(15521610). B. Macerata, It.; Jesuit 1571; miss. to India 1578, China 1583; became a favorite of the Chinese emp. Works include writings on Chinese geog. and hist.; Christian works in Chinese, including T'ien-chu-she-i (The True Doctrine of God).
(17331816). B. Hanover Co., Virginia; educ. Coll. of New Jersey (now Princeton U.); ordained Presb. 1763; pastor Hanover, Virginia, 176368; miss. Bedford Co., Virginia, 176983; itinerant preacher Kentucky and Ohio 178398; helped found Hampden-Sydney Coll. (at Hampden Sydney, Virginia) and Transylvania U. (at Lexington, Kentucky); mem. Kentucky Const. Conv. 1792; largely responsible for est. Presbyterianism in Kentucky Works include An Essay on Baptism; Slavery Inconsistent with Justice and Good Policy.
(18311929). B. Kingsboro (or Kingsborough; now Gloversville), New York; educ. Union Theol. Sem., NYC; ordained Cong. 1860; miss. of Am. SS. Union. Ed. periodicals and other publications of the Am. SS. Union. Other works include Our Sixty-Six Sacred Books; The Sunday-School Movement, 17801917, and the American Sunday-School Union, 18171917.
(March 25, 1783September 25, 1836). B. Northborough, Massachusetts; educ. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ordained Cong. 1812; ABCFM miss. to India 1812; became Bap. en route; returned to Am. 1813; helped organize Am. Bap. Miss. Union and Columbian Coll. (later George Washington U.), Washington, D. C. Pub. The Latter Day Luminary; The Columbian Star. See also Haystack Group; India, 11.
(180777). B. Garrard Co., Kentucky; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; ordained Presb. 1833; pastor Kentucky, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, New York; prof. Presby. Theol. Sem. of the Northwest (later McCormick Theol. Sem.), Chicago, Illinois; pres. Westminster Coll., Fulton, Missouri, 186974; prof. Danville (Kentucky) Theol. Sem. 187477. Ed. Western Protestant; St. Louis Presbyterian. Other works include Baptism: The Design, Mode and Subjects; Lectures on Slavery; The Pulpit: Its Relations to Our National Crisis; Immortality.
(ricercata; from It. for to search out). Instrumental piece written in imitation of the motet,* canzone,* or similar technique; helped pave the way for the fugue; for J. S. Bach* a ricercar was practically a type of fugue.
(February 14, 1843March 7, 1909). B. near Winchester, Virginia; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. and Luth. Theol. Sem., both at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; prof. Carthage* Coll. 1873, Wittenberg Sem. 1885 (see Wittenberg University), Gettysburg* Sem. 1889. Works include Philip Melanchthon: The Protestant Preceptor of Germany, 14971560; The Confessional History of the Lutheran Church
(115799). Surnamed Coeur de Lion, Lion-Hearted; son of Henry* II (113389); fought twice against his father; king of Eng. 118999; a leader of the 3d Crusade (see Crusades, 4): captured on return in Austria 1192; ransomed and returned to Eng. 1194.
(Richardus de Mediavilla; b. ca. 1249). Doctor solidus; Franciscan philos.; regent master Paris, Fr., 128487. Works include a commentary on the Sententiae of Peter* the Lombard; Quodlibeta; Quaestiones disputatae.
(d. 1173). B. Scot.; entered abbey of St. Victor, Paris, at an early age; pupil of Hugh* of St. Victor; prominent in struggle of Thomas à Becket* with Henry* II of Eng.; his theol. was influenced by mysticism; much of his expository work is along allegorical lines.
(April 18, 1803January 24, 1854). Grandson of H. M. Mühlenberg*; father of M. H. Richards*; b. Reading, Pennsylvania; licensed by Pennsylvania Ministerium; pastor New Holland, Trappe, Germantown, Easton, and Reading, Pennsylvania; prof. Lafayette Coll., Easton. Pub. works include sermons and contributions to The Evangelical Review.
(June 17, 1841December 12, 1898). Son of J. W. Richards*; b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (Gettysburg) and Gettysburg* Sem.; ordained by Pennsylvania Ministerium; pastor Greenwich, New Jersey, Phillipsburg, New Jersey, and Indianapolis, Indiana, prof. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 186874, 187698. Ed. The Helper; coed. The Lutheran.
(15851642). Statesman; b. Paris, Fr.; cardinal 1622; chief minister of Louis XIII 162442 (see also France, 10); virtual ruler of Fr. to the end of his life. In for. policy he supported Prots. against the Hapsburgs; in domestic policy he opposed Huguenots in the interest of monarchical absolutism.
Resolution adopted 1909 at Richmond, Indiana, by The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA in response to a charge by the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (North) Am. that there were ambiguities in the doctrinal basis of the Gen. Syn. In this resolution the Gen. Syn. held that it had never subscribed to any edition of the confession save the 'unaltered' form known as the Editio Princeps of 153031, precisely the edition from which a translation was prepared by a joint committee of the General Synod, the General Council, the United Synod in the South, and the Joint Synod of Ohio, 'as a Common Standard of the Augsburg Confession in English' and hence the identical one subscribed by the Gen. Council. When the General Synod says, in her formula of confessional subscription, that she accepts 'the Augsburg Confession as a correct exhibition of the fundamental doctrines of the divine word and of the faith of our Church founded upon that word,' she means that the fundamental doctrines of God's word are correctly set forth in the Confession. She does not mean that some of the doctrines are nonfundamental and, therefore, may be accepted or rejected; she means that they are all fundamental. The resolution calls the other symbols Secondary Confessions which the Gen. Syn. holds in high esteem because they explain and unfold the doctrines of the Augsburg Confession. Regarding the phrase as contained in the canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament in the Gen. Synod's formula of confessional subscription, the resolution explains: When our fathers framed this language, the theological distinction between the two statements, 'The Bible is the word of God' and 'the Bible contains the word of God' had not yet been made, or at least, was not yet in vogue. The resolution declares adherence to the statement, 'The Bible is the word of God,' and rejects the error implied in the statement, 'The Bible contains the word of God.'
Theses proposed by G. L. Fritschel (see Fritschel, 2) and adopted 1883 at Richmond, Indiana, by representatives of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States and of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States. Since these theses were only presented by official representatives, they are not on a par with theses adopted by the syns. themselves.
(180384). Painter, illustrator, graphic artist; b. Dresden, Ger. Though RC, he lent his talents to provide illustration for M. Luther's letter to his son Hänsichen (see Luther, Family Life of). Other works include Vaterunser; Sonntag; Unser täglich Brot; Christnacht.
(Aemilius; 180864). B. Stolpen, near Dresden, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Leipzig, Marburg, Berlin; authority on Prot. ch. polity. Coed. an ed. of Canones et decreta concilii Tridentini. Other works include Lehrbuch des katholischen und evangelischen Kirchenrechts; Geschichte der evangelischen Kirchenverfassung in Deutschland; Die evangelischen Kirchenordnungen des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts.
(16761711). B. Sorau, Ger. (now Zary, Poland); educ. Halle; inspector of A. H. Francke's* Paedagogium (academy) at Halle 1698; physician to Francke's institutions 1699; Pietist; hymnist. Hymns include Es glänzet der Christen inwendiges Leben.
(October 24, 1852October 18, 1934). B. Riesa, Saxony, Ger.; to Am. 1872; educ. at the sem. of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States at St. Sebald, Iowa, and at Leipzig and Erlangen, Ger.; pastor Mendota, Illinois, and teacher at the Iowa Syn. coll. and sem. there 1876; pres. Wartburg Coll., Clinton, Iowa, 1894; pres. Iowa Syn. 190426; prominent in merger of Buffalo, Iowa, and Ohio syns. Ed. Kirchen-Blatt.
(pseudonym Jean Paul; 17631825). Ger. humorist and prose writer; b. Wunsiedel, near Bayreuth, Bav., Ger.; educ. Leipzig; indigent; tutor near Hof 178794; settled at Bayreuth 1804; received govt. pension 1808; held that visible things are symbols of the invisible. Works include Blumen-, Frucht- und Dornenstücke; Titan; Levana oder Erziehungslehre; Vorschule der Ästhetik.
(ca. 150055). B. Northumberland; Prot. ca. the mid-1530s; bp. Rochester 1547. London 1550; influential under Edward VI (see England, B 4); suffered martyrdom with H. Latimer.* See also Anglican confessions, 5.
(Karl; 182788). Luth. composer; b. Cronenberg (or Kronenberg), near Elberfeld, Ger.; studied music at Leipzig; organized a male quartet 1854 that developed into the Riedel-Verein, which became famous esp. by a performance of J. S. Bach's Mass in B Minor 1859; helped found Beethoven Stiftung; championed music of Wilhelm Richard Wagner (181383).
(June 12, 1889December 26, 1971). B. Lincoln, Illinois; educ. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; miss. to China 191627 as coworker of E. L. Arndt* (see also China, 8); pastor Casper, Wyoming prof. Conc. Sem., Hankow, China, 193037; Conc. Sem., Wanhsien, China, 193941. Pastor Santa Ana, California; White City, Kansas; Davenport, Nebraska; Summerfield, Kansas Taught at sem. in Chia Yi, Taiwan.* 195663; after a short furlough in the US he returned to Taiwan till 1971, then returned to the US Ed. Chinese Lutheran Witness 193637. Translations into Chinese include FC; some of R. Pieper's sermons; hymns.
(150656). B. Hirschberg, Silesia; prominent Huterite elder and theol. (see Huter, Jakob); probably traveling preacher; imprisoned several times. Works include Rechenschafft unserer Religion, Leer und Glaubens. See also Democratic Declarations of Faith, 1.
(or Georg Christian; 18421914). Son of E. F. A. Rietschel*; b. Dresden, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, and Leipzig; held various positions, e.g., at Rüdigsdorf (near Borna), Wittenberg, and Leipzig; prof. practical theol. Leipzig 1889. Works include Die Aufgabe der Orgel im Gottesdienst bis in das 18. Jahrhundert; Der evangelische Gemeindegottesdienst; Lehrbuch der Liturgik.
(180461). Father of C. G. Rietschel*; sculptor; b. Pulsnitz, Saxony, Ger.; prof. Dresden. Works include a pietà*; statues of M. Luther and J. Wycliffe in the Worms Luther Memorial that he projected, but which was finished by his pupils Karl Adolf Donndorf (18351916; b. Weimar, Ger.; prof. Stuttgart 1877; works include a bronze statue of J. S. Bach at Eisenach) and Gustav Kietz (18241908; b. Leipzig, Ger.; works include a madonna). See also Luther Monuments.
(181890). Ref. theol.; b. Basel, Switz.; educ. Berlin and Bonn, Ger.; prof. Basel 1851. At first liberal, but soon conservative. Hymnologist. Contributed to J. P. Lange's Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk.
(March 23, 1812August 24, 1883). B. Steubenville, Ohio; educ. Jefferson Coll., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny (now part of Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania; ABCFM miss. to Dakota Indians 183783. Reduced Dakota language to writing; prepared a Dakota dictionary; tr. nearly all Scripture into Dakota; prepared many books (some original, some translations) for Dakotas.
The righteousness of God* is the essential perfection of His nature. The term righteousness is applied to Christ not only in view of His essential righteousness, but also in view of the righteousness that He gained for mankind (Jer. 23:6; see also Justification). The righteousness of the Law is that righteousness which obedience to the Law requires (see Decalog; Law and Gospel). The righteousness of the Christian is the righteousness of faith (see Conversion; Faith; Justification).
(1804January 20, 1854). B. Lygumcloster, Den.; educ. Basel, Switz.; ordained 1831; sent by Basel* Miss. Soc. to the then Dan. Gold Coast, arriving 1832; left Ghana 1845; pastor Stavanger, Norw. See also Africa, C 11.
(Rijssenius; ca. 1636ca. 1700). Dutch Ref. theol.; b. Doesburg, Neth.; pastor Tull en 't Waal, Heusden, and Deventer; exponent of theol. of G. Voet.* Works include Synopsis impurae theologiae Remonstrantium.
(Rene; 18751926). Lyric poet; b. Prague; educ. Prague, Munich, and Berlin; traveled in Russ., Swed., It., N Afr., Fr.; lived in Paris, It., Scand., Austria, and Switz.; intuitive religious philos. and mystic; regarded artistic work as religious activity; stressed immanence of God. Works include Geschichten vom lieben Gott; Das Marienleben; Duineser Elegien; Sonette an Orpheus.
(Rink; 17701846). Composer; b. Elgersburg, Thuringia, Ger.; pupil of J. C. Kittel; organist Giessen 1790; municipal organist Darmstadt 1805, court organist there 1813. Works include Praktische Orgel-Schule; motets; chorale preludes for male voices.
(Rinkart; Rinckhart; 15861649). B. Eilenburg, near Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; cantor 1609. diaconus 1611 Eisleben; pastor Erdeborn, near Eisleben, 1613; archidiaconus Eilenburg 1617; hymnist. Hymns include Nun danket alle Gott. See also Religious Drama, 3.
A circle is an emblem of eternity; hence a ring serves as a symbol of faithfulness. An engagement ring is given as a token of betrothal by a man to his fiancée. A wedding ring is given by the groom to the bride in the wedding service; the bride may also give the groom a wedding ring. The rings may have, but need not have, precious stones. A ring is not essential to either engagement or marriage.
(August 8, 17701816 or later). B. Scheidelwitz, near Brieg, Lower Silesia; educ. Halle; SPCK miss. to Calcutta, India, 1797; LMS miss. to lndia, active in Tranquebar and Tinnevelly 180406, in the Travancore region 180616. His end is shrouded in mystery.
(Lat. anulus piscatoris). Papal signet ring that has an image of Peter casting out or drawing in a net. with the name of the current pope above it or around the edge; used from the 13th to the 15th c. to seal private papal letters, from the 15th to the 19th c. to seal papal briefs (see Breve); hence the formula datum sub anulo piscatoris (given under the ring of the fisherman).
(Ringwald; Ringwalt; 1530 [1532?] ca. 1599). B. Frankfurt an der Oder, Ger.; teacher; pastor of 2 congs. before becoming pastor Langfeld (or Langenfeld), near Sonnenburg, Neumark, 1566; staunch Luth.; hymnist. Hymns include O heil'ger Geist, du höchstes Gut; Es ist gewisslich an der Zeit; Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut. Other poems include Christliche Warnung des trewen Eckarts; Die lauter Wahrheit. See also Religious Drama, 3.
(Rinck; Ring; Ringk; Grink; ca. 14931551 or later). Anabap.; b. Hesse; educ. Leipzig and Erfurt; influenced by T. Münzer*; took part in Peasants'* War; active in Landau, Worms, Hersfeld; his preaching led to an indeterminate discussion with the Marburg faculty 1528; exiled; twice imprisoned.
(160767). B. Ottensen, near Hamburg, Ger.; educ. Bremen, Rinteln, Rostock, Leiden, Utrecht, Leipzig; influenced by J. Stegmann*; pastor Wedel, near Hamburg, 1635. Wrote perhaps ca. 680 hymns, including Auf, auf, ihr Reichsgenossen; Hilf, Herr Jesu, lass gelingen; Du Lebensbrod, Herr Jesu Christ; Wie wohl hast du gelabet; O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort. See also Schop, Johann.
(182289). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Bonn, Halle, Heidelberg, Tübingen; prof. Bonn 1852, Göttingen 1864; consistorial councillor Göttingen 1874; pupil of K. I. Nitzsch,* F. A. G. Tholuck,* Julius Müller,* K. Schwarz,* and R. Rothe*; for a time a Hegelian of the later Tübingen* school of F. C. Baur*; since 1856 he became more and more the founder of a school of his own, influenced by I. Kant,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* and R. H. Lotze.* Ritschl claimed to be evangelical but based his theol. on the consciousness of the believer as presented esp. in the NT, which, in turn, the theologian makes his own by actual experience of the power of Christ working in His church. Acc. to Ritschl, religion is faith in high spiritual powers that elevated man. The preexistence of Christ is denied. There is no original sin; sin is mistrust in God and its punishment is the feeling of guilt; God regards it as ignorance. There is no wrath of God against sin and no vicarious atonement of Christ. God is love; as soon as man realizes this he is redeemed and justified. From this follows the new life of love toward God, faith, prayer, humility, and patience. Value judgments are important in theol. and its application. The influence of Ritschl is widespread. Works include Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 12; Modernism, 2; Social Gospel; Subordinationism; Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in, 12.
O. Ritschl, Albrecht Ritschls Leben, 2 vols. (Freiburg, 189296).
(18721938). B. Dillingen, on the Danube, Bav., Ger.; pastor Nürnberg 190216, Berlin 191622; moved from liberal theol. emphasizing Jesus to anthroposophy (see Steiner, Rudolf) emphasizing Christ; stressed religious freedom, religious experience, and the religious development and evolvement of self. With C. K. L. Geyer* wrote Leben aus Gott. Other works include Jesus; Christus.
(181185). Luth. composer; b. Erfurt, Ger.; studied music at Erfurt, Weimar, and Berlin; organist Erfurt, Merseburg, Magdeburg. Works include Die Kunst des Orgelspiels; Zur Geschichte des Orgelspiels.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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