Directions for conducting services; the name is derived from the red ink often used for them, in distinction from the text of the service, in black ink. See also Black Rubric.
(Rudbeckius; 15811646). B. Almby parish, near Örebro, Swed.; educ. Uppsala and Wittenberg; prof. Uppsala; court preacher and spiritual adviser of Gustavus* II; bp. Västeraas 161946. Est. schools, hospitals, and institutions for poor; worked for soc. reform.
(17921862). B. Copenhagen, Den.; educ. Copenhagen; pastor and supt. Glauchau, Saxony, Ger., 1829; staunch Luth.; opposed the separatist movement led by M. Stephan* (17771846); resigned pastorate 1845 in protest against state ch. unionism; returned to Den.; lectured at U. of Copenhagen 184648; pastor Slagelse 1848. With H. E. F. Guericke* he founded Zeitschrift fuer die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche 1839. Other works include Die Grundveste der Lutherischen Kirchenlehre und Friedenspraxis; Reformation, Lutherthum und Union.
(Andreas; Andrew; 16681708). Studied under J. Swedberg* at the U. of Uppsala, Swed.; to Am. 1697; pastor Wicaco(a) (now in S Philadelphia) 16971702; Gloria Dei Ch. built there 1700 under his supervision; pastor Dutch Luth. ch., New York; 1st provost* of the Swed. chs. on the Delaware 1704. See also Björk, Eric Tobias; Sandel, Andrew.
(ca. 345ca. 410). Lat. theol.; b. probably Concordia, near Aquileia, It.; lived as monk in Egypt, on the Mount of Olives, where he founded a monastery in assoc. with Melania the Elder (see Melania, 1), and at Aquileia; friend of Jerome,* but bitterly opposed him over doctrines of Origen. Tr. Gk. Christian writers into Lat. See also Ecumenical Creeds, A 2.
(given names also occur in the order Carl Friedrich Theodor; April 26, 1836June 3, 1879). B. Grohnde, near Hamelin Hannover, Ger.; studied at Loccum; to Am. 1857; educ. practical sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Ministry, Education of, X E and F). Pastor Oshkosh, Wis.; Wolcottsville and Buffalo, New York; Pleasant Ridge. Illinois In 1872 he accepted a call to chs. in Dresden and Planitz. near Zwickau, Saxony, Ger., which had left the state ch. for reasons of conscience. See also Associated Lutheran Charities; Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 56.
Some 2d and 3d c. ch. fathers (e.g., Irenaeus,* Tertullian,* Dionysius* of Corinth, Clement* of Alexandria, Hippolytus,* Novatian*) and the Clementine Homilies (see Clementines) refer to the rule of faith (Lat. regula fidei); other terms for it: canon (or rule) of truth (Gk. kanon tes aletheias), canon (or rule) of the ch. (Gk. kanon ekklesiastikos), authority of the ch. (Lat. auctoritas ecclesiae), or, simply, the faith (Lat. fides).
The precise dimensions of the rule of faith have been considerably debated. Some include all Scripture; others include only the formulated creed. The term rule of faith experienced development and meant different things at different times.
Initially rule of faith was understood as the apostolic faith orally transmitted; Tertullian and Irenaeus present it in a variety of forms and with considerable fluctuation in content. What the apostles had preached and what had been received and preserved as apostolic tradition became the rule, or norm, of faith, the church's doctrine, as well as the guide to the right interpretation of apostolic Scripture.
From the beginning, the rule of faith and Baptism were closely related. Content of instruction given catechumens in preparation for Baptism: basic elements of apostolic doctrine (e.g., teaching concerning the triune God, the person and work of Christ, the meaning of Baptism, Christian life, the ch., and the final coming of Christ). Often a concisely worded summary was given catechumens to be memorized and spoken as a baptismal confession of faith. By the time of Augustine* of Hippo the rule of faith and the baptismal creed were regarded as identical. HJAB
(130782). Mystic; b. Strasbourg, Ger.; banker Strasbourg; he and his 2d wife renounced the world; follower of J. Tauler*; obtained from Benedictines the monastery Grüner Wörth, on an island in the Ill R., near Strasbourg, 1367; gave it to the Knights of St. John and retired to it 1371. See also Friends of God.
(180477). Luth. pastor, hymnist; b. Pietarsaari, Fin.; educ. Turku; teacher Porvoo; wrote in Swedish. Works include Hanna; Elgskyttarne (Elk Hunters); Julkvällen (Christmas Eve); Fänrik Staals sägner (Tales of Ensign Stal); Kung Fjalar (King Fjalar); the Fin. nat. anthem Vaart Land (Our Land); hymns.
(Paavo = Paul; 17771852). Lay preacher, revivalist, pietist; b. near Tolvaniemi, Iisalmi parish, Fin.; spent most of his life on a farm in Nilsiä; at 22 a blacksmith directed him to seek inner awareness of Christ; he soon came to a deep Christ-centered inwardness and a consciousness of human sinfulness; traveled through most of Fin. as leader and coordinator of a revival movement; harassed by ch. and state authorities, but maintained a following; exponent of theologia* crucis: held that Christianity is not essentially a set of regulations, rules, or formulations, but experience of God's forgiving grace in Christ; emphasized daily repentance and renewal. Wrote the tract Naagra ord till väckta av bondestaandet (A Word to the Awakened Peasants). See also Finland, Lutheranism in. 4.
(Rupertus; Ruprecht; Hrodbert; ca. 650-perhaps ca. 715/720). Apostle of the Bavarians; presumably of royal Frankish descent; founder and 1st bp. Salzburg; reputedly bp. Worms. See also Germany, A 1.
(last 2 given names also occur in sequence Philipp Justus; December 21, 1833May 16, 1899). B. Kirch-Osten, near Stade, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Göttingen; pastor Emigrant House, Bremerhaven, 1856; pastor Geestendorf (part of Geestemünde) 187173, NYC 187376; mem. New York Ministerium; returned to Ger. 1876; mem. of consistory and supt. Lübeck 187691; gen. supt. Holstein 1891. Works include Christenlehre nach dem kleinen Katechismus Dr. Martin Luthers, als Leitfaden für den Konfirmanden-Unterricht; Licht und Schatten aus der Geschichte des Alten Bundes; Luther in seiner religiösen Bedeutung; sermons.
(Ruppich; Rupsch; Rupzsch; Konrad; perhaps ca. 1475 [or earlier]1530). B. Kahla, Thuringia, Ger.; parish priest Kahla 1505; kapellmeister at court of Frederick* III (14631525). Helped prepare M. Luther's* Deutsche Messe. (see Chant).
(November 10, 1861July 5, 1942). B. North Dover, Ohio; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor near Cole Camp, Missouri, 1884; Detroit, Michigan, 1889. Asst. ed. and proofreader Louis Lange Pub. Co., St. Louis, 1896; chief proofreader and house ed. Conc. Pub. House, St. Louis, 190042. Works include Bible History References.
1. Rural ch. is a distinctive and descriptive term. Its thrust is geog. and demographic; denotes a nonurban ch. or group of chs. The term was coined early in the 20th c. as Am. began to move from an agricultural and rural to an industrial and urban soc. As definition and lines of demarcation became clear, so also the distinction bet. urban and rural ch. The census definition of rural, which included communities of less than 2,500 pop., was followed for many yrs. (at least into the 1930s) by many chs.
2. After WW II, rural ch. came to be replaced by Ch. in Town and Country, the latter term counteracting the implicaton that rural chs. were only in open country and removing the 2,500 pop. limit. Some chs. in communities as large as 5,00025,000 were more rural than urban. Today there is no uniformity of definition or demarcation bet. rural and urban chs.
5. To meet new problems that arose when immigration and homesteading practically ceased early in the 20th c., rural ch. commissions were appointed and some schools offered courses in rural sociol. for ch. leadership.
6. Since ca. 1940, revolutionary methods in farming resulted in larger farms and less farmers. Rural to urban migration increased, leaving many rural areas with a static or declining pop. and ch. membership. Rural chs. sought strength by various measures, e.g., mergers.
7. Modern transportation eliminated the need for many rural chs.; more than 1,000 disbanded.
8. Urban sprawl surrounded some rural chs., which mushroomed as a result.
9. The challenge of reaching many unreached in low density but widely scattered pop. areas has not been completely met. But rural ch. work has been effective and promises to continue as an important part of the contemporary scene. RJS
C. De Vries, Inside Rural America: A Lutheran View (Chicago, 1962); E. W. Mueller and G. C. Ekola, The Silent Struggle for Mid-America (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1963); V. Obenhaus, The Church and Faith in Mid-America (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1963): New Thousands in Town and Country (Chicago, 1962).
(ca. 14801542). B. Bamberg, Ger.; pastor Ansbach; coreformer Brandenburg-Ansbach; celebrated Communion in German under both kinds 1525; expelled 1527; preacher Liegnitz; returned to Ansbach 1528. Works include Christliche unterrichtung eines pfarhern an seinen hern.
(180674). B. Northampton, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; held several pastorates, the last (1874) at Southwick, near Brighton. Began as an extreme high churchman; studied Augustine* of Hippo; became moderate Calvinist. Author; hymnist. Hymn translations include Now Sing We, Now Rejoice; In Thee Alone, O Christ, My Lord.
(18721970). Brit. philos., mathematician, educator, soc. reformer; b. Trelleck, Wales; educ. Cambridge; lectured at Cambridge 191016; dismissed because of pacifist activities; founded experimental Beacon Hill School 1927; to US 1938. Taught at U. of Chicago; U. of California at Los Angeles; Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia. Returned to Cambridge 1944.
Russell thrice ran unsuccessfully for parliament; was jailed twice for pacifist activities; became 3d earl Russell 1931; received Nobel Prize for Literature 1950; often in conflict with moralists and religious conservatives; pacifist in WW I, but in WW II held that defeat of Nazis was necessary if human life was to be tolerable.
Russell is known for contributions to logic and his attempt to identify methods of philos, with those of science. He espoused various systems at different times (idealism, realism, monism, pluralism), but atomism runs through all (nonmental facts exist apart from our awareness; propositions can be true in isolation; analysis is useful as a method in philos.). His basic system may be defined as logical constructionism (formulation of a body of knowledge in terms of relations bet. simpler, more intelligible, more undeniable entities). He formulated some principles for an ideal language and tried to show that mathematics is an extension of logic.
Russell advocated certain moral and political ideals; first he held that good and bad are qualities in objects regardless of opinion; later he rejected this view for a doctrine of the subjectivity of values.
After breaking with Platonic idealism, Russell called himself an agnostic or atheist. He granted possibility of God's existence, but regarded religious tenets as intellectually indefensible and religion (which he said was based primarily and mainly on fear) as harmful. He expected religion to disappear when man's soc. problems are solved.
Works include Marriage and Morals; Education and the Social Order; The Principles of Mathematics; Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy; The Problems of Philosophy; A History of Western Philosophy; An Outline of Philosophy; The Analysis of Mind; The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism; Why I Am Not a Christian. EL
See also Logical Positivism.
(18521916). Pastor Russell; b. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; at first Cong.; pastor indep. ch. Pittsburgh 1878; held that Christ came invisibly 1874, at the beginning of the Millennial Age, which would end 1914 and be followed by soc. revolution, chaos, resurrection of dead, and est. of Christ's kingdom on earth. Founded Jehovah's Witnesses.
For current information see CIA World Factbook. 1. Reputed founder of the Russ. emp. was Rurik.* Princess Olga (d. 969) was bap. at Constantinople ca. 955; Vladimir* I, grandson of Olga, was bap. ca. 989.
2. Vladimir I and his successors promoted Christianity, but the masses remained largely pagan. The Mongol invasion (13th c.) was a blow to the ch. Gennadius* II allowed the Russ. Ch. to choose and consecrate its own metropolitans, but the ch. came under state control.
3. Moscow became a 3d Rome (Constantinople was the 2d). Christianity took deep root in Russia. Monasteries multiplied. But even the bps. remained ignorant. Contact with W learning was est. in the 17th c. P. Mogila* est. an influential coll. at Kiev 1631.
4. For a while, in the 18th and early part of the 19th c., the Enlightenment was favorably received, but Alexander I (Aleksandr Pavlovich; 17771825; emp. Russ. 180125) gradually turned toward mysticism. During most of the 19th c. anti-Protestantism predominated. Sems. were at St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, and Kazan. Up until the USSR (est. 1922) the Gk. (or E) Orthodox Ch. was the state ch.; its membership grew to nearly 100,000,000. Bolsheviks, who came to power October/November 1917, took strong measures against the ch. When the Soviet Fed. was recast 1936, Russ. became 1 of 11 states (later expanded to 15 reps.).
5. RCm became fairly strong in Russ. Poland. Ref. chs. in Russ. enjoyed some freedom till the anti-Ger. pressures in WW I and the ascendancy of Communism (beginning 1917) but remained comparatively small (see also Russian Sects).
6. Beginning ca. 1558, Estonian, Latvian, and Livonian peasants were resettled in Russ.; some of them were Luth. The 1st Luth. ch. in Moscow was built ca. 1575/76; the cong. was well est. by 1600. But Luths. were hampered by restriction and opposition till ca. 1700, when a new policy encouraged immigration and offered religious freedom. In 1832 the Luth. Ch. obtained, for the Baltic provinces and the congs. in cen. Russ., a ch. const. and service book. But ch. work was repressed under the ascendancy of Communism. Beginning 1929 most Luth. pastors were exiled. Cong. life and activity practically stopped after 1937. From ca. 1939/40 relations bet. state and ch. improved, but mainly, apparently, for the sake of unify in the face of invasion. Even so, in WW II large Luth. settlements suffered under a policy of deportation. In 1957 it became legally possible again to organize congs.
7. The former Russian Empire, commonly called Russia, ended 1917 with the Bolshevist revolution, a Communist coup led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and the est. of the Russ. Soviet Federated Socialist Rep. (also popularly called Russia), which in 1922 joined other soviet reps. to form the Union* of Soviet Socialist Reps.
Have been divided into 2 groups: 1. Raskolniks (Raskolniki; Russ. schismatics) par excellence, who dissent from liturgical reforms of Nikon; divided into Popovtsy (who maintain the hierarchical structure of episcopate and priesthood) and Bezpopovtsy (Russ. priestless). 2. Schismatics for other reasons; e.g., (a) Khlysty; originated in the 17th c. or earlier; held that God becomes incarnate in many Christs through their suffering; followed ascetic and ecstatic practices. (b) Skoptsy (Russ. eunuchs); originated probably 18th c.; stress Mt 19:12; women usually have their breasts amputated. (c) Doukhobors (Dukhobors); originated 18th c.; follow those as prophets and leaders in whom they believe the Spirit is embodied; emphasize supreme authority of inner experience; reject external ecclesiastical and civil authority (e.g., refusing to pay taxes and do military service). (d) Molokans (or Molokani); offshoot of Doukhobors; antiritualistic; stress authority of the Bible; also called Spiritual Christians. (e) Stundists; originated ca. 1860/64, primarily in S Russ.; probably named after devotional hours (Ger. Stunden) at the colony of Rohrbach, visited by Russians; influenced by Baps.; hostile toward ritual, sacraments, and icons.
See also Verígin, Peter Vasilich.
(18691942). Judge Rutherford; b. Boonville, Missouri; joined Jehovah's* Witnesses; became their legal adviser ca. 1907; succeeded C. T. Russell*; opposed military service; encouraged conscientious objectors; imprisoned 191719.
(15501618). B. Düben, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Torgau, Wittenberg, Jena; pastor Teutleben im Weimarischen 1575; deacon 1586, later archdeacon Weimar. First 6 vv. of Ach Gott und Herr, wie gross und schwer (Alas, my God, my sins are great) sometimes ascribed to him.
(Ruysbroek; Ruusbroec; Rusbroek; Ruisbroeck; 12931381). Mystic; b. Ruisbroek, Belg.; priest and vicar Brussels; retired to Augustinian monastery of Groenendael, near Brussels and Waterloo, for a life of contemplation; prior of the monastery; developed a mystical system that borders on pantheism; influenced G. Groote.*
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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