymus Savonarola und seine Zeit (Hamburg. 1835). J. Schnitzer, Savonarola, 2 vols. (Munich. 1924).
Meeting of 12 bps., 12 Presb. clerics, and 9 assistants on each side, at the Savoy Palace, London, Eng., 1661, to revise the Book* of Common Prayer, which was unsatisfactory to Puritans,* who hoped to delete elements they regarded as RC Only minor changes were made; may Presb. clerics were deprived of office for not accepting the 1662 ed.
Adopted 1708 by Congs. at Saybrook, Connecticut; as to doctrine, it reffirmed the Savoy Declaration and doctrinal parts of the Westminster Confession; abrogated 1784. See also Democratic Declarations of Faith, 2.
(1845 [1846?]1933). Angl., orientalist; b. Shirehampton, near Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; priest 1871; prof. Assyriology at Oxford 1891; mem. OT Revision Company 187484. Works include The Monuments of the Hittites; The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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