(July 13, 1817September 20, 1866). B. Föhrste (Förste), near Alfeld, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; private tutor Ohrdorf 1841; preacher Sack, near Alfeld, 184243; private tutor Scharnebeck 184344, Dohnsen till 1846; to Neuendettelsau; ordained 1846; sent to Am. 1846 by J. K. W. Löhe* as miss. at head of 11 students (including C. H. R. Lange,* H. Wunder,* and C. J. A. Strasen*) who enrolled in the Fort Wayne, Indiana, Nothelferseminar; teacher at the Nothelferseminar; pastor Liverpool (later called Valley City), Ohio, 1846; joined Mo. Syn. 1849; pastor Frankenmuth, Michigan, 1851; resigned because of failing health 1858; to Ger. 1858; to Staten Is., New York, 1859; to Ger. 1860; d. Kandern, Baden, Ger.
(Paulus; 15871651). B. Wurzen, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; archidiaconus and court preacher Halle 1614; prof. theol. Wittenberg 1627; city pastor and gen. supt.; noted as exegete and preacher.
(182393). B. Leon, New York; educ. Wesleyan U., Middletown, Connecticut; M. E. pastor; criticized new school Methodism; expelled from ch. 1858; organized (The) Free Meth. Ch. (of N. Am.) 1860 (see also Methodist Churches, 4 b); gen. supt. 186093.
(18571933). Mormon; b. Warrington, Eng.; to US 1866; miss. in US 188086, Eng. 188688; was refused seat in US House of Representatives because of his plural marriages. Works include A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Century I.
(18631934). B. near Chatham, Virginia; educ. Wake Forest (North Carolina) Coll. and Southern Bap. Theol. Sem., Louisville, Kentucky; prof. Southern Bap. Theol. Sem. 1892. Works include Word Pictures in the New Testament; Epochs in the Life of Paul; A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research.
E. Gill, A. T. Robertson (New York, 1943).
(181653). B. London, Eng.; educ. Edinburgh and Oxford; pastor Cheltenham 1843; resigned 1846; pastor of the Eng. Ch. at Heidelberg, Ger., 1846; pastor Oxford and (1847) Brighton; outstanding preacher.
(182999). B. Bennington, Vermont; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, Union Theo. Sem., NYC, and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; Presb. pastor; hymnist. Hymns include Savior, I Follow On.
(17941863). B. Southington, Connecticut; educ. Hamilton Coll., Clinton, New York, and at Hudson, New York; prof. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol Sem. 183033, Union Theol. Sem., NYC, 183763. Tr. J. G. B. Winer's* Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms (Eng. title Grammar of New Testament Greek) and H. F. W. Gesenius's* Lexicon (see Lexicons, A); other works include Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai, and Arabia Petraea. See also Geography, Christian, 4; Grammars, B.
(18861948). Son of an Eng. Bap. minister; pharmacist Moscow, Idaho; influenced by New* Thought; est. Psychiana*; ordained by an Old* Cath. bp.; assumed title abp. Moscow (Idaho); succeeded by son Alfred W. Robinson.
(18721945). Bap. theol.; b. Northampton, Eng.; educ. Edinburgh, Oxford, Marburg, Strasbourg; pastor Pitlochry and Coventry; taught at Leeds, London, and Oxford. Works include The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament; The Cross in the Old Testament; The Old Testament: Its Making and Meaning; The History of Israel: Its Facts and Factors; Redemption and Revelation. See also Corporate Personality.
(ca. 15761625). Pastor to the Pilgrim Fathers (see United Church of Christ, I A 1 and 2); b. probably in or near Gainsborough, Lincolnshire (or in Nottinghamshire?), Eng.; probably educ. Cambridge; ordained Ch. of Eng.; probably curate Norwich ca. 1602; became Puritan; joined separatist cong. at Gainsborough; apparently assoc. with separatist cong. at Scrooby Manor 1607; to Amsterdam, Holland, 1608; pastor of separatists at Leiden 1609 with W. Brewster* as ruling elder; d. Leiden.
(Rochus; It.: Rocco; ca. 1295ca. 1327 [or ca. 1350ca. 1378/79?]). Shadowy legendary figure; said to have been b. Montpellier, Fr.; Franciscans claim him as a tertiary; allegedly made a pilgrimage to Rome, curing many sick on the way.
White linen vestment; similar to surplice, but with tight sleeves, which are wide on the upper part and narrow at the wrist and, like the hem, are embroidered or trimmed; reaches perhaps a little below the knees; worn by bps. and occasionally by other prelates.
(18221905). Luth. theol.; b. Rhoden, in Waldeck principality, Ger.; pastor Sachsenberg; joined ch. of Hannover for confessional reasons; supt. Göttingen; left ch. of Hannover 1877; joined Old* Luths. 1878; pastor Radevormwald and Breslau; supt. and ch. councillor Breslau. Works include Die Realpräsenz; Philosophie der Geschichte.
(16781749). B. Oberwälden, near Göppingen, Ger.; son of a Luth. pastor; saddler's apprentice; influenced by Pietism and J. R. Hedinger*; separatist; to Himbach in the Wetterau 1707; given to inner mysticism; leader of Inspirationists after the death of E. L. Gruber* 1728. See also Amana Society.
(18391937). Oil magnate; b. Richford, New York; est. Rockefeller Foundation, Gen. Educ. Bd., Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, and Rockefeller Institute for Med. Research; supported Bap. ch. work generously. Son John Davison Rockefeller Jr. (18741960; b. Cleveland, Ohio; educ. Brown U., Province, Rhode Island) continued and expanded the philanthropies and gave large sums of money for various religious projects.
(16491708). B. Gröben, near Jena, Ger.; educ. Jena; adjunct of the philos. faculty Jena 1676; conrector Grey* Friars' Gymnasium Berlin 1680, rector 1698; hymnist. Wrote Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan (not to be confused with B. Schmolck's* hymn with the same 1st line).
Ca. 470 Mamertus* organized litanies in the Ascension season; the immediate reason may have been an earthquake, pestilence, or barbarian invasion. Rogation days are now observed by RCs and many Prots. on the 3 days before the Festival of the Ascension (see Church Year, 9) and in RCm on April 25, the Feast of St. Mark, though neither the origin nor the theme of the rogation observance has anything to do with him. The Sunday before Ascension Day is called Rogate (after the Rogation days in that week) or Vocem iucunditatis (after the 1st words of the Introit in Lat.); but Rogate is a festival in its own right, not a penitential day; the fact that its propers lend themselves to the rogation theme is coincidental; the character of the rogation days is in traditional practice not made retroactive to Rogate. See also Tempus clausum.
(Henry Carl George; 1797May 15, 1874). Father of P. A. v. Rohr*; b. Billerbeck, Pomerania, Ger.; captain in Prussian army; joined Old* Luths. and was deprived of army commission in the mid-1830s; organized J. A. A. Grabau's* emigration group; to Am. 1839; led settlement of fellow immigrants in Milwaukee and near Cedarburg, Wisconsin; helped found Freistadt, ca. 1520 mi. N of Milwaukee; farmer there; taught school ca. 1 yr.; studied theol., at Buffalo, New York, ca. 4 yrs.; pastor Humberstone, Ont., and (184674) Bergholz, Walmore, and Martinsville, New York; helped found Buffalo* Syn. 1845; sided with C. F. (W.) Hochstetter* against Grabau in the 1866 schism of the Buffalo Syn., but led a protest group against Hochstetter when the latter became Missourian in docrtine.
(Philipp; February 13, 1843December 22, 1908). Son of H. K. G. v. Rohr*; b. Buffalo, New York; educ. Buffalo* Syn. sem., Buffalo, New York; pastor Toledo, Ohio, 186366, and Winona, Minnesota, 18661908; sided with his father in the 1866 divisions of the Buffalo Syn. and led his group after his father's death until it dissolved; joined Wisconsin* Syn. 1877 and was its pres. 18891908.
(December 27, 1835November 26, 1913). B. Neu-Ruppin, Brandenburg, Prussia, Ger.; joined Breslau* Syn. ca. 1852; studied at Leipzig miss. school; J. K. W. Löhe* arranged for his coming to Am. 1858; asst. preacher near Detroit, Michigan; ordained 1858; itinerant preacher Wis.; then pastor successively in Portage and Loganville, Wis.; itinerant preacher along Lake Superior; pastor Oshkosh 1865, Reedsburg 18691909; many yrs. Mo. Syn. secy.
(17161875). Luth. composer; b. Quedlinburg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; active in Berlin and Magdeburg. Works include cantatas, motets, 5 Passions, and many choral compositions, including The Death of Abel; Abraham on Moriah; Samson; Saul; David and Jonathan.
(ca. 1290/13001349). The Hermit of Hampole; mystic; b. N Yorkshire, Eng.; led contemplative life at Dalton, later at Hampole; opposed papal supremacy. Works include De emendatione vitae; De incendio amoris.
1. The name, which designates the Christian ch. with a hierarchy* headed by the pope,* was popularized by reformers who denied that Rome had exclusive claim to catholicity. Many reformers, including M. Luther,* regarded themselves as catholic* and held that the Roman, or W, ch. was only part of the catholic ch. (see also Western Christianity 5001500).
2. RC scholars regard the name as appropriate since they hold that Peter was given the primacy (see Vatican Councils, 1 b) and that subsequent bps. of Rome were his successors. They debate whether the connection of Rome with the primacy was divinely intended from the beginning or an accident of hist. resulting from a disposition of providence but changeable in the future.
1. The RC ch. traces its origin to the apostles. Its doctrine is derived from Scripture and tradition.* Some RC theologians make Scripture and tradition joint sources; others regard Scripture as the only source and tradition as Spirit-guided interpretation and application. Differences on this point have produced significant differences in emphases in RC doctrine.
2. The canons and decrees of the Council of Trent* are usually regarded as definitive and basic for RC doctrine. But some modern RC theologians regard Trent as an overreaction to Luther. The council accepted the canonical books of the OT and NT with apocrypha. It asserted that apostolic traditions on faith and customs were to be received with the same feeling of piety and reverence (pari pietatis affectu ac reverentia) as Scripture. It rejected Pelagian denial of original sin and Luther's assertion that original sin remained after baptism.
3. The council spent much time on the doctrine of justification. It concluded that God's grace is necessary for the whole process of salvation. It developed 3 points: a. Justification is remission of sins. b. Justification involves inner renewal through infusion of grace, c. Justification assumes man's voluntary acceptance of grace. In RC dogmatics, point 1 is interpreted as referring to divine restoration of grace and gifts. Infusion of grace implies habitual orientation to God. Man's voluntary cooperation in his justification involves awareness on his part of his movement against sin and toward God.
4. The sacraments (baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony) are efficacious signs, est. by Christ to give grace by the rite itself (ex opere operato; see Grace, Means of, I, 8, and Opus operatum). The council affirmed the real presence (see Grace, Means of, IV, 3; Lutheran Confessions, A 2 [b]) in the Lord's Supper against H. Zwingli* and transubstantiation* against Luther. It held that the entire Christ is received under either species (bread or wine). The mass is the center of the mystery of salvation, is propitiatory, and is a commemoration and a rendering present of the sacrifice of the cross; it may be offered for the living or dead.
5. The council declared the existence of a hierarchy based on divine ordinance and est. by sacerdotal ordination.
6. The sacraments are at the center of spiritual life in RCm. All give sanctifying grace; each gives special grace.
7. Only a priest* can change bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ and pronounce absolution in the sacrament of penance. The sacrament of marriage is performed by the participants in the presence of a priest. But baptism may be administered in crises by anyone, including heretics.
8. Toward the end of the 19th and early in the 20th c. so-called modernism* became a concern of the papacy and led to Lamentabili (a 1907 decree of the Holy Office), Pascendi dominici gregis (a 1907 encyclical of Pius X [see Popes, 30]), and Sacrorum antistitum (a 1910 motu* proprio of Pius X).
9. At the same time the popes took interest in soc. questions, e.g., capital and labor, educ., and the family. Leo XIII (see Popes, 29) issued the encyclical Rerum novarum 1891 on the condition of labor. Pius XI (see Popes, 32) issued encyclicals on Christian educ., marriage, the Christian soc. order, and atheistic communism. RC leaders in the US gave increasing attention to soc. problems. The Nat. Cath. Welfare Conf., organized 1919, became the US Cath. Conf., Inc., 1966, active in civic-religious work.
10. Vatican Council II (see Vatican Councils, 2), 196265, began a new era for RCs and to some extent for Christendom. It neither set aside traditional doctrine nor resolved many doctrinal debates (e.g., on Scripture and tradition and on collegiality), but it did open a door for new interpretations. Its importance probably results more from emphases than from basic changes. It brought new insights into the doctrine of the ch.; encouraged dialog with non-RC Christians and adherents of non-Christian religions; discouraged judgmental approaches in such dialogs; provided for flexibility in liturgy; made significant pronouncements on religious freedom. It lagged behind some of the best contemporary RC theology, but opened doors for spiritual renewal and made possible some needed reform. See also Popes, 34, 35.
1. Leadership in the RC Ch. centers in the papacy.* The pope has the sole and final authority in all matters of RC faith and life. He is aided in the administration of his office by cardinals,* who, in turn, lead the various congs. of the curia (see Curia, 2).
2. The ecumenical council, highest deliberative body, is rarely convened. Mems. with deliberative vote include cardinals, residential patriarchs, primates, abps. and residential bps., even if not yet consecrated; abbots or prelates nullius or exarchs, the abbot primate, abbott superiors of monastic congs., and heads of exempt clerical religious; titular bps. on invitation. An ecumenical council is convened by the pope, who determines matters to be treated and the order of business. The pope or his personal legate presides. Conciliar decrees obtain binding force only on papal ratification and may be promulgated only at the pope's word.
3. The RC Ch. is divided into jurisdictional areas. Jurisdiction is the power to rule, in distinction from the power to sanctify. Jurisdiction is divided into ordinary and delegated. Ordinary jurisdiction is attached to an office; delegated jurisdiction is attached to a person. The area is usually a diocese* and the ordinary a bishop.* Dioceses are usually autonomous except for limited cases reserved for curia or pope. Dioceses are grouped into provinces under an archbishop.*
4. Indep. abbeys comprise communities ruled by abbots. RCs not included in a diocese are usually ruled by a prelate nullius (see also Abbot). Sometimes such areas are under an apostolic administrator. Miss. territories are under authority of the Sacred Cong. for the Propagation of the Faith (see Curia, 2 f). A miss. area in the initial stage of ecclesiastical organization is called a prefecture apostolic. A miss. area over which a vicar apostolic exercises jurisdiction is called a vicariate apostolic. The head is usually a titular bp.
5. Early archdioceses in the US include Baltimore, Maryland, 1808; Portland (originally Oregon City), Oregon, 1846; Saint Louis, Missouri, 1847; Cincinnati, Ohio, 1850; New Orleans, Louisiana, 1850; New York, New York, 1850; San Francisco, California, 1853; Boston, Massachusetts, 1875; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1875; Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1875; Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1888; Dubuque, Iowa, 1893.
1. The Council of Trent aimed at unifying RC doctrine and correcting abuses within the structure of the ch. A long struggle involving RCs, Luths., and Ref., and including wars, persecution, and intrigues, ensued.
2. Rome opposed emerging nationalism. The papacy lost pol. power and gradually shifted emphasis to supremacy in spiritual matters. Nationalism stressed the divine* right of kings (called Gallicanism* in Fr., Josephinism in Austria [see Joseph II and Josephinism], Febronianism* in Ger., regalism* in It.).
3. RC reform movements after the Reformation concentrated on the extirpation of Protestantism (see Counter Reformation). The Society* of Jesus gave special attention to the suppression of the Reformation. The Inquisition* was used against Prots. in RC countries. Both sides were guilty of cruelty.
4. In It. the Inquisition readily suppressed the Reformation. See also Italy, Religious History of, Before the Reformation.
6. In Fr., Huguenots* suffered bitter persecution that climaxed 1572 in the Bartholomew's* Day Massacre. The Edict of Nantes* granted some freedom of conscience to Prots. 1589, but it was revoked 1685. Laws were enacted against Prots. Thousands were expatriated. But by 1744 Huguenots were holding meetings of 10,000, and a 1787 edict reest. equality of rights (except the right to hold pub. office) and Prot. baptisms and marriages were declared valid. See also France, 10.
7. RCm suffered in the Fr. Revolution (see France, 5). The 1789 Assembly nationalized the ch. and its property and forbade religious discrimination (see France, 10). Dechristianization resulted in abolition of the Gregorian calendar 1793.
8. Reaction soon set in. The Directory permitted pub. worship 179597 but was repressive 179799. Napoleon* I forced the pope to sign the humiliating treaty of Tolentino 1797 and est. a concordat with the pope 1801 (see Concordat, 5), which included in its provisions: the state nominates bps., the pope appoints them; bps. appoint lower clergy, subject to govt. approval.
9. In England,* Henry* VIII broke with the pope and nationalized the ch. on basis of the 1534 of Supremacy, passed by parliament (see also Church and State, 9); 1535 he declared himself to be in terra supremum caput Anglicanae ecclesiae (on earth the supreme head of the Angl. Ch.).
He persecuted Prots. for disagreeing with traditional doctrine and RCs for denying his supremacy and opposing his confiscation of ch. lands. Protestantism became prominent under Edward VI (see England, B 4). RC reaction came under Mary* I. Elizabeth* I favored Protestantism. The 1559 Act of Supremacy called her Supreme Governor of this realm, and of all other her highness's dominions and countries, as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal. The 1559 Act of Uniformity restored, and commanded to be used, the 2d Prayer Book of Edward VI (with some alterations) and made failure to attend ch. subject to fine. Some intractables were put to death. Attempts by RCs to put Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (154287; next heir to Eng. throne after children of Henry VIII) on the Eng. throne led Elizabeth to have Mary executed. Failure of Philip II (152798; son of Charles* V; king of Sp. 155698) to conquer Eng. with the Invincible Armada 1588 ended serious threats by the papacy to gain Eng. See also Elizabethan Settlement. James* I first used mild measures against RCs; but when the latter increased, parliament confirmed Elizabethan anti-RC laws, which James enforced. This led to the Gunpowder* Plot, which, in turn, led to increased oppression of RCs Charles* I, whose wife was RC, rarely enforced anti-RC laws. Charles II (163085; son of Charles I; king 166085) tried to assure restoration of RCm in Eng. by the 1670 treaty of Dover with Louis XIV* of Fr. This led the Eng. parliament to pass the Test* Act 1673 and the Papists' Disabling Act (excluded RCs from parliament; repealed 1829). James II (16331701; king of Eng., Scot., and Ireland 168588) became RC (probably before 1672) and ignored anti-RC laws; his attempts to restore RCm led to yrs. of subjection and degradation of RCs in England. William III (16501702; count of Nassau; prince of Orange; stadtholder of Holland 16721702; king of Eng. 16891702) was reared a Calvinist but broad in sympathies; the 1689 Act of Toleration suspended certain laws against Prots. (but RCs and disbelievers in the Trinity were excluded from benefits of this Act). The RC Emancipation Act was passed 1829.
10. In Germany,* M. Luther* and his supporters were put under the ban by the Edict of Worms.* Charles* V tried unsuccessfully to conquer the Prots. by force. See also Augsburg, Peace of; Passau, Convention of; Thirty Years' War; Westphalia, Peace of.
14. In Austria the Counter* Reformation almost extinguished, which was also suppressed in Bohemia, Silesia, Livonia, and Carniola. Joseph II issued an edict of toleration 1781 (see also Joseph II and Josephinism).
15. In recent yrs. the laity has played a more active role in the RC Ch., which is trying (a) to indoctrinate its mems. on the church's position in soc. and moral issues, (b) to use the lay apostolate to disseminate RC principles on moral philos., (c) to involve the laity in governing processes of the ch.
1. Juan Ponce de León (ca. 14601521; explorer; b. León, Sp.) discovered Florida 1513; a mass conducted there 1521 is regarded as probably the 1st in the US. Franciscans came to Florida 1528; 12 missionaries came with Hernando de Soto (ca. 150042; explorer; b. Barcarrota, Sp.) to Tampa Bay 1539. City of Saint Augustine was founded and the oldest RC miss. in the US est. 1565. Regarding Luths. martyred 1565 near Saint Augustine see Martyr. RC missionaries accompanied various Sp. and Fr. explorers. By 1600 they had entered what is now Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia Early RC missionaries in US include Claude Jean Allouez (162289; Fr. Jesuit), John Altham (15891640; Eng. Jesuit), Louis Cancer de Barbastro (150049; Sp. Dominican), Jacques Gravier (16511708; Fr. Jesuit), Isaac Jogues (160746; Fr. Jesuit), Eusebio Francisco Kino (Chini; ca. 16451711; It. Jesuit), John Lalande (d. 1646; Fr. Jesuit brother), Antonio Margil (16571726; Sp. Franciscan), J. Marquette,* Zenobius Membre (164587; Fr. Franciscan), Juan de Padilla (d. 1542; Sp. Franciscan), Charles Raymbaut (160243; Fr. Jesuit), Junípero Serra (originally Miguel José; 171384; Franciscan; b. Majorca, Sp.), Andrew White (Eng. Jesuit; 15791656).
2. Two Jesuits were among first colonists of Maryland 1634. In Massachusetts, New Eng. was made a prefecture in charge of Fr. Capuchins 1630; the Mass Bay Co. enacted an anti-priest law 1647. The New Jersey const. practically excluded RCs from office 1776. The New Hampshire const. barred RCs from office 1784. Maryland adopted a religious toleration act 1649, but it was repealed 1654 as a result of Puritan influence. Pennsylvania extended toleration to all faiths 1682. Rhode Island granted freedom of conscience 1663 but barred RCs from office 1719.
4. J. Carroll was appointed bp. Baltimore (diocese coextensive with the US) 1789, consecrated 1790. Sulpicians* est. the 1st RC sem. in the US at Baltimore 1791. A school (which grew into Georgetown U.) opened at Georgetown, Maryland, 1791; a secondary school for girls opened at Georgetown 1792. By the 1840s RCs operated more than 200 elementary schools in the US.
6. In the 19th and 20th c., opposition to RCm took on various forms and was reflected, e.g., in the Know-Nothings in the 1850s, the Ku Klux Klan from 1866, the Am. Protective Assoc. from 1887. Non-RCs feared that a vow of obedience to Rome endangered secular govt. Pol. opposition became pronounced during the A. E. Smith presidential campaign 1928 and was intensified over the so-called Roman Question, occasioned by the 1929 Lateran Agreement (see also Concordat, 7; Popes, 28). Election of RC J. F. Kennedy as US Pres. 1960 and actions of Vatican Council II (see Vatican Councils, 2), e.g., in its Declaration on Religious Freedom, helped decrease soc. and pol. opposition to RCm
8. US bps. met at Baltimore, Maryland, for 7 provincial councils 182949. They proclaimed Mary patroness of the US 1846. Three plenary councils at Baltimore: (a) 1852, drafted rules for parochial life, matters of ritual and ceremonies, financial matters, and teaching of doctrine; (b) 1866, condemned some current doctrinal errors and adopted rules regarding organization of dioceses, educ. and conduct of clergy, property management, parish duties, and gen. educ.; (c) 1884, prepared the Baltimore catechisms, required est. of parish schools, initiated action to est. Cath. U. of Am. in Washington, D. C., fixed 6 holy days of obligation to be observed in the US. See also Councils and Synods, 6.
9. In the Civil War RCs fought on both sides, but none were prominent in the movement for abolishing slavery. In the 19th c. the RC Ch. became known as a friend of labor. J. Gibbons* went to Rome to defend the Knights of Labor. The 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum included rejection of the theory that the govt. should not interfere in soc. and economic matters and held that poverty should be alleviated by charity and justice.
10. Near the end of the 19th c., Am. RCs were accused of neglecting contemplative virtues in favor of practical virtues and of watering down doctrine to gain converts. In Testem Benevolentiae (1899 apostolic letter of Leo XIII [see Popes, 29] to J. Gibbons) doctrine is described as a divine deposit to be adhered to at all times, though adaptations may be made in Christian life to suit time, place, and nat. customs.
12. Vatican Council II spelled out the doctrine of collegiality of bps. Other phenomena of change in the 2d half of the 20th c. include differences in trends and emphases in theol.; variations in interpretation and implementation of Vatican Council II directives; changes in the spiritual formation and life-style of the clergy. Much attention is given to race relations, poverty, peace, and ecumenism.
14. The RC parish school system has been threatened by decline in the no. of priests and nuns to staff them and by various financial pressures. Institutions of higher education are also fighting for survival. Problems arising out of celibacy require solution. Liturgical reforms have created divisions that portend serious long-term aftereffects. The larger role played by laity may require revamping of the pol. structure of the ch. Soc. and ethical issues relating to birth control are proving to be difficult and disturbing. EL, JWC, MAM, ACP
New Catholic Encyclopedia, prepared by an ed. staff at The Cath. U. of Am., Washington, D. C., 14 vols. plus index (New York, 1967); 1972 Catholic Almanac, ed. F. A. Foy (Huntington, Indiana, 1971). See also Religious Bodies (US), Bibliography of.
Principal source and highest standard of the RC Ch.: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. Doctrinal sessions of the Council of Trent*: III Symbol of faith; IV. Scriptural canon (apocrypha* included); V. Original sin; VI. Justification (justification by faith alone condemned); VII. Sacraments in gen., Baptism in particular; XIII. Eucharist; XIV. Penance and extreme unction; XXI. Communion; XXII. Mass; XXIII. Ordination; XXIV. Marriage; XXV. Purgatory; invocation, veneration, and relics of saints; sacred images; indulgences*; fasting; index* of prohibited books; etc. Disciplinary measures dealt, e.g., with residence of bps. and priests, training of clerics, reformation of religious orders, finances. 255 signed. The original acts and debates of the council, recorded by Angelo Massarelli (151066; b. Sanseverino, Mark Ancona, It.; secy. Council of Trent) are in the Vatican. Interpretation is reserved to the pope alone.
2. The Council of Trent 1563 declared the need for a profession of faith (Sess. XXIV, Reform, Chaps. i and xii). Under direction of Pius* IV the Profession of the Tridentine Faith (Professio fidei Tridentina; also called Creed of Pius IV) was drawn up 1564; it consisted of 12 arts. (1. Nicene Creed; 211. Summary of the doctrines of the Council of Trent; 12. Solemn adjuration) and soon became obligatory for all RC priests and pub. teachers and for converts from Protestantism; 2 arts. were added 1877 (one on the immaculate conception of Mary, the other on papal infallibility). In 1910 it was ordered that the profession be signed and confirmed by oath.
3. The Council of Trent also proposed a catechism (Sess. XXIV, Reform, Chap. vii; Sess. XXV, Reform, Concerning the Index of Books and the Catechism, Breviary, and Missal). The resultant Roman Catechism (Catechismus Romanus; also called Catechism of the Council of Trent) had been projected 1546 and was pub. in Lat. 1566; it was for teachers, not pupils, and deals with the Apostles' Creed, Sacraments, Decalog, and Lord's Prayer. Other catechisms were written by P. Canisius,* R. Bellarmine,* J. B. Bossuet,* et al. A new RC catechism was issued 1992. See also Popes, 21; Roman Catholic Church, The, B 25.
B. Papal bulls against Jansenism.*
C. Papal definition of the Immaculate* Conception. In 1849 Pius IX (see Popes, 28) invited opinions of bps. regarding definition of the immaculate conception. 600 replied; 4 dissented; 4 regarded the time inopportune. Pius IX proclaimed the dogma of the immaculate conception 1854.
D. Papal Syllabus. In 1864 Pius IX issued the Syllabus* of Errors. In 1907 Pius X (see Popes, 30) issued Lamentabili, which condemned Modernism (see Modernism, 1) in 65 theses directed esp. against A. F. Loisy.* EL
See also Vatican Councils.
H. Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, tr. E. Graf, 2 vols. (St. Louis, 1957); Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent: Original Text with English Translation, ed. and tr. H. J. Schroeder (St. Louis, 1941).
Considered by some to be the consequence of 700 years of early Roman history, the empire was made possible by the consolidation of power in the hands of Gaius Julius Caesar and the later military success of his nephew Octavian (Gaius Octavius) at the battle of Actium, Greece in 31 BC The formal beginning of the empire was the conferral of the title Augustus upon Octavian on January 16, 27 BC (see Augustus). This marked the beginning of the principate (Latin princeps = first among equals). Augustus acquired power through the preexisting republican institutions as Julius Caesar had done, yet more cautiously over time. he reigned from 27 BC to AD 14. His reign and those continuing to Nero led to favorable conditions for the amazing growth of the early Church and the spread of the Gospel. Successors of the Julio-Claudian line were: Tiberius 1437, Caligula Little Boots (Gaius Caesar Germanicus) 3741, Claudius* I (Tiberius Claudius) 4154 and Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar) 5468.
In 68, the Year of the Four Emperors, there were four men aspiring to be emperor: Galba, Vitellius, Otho and Vespasian*. Vespasian (T. Flavius Vespasianus) emerged victorius and his son Titus led forces that sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple in AD 70. Vespasian, who ruled 6979, founded the Flavian dynasty that included: Titus* (Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus) 7981 and Domitian* 8196.
In 96, Nerva (M. Cocceius Nerva) was elected as princeps by the Senate and began the series of adoptive emperors that saw the greatest territorial expansion of the Roman Empire and also the beginnings of decline. This group included Nerva 9698, Trajan* 98117, Hadrian 117138, Antonius Pius 138161 (see Persecution of Christians 3), Marcus* Aurelius 161180 and Commodus 180192.
A second year of four emperors followed: Didus Julianus, P. Niger, Clodius Albinus and Lucius Septimus Severus*. Severus (reigned 193211) defeated his rivals and founded a dynasty that included: Caracalla 211217, Elagabal 218222 and M. A. Alexander* Severus 225235. In 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana provided for the universal extension of Roman citizenship to all free people in the provinces.
The weakness of the emperors led to the rise of the political power of the army. The soldier emperors were valued provincial generals, most of whom were murdered. This group includes Maximinus Thrax 235238, Gordian III 238244, Philip* the Arabian (Philippus Arabs) 244249, Decius* 249251, Trebonius Gallus 251253, Valerian* 253260, Gallienus 260268, Claudius II 268270, Aurelian* 270275, Probus 276282 and Carus 283284. Under Decius the first general persecution of Christians occurred. The title Lord and God was first used by an emperor in 274 under Aurelian.
Diocletian* (reigned 284305) was able to thoroughly reform the empire by decentralization. Maximian* became co-emperor in 286. Both augusti retired in 305. Their successors (caesares) were Galerius* and Constantius Chlorus. The first 20-year tetrarchy (rule of four) succeeded; after the new augusti appointed their new caesares, Severus and Maximinus Daia, the second tetrarchy collapsed into the intrigue of dynastic politics with Constantine I and Maxentius, the sons of Constantius Chlorus and Maximian. In 308, Licinius was named Western Emperor. Diocletian rejected the eastern title. Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312 and Licinius defeated Maximinus Daia in 313 at Adrianople.
Constantine* I (reigned as sole emperor 324337) founded a dynasty that included: Constantius II 337361 and Julian* Apostate 361363. In this period Christianity became a licit religion. The Council of Nicea (see Councils and Synods) was held AD 325 and the major struggle with Arianism* also took place. Then followed Valentinian I 364375, Valens 375378, Gratian* 375383, Theodosius I 379395 and Valentinian II 384394. Valens was defeated by Goths at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. In this time the Germanic barbarian migrations began in earnest due to the pressure of the Huns.
The sons of Theodosius I took the eastern empire (capital: Constantinople) and the western empire (capital: Ravenna) in different directions. The eastern empire ended in 474 and was followed by Byzantine rule (see Zeno[n]). The western empire fell when the barbarian Odoacer (Odovacer) deposed Romulus Augustulus in 476. Odoacer was overthrown by Theoderic* and the Goths* in 493.
(Roumanis; Rumania). One of the Balkan States, E Eur. Area: ca. 91,700 sq. mi. For Corrent information see CIA World Factbook. enl. 191820 to include Banat, Bessarabia, Bucovina, Transylvania; signed Balkan Pact 1934; forced to cede Bessarabia and N Bucovina to Russ., part of N Transylvania to Hung., S Dobruja to Bulgaria 1940; fought on side of Ger. in WW II; overrun by Russ. 1944; N Transylvania returned to Romania 1947; declared a people's rep. 1947, a socialist rep. 1965.
Luther's catechism was printed in Romania 1543. A Luth. Ch. is said to have been est. at Bucharest by 1550. Luths. are mostly Hung. and Ger. Six groups merged 1926 to form the Ev. Ch. of the Augsburg Confession. Luths. numbered ca. 20,000 in Bucovina in the early 1920s; many were deported by Nazis 1940. Luths. (mostly Ger.) numbered ca. 100,000 in Bessarabia 1940. Most Luths. here and in Dobruja were deported by Nazis 1940.
1. Originally, Roman religion was quite different from the Gk. religion that later overwhelmed it. Its basic element was awe and anxiety felt before the divine (or numen), expressed in religious observances, mainly agricultural, without myth, theology, temples, or statues of gods. Its oldest gods were Jupiter and Mars. It survived mainly in the religious festivals of the Roman calendar.
2. Under the Roman kings, Etruscan (Gk.?) influence led to construction of temples and other anthropomorphic features. Under guidance of the Sibylline (from Gk. Sibylla, a prophetess) oracle at Cumae, It., a series of Gk. cults were introd., some not without opposition. At the same time, many earlier deities survived, with reassigned functions, so that Roman religion had many minor deities. See also Sibylline Books and Oracles.
3. By the time of the NT, Roman religion was thoroughly hellenized; it had philos. elements, many mystery cults and E cults, and a certain skepticism about things religious (cf. M. T. Cicero,* De natura deorum). In the period of the empire there is also a growth of ruler worship (esp. in the E Roman empire), the conflict of which with Christianity is reflected in Rv.
C. Bailey, Phases in the Religion of Ancient Rome (Berkeley, California, 1932); F. Altheim, A History of Roman Religion, tr. H. Mattingly (New York, [1937?]); Ancient Roman Religion, ed. and tr. F. C. Grant (New York, 1957). EK
Movement in literature, art, religion, and theol. in the last half of the 18th and 1st part of the 19th c. Developed on background of classicism, humanism,* and the Enlightenment.* Characterized by subjectivity, appeal to imagination and fancy, emphasis on beauty of the natural world, mystery, idealizing pantheism or its counterpart as an explanation of the relation bet. the inner and outer world, freedom for each personality. See also Christian Church, History of the, III 14; Secularism.
(December 14, 1870July 9, 1936). B. Baltimore, Maryland; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 189299; pastor Detroit, Michigan; pres. Conc. Coll., Conover, 190011; pastor Cleveland, Ohio, 191114; prof. Conc. Collegiate Institute, Bronxville, New York, 1915 (pres. 191836). Ed. The Lutheran Witness.
(181387). B. Bischofswalde, Silesia; educ. Breslau; priest 1840; suspended 1843 for attacking RCm; excommunicated and degraded from priesthood 1844 for protesting against display of the Holy* Coat of Treves; founded German* Catholics.
Screen separating chancel or choir from nave; often surmounted by a cross or crucifix. The screen or the gallery above it is also called jube.
(17271803). B. Sulz, S Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; diaconus Göppingen 1757; pastor Lustnau and dean of the diocese of Bebenhausen 1767; lectured on theol. at Tübingen; prelate Anhausen 1784. Moderate pietist; influenced by J. A. Bengel.* Works include Christliche Gedanken von der Verschiedenheit und Einigkeit der Kinder Gottes.
Masses named after the 1st word of the Introit in Lat. for the Wednesday after the 3d Sunday in Advent, for the 4th Sunday in Advent, and for December 18; celebrated in honor of Mary; in some places read daily December 1724.
(Cipriano da; 151665). Composer; b. Antwerp or Mechelen (Mechlin; Mecheln), Belg.; pupil and successor of A. Willaert* as choirmaster St. Mark's, Venice, It.. Works include motets, masses, psalms. See also Passion, The.
(Rorarius; 14921557). B. Deggendorf, Bav., Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; diaconus Wittenberg 1525; devoted full time to helping Luther from 1537; proofreader; to Copenhagen 1551, Jena 1553. Ed. Luther's works. See also Luther, Table Talk of.
RC string of prayer beads and the devotion for which it is used. 150 smaller beads are divided into 15 groups, called decades, by insertion of 15 larger beads. The devotion is begun and ended in various ways. As the beads are fingered, an Ave* Maria is said for each small one and a Lord's Prayer for each larger one. During the recital of each decade a mystery is to be contemplated, there being 5 joyful mysteries (Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, Presentation, and finding of Jesus in the temple), 5 sorrowful mysteries (agony in Gethsemane, scourging, crowning with thorns, carrying the cross, crucifixion), and 5 glorious mysteries (resurrection, ascension, descent of the Holy Sprit, assumption of Mary, coronation of Mary). Indulgences are traditionally connected with recitation of the rosary.
(Rucelinus; Roscellin; Roscelin de Compiègne; d. after 1120). Probably b. Compiègne, Fr.; scholastic philos.; canon Loches; teacher of P. Abelard.* Defended nominalism* in opposition to realism*; accused of tritheism,* he postulated a unity of will and power.
(Rossegger; Petri Kettenfeier; pseudonym till 1894: P. K.; 18431918). Poet and novelist; b. Alpl, near Krieglach, Styria, Austria; RC with ev. tendencies. Works include Der Gottsucher; Das ewige Licht.
(changed name from Jensson to Roseland 1900; Mar. 25, 1859Dec. 17, 1930). B. Sandnes, Jaederen (later spelled Jaeren), Norw.; to Am. 1861; educ. Augustana Sem. of The Norwegian-Danish* Augustana Syn. in Am., Marshall, Wis.; held various pastorates and syn. offices. Works include Et Varsko; American Lutheran Biographies; Kvindens Stemmeret.
(Karl; 181668). Luth. lay revivalist; hymnist; b. Nysätra, Västerbotten, Swed.; influenced by G. Scott*; opposed separatism; emphasized M. Luther's* teaching of justification by faith alone and stressed virtues as proofs of the indwelling Holy Spirit; helped found Evangeliska Fosterlands-Stiftelsen (The Ev. Fatherland's Foundation: Ev. Nat. Missionary Soc.). Contributed to Pietisten (The Pietist). Other works include Bref i andliga ämnen; Om de hemska twiflen pan allt heligt; commentary on Ro; hymns. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 5.
(Giovanni Rosenmiller; ca. 161984). Luth. organist, composer; b. Ölsnitz, Vogtland, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; taught in Venice, It., nearly 20 yrs.; kapellmeister Wolfenbüttel, Ger. Works include motets; cantatas.
(18861929). Jewish philos.; b. Cassel, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Munich, Freiburg, Berlin; soldier in WW I; appointed lecturer at Frankfurt but could not accept because of onset of paralysis; religious existentialist. Works include Hegel und der Staat; Der Stern der Erlösung; Die Schrift und Luther.
(Brothers of the Rosy-Cross; Rosy-Cross Knights; Rosicrucian Fraternity). Became known in Ger. ca. 1614 through 2 anonymous pamphlets: Fama Fraternitatis Roseae-Crucis and Die chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosenkreutz (both now gen. ascribed to J. V. Andreä* and regarded as satire). Christianus Rosenkreutz, a shadowy lengendary figure, is alleged to have been born 1378, to have spent his last days in a cave in Morocco, and to have died there 1484 after giving his esoteric lore to disciples under vow of secrecy. In course of time, charlatans and impostors arose, claiming to be mems. of the alleged soc. with knowledge of its secrets (including that of alchemy and the elixir of life).
Rosicrucians claim access to all knowledge of man, including that deposited on the lost continents of Atlantis and Lemuria, and that they have the key whereby all can choose a life leading to perfection. They hold that the kingdom of God is within everyone and that therefore everyone has the powers of the universe in his body.
AMORC is acronym for Ancient Mystical Order of the Rosy Cross. FEM
See also Illuminati.
(152086). Luth. theol.; b. Pössneck, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; schoolmaster (1544) and diaconus (1551) Eisenach; pastor and supt. Weimar 1559; supt. Waldenburg 1562; returned to Weimar 1567; dismissed and called to Regensburg 1573. Works include Fragstücke zu Luthers Katechismus.
(August 6, 18421915). B. Easter Rarichie, Nigg, Scot.; educ. Glasgow and Edinburg; Presb. miss. Manchuria 1872. Tr. NT into Korean; contributed to a commentary on the Bible in Chinese. Other works include History of Corea; Mission Methods in Manchuria; The Original Religion of China.
(17801852). Luth. jurist and statesman; b. Vaihingen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; held various govt. positions; pres. of Bav. supreme consistory 182848; criticized for not giving strong support to Prots. in the genuflection controversy (see Redenbacher, Christian Wilhelm Adolf). Ed. selections from Luther's writings.
(17961849). B. Mediasch, Transylvania; studied at Tübingen; pupil and coworker of J. H. Pestalozzi* in Switz.; applied the latter's method at Mediasch; instituted soc. reforms; became pastor; tried to lead people back to Luther's childlike faith.
(16881758). Luth. Pietist; b. Lissa, near Görlitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; pastor Berthelsdorf (see Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig von) 1722; broke with Zinzendorf 1737; pastor Hermsdorf (near Görlitz) 1737, Thommendorf (near Bunzlau) 1739; hymnist. Hymns include Ich habe nun den Grund gefunden.
(17991867). Mediating theol.; b. Posen; educ. Heidelberg, Berlin, Wittenberg; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* G. W. F. Hegel,* J. A. W. Neander,* and F. A. G. Tholuck*; cofounder Protestantenverein (Protestant* Union); prof. Wittenberg, Heidelberg, Bonn, Heidelberg. Works include Zur Dogmatik; Die Anfänge der christlichen Kirche und ihrer Verfassung.
(171278). Fr. philos.; b. Geneva, Switz.; lived mainly in Fr. Works include Du Contrat social; Julie, ou la Nouvelle Héloïse; Émile, ou Traité de I'éducationacute;; contributions to the Encyclopédie (see Encyclopedists). See also Government; Natural Law, 5; Naturalism.
(Rowlands; 171390). B. Panty-y-beudy, Llancwnlle, near Llangeitho, Cardiganshire, Wales; ordained Angl. deacon 1733, priest 1735; held several curates; organized Calvinistic Methodistic socs.; suspended from clerical functions, but continued in an outstanding preaching career.
(18551916). B. Grass Valley, California; taught philos. at Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 18821916; influenced by W. James.* Exponent of absolute* indealism; emphasized individuality and will; ultimate reality is the career of the absolute mind, of which human minds are fragmentary manifestations; perfection of the absolute includes victory over sin and suffering; though involved in process, the absolute grasps past, present, and future in a single act; virtue springs from loyalty that manifests itself in community. Royce's concept of a beloved and redemptive community influenced theol. descriptions of the ch. Works include The Spirit of Modern Philosophy; The World and the Individual; The Sources of Religious Insight; The Problem of Christianity; The Hope of the Great Community.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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