Practical realism is the attitude to take things as they really are in life and to make the best of them. The realist deals with facts and is seldom swayed by high ideals; he tries less to improve the world than to make use of it. Philos. realism is the theory that gen. abstract ideas have real existence, indep. of individual objects; e.g., the idea of a circle exists apart from round things. Psychol. realism holds that things have real existence, indep. of our conscious experience; e.g., the tree I see exists not merely in my consciousness, as a concept of my mind, but there really is a tree in the yard, also when no eyes are looking at it. Common sense is realistic as it assumes that objects we perceive really exist. But in hallucinations we see things that are not real. In literature and art, realism as opposed to romanticism and idealism, pictures life not as it should be, but as it is. See also Critical Realism; Idealism; Nominalism; Philosophy.
(January 16, 1820October 4, 1876). Miss.; b. Gerlingen, N. Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Basel, Switz.; sent 1846 by CMS to work with J. L. Krapf* in E Afr.; discovered Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya; studied Swahili and other native languages. Tr. Lk into a native tongue; helped prepare dictionaries for 3 native tongues. See also Africa, E 5.
In theol., the theory (drawn from Eph. 1:10, gather together, literally recapitulate) that the Logos* in His state of humiliation went through all experiences of the life of a sinner in order to purge man's sinfulness by His sinlessness; see also Irenaeus. In pedagogy, the theory that a human being must grow through all biological and social experiences of the human race, acc. to the theory of evolution, in order to reach maturity. See also Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August.
(February 16, 1851December 9, 1915). B. Bergen, cen. Rügen is., in the Baltic Sea, 16 mi. ENE of Stralsund, in former Prussian Pomerania prov., N Ger.; to Am. 1867; educ. at the Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois; taught at Davenport, Iowa, Albany, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio; prof. Addison, Illinois, 1893, and later at River Forest, Illinois, till his death. Works include Erstes Übungsbuch; Zweites Übungsbuch.
(from Lat. for to gather again). Branches of Augustinians (see Augustinian Hermits) and Franciscans*; called recollects beause their mems. returned to the early strict rule. Franciscan recollects began as a reform movement in Fr. ca. 1570; spread to Belg., Ger., Ireland, and Eng. Friars on the Continent; were inc. with other Observants* 1897. Augustinian recollects began in Sp. in the late 1580s; engaged in miss. work esp. in Peru and the Philippines; were constituted an indep. order 1912.
Synonymous with atonement* in the sense of the act of reconciling and so restoring friendly relations. In the sense of state of being reconciled it is the result of atonement.
Refreshment of body and mind through natural expression of human interests during leisure time, e.g., by diversion, agreeable exercise, play. Play activities date from ancient times. The Gk. educ. theory and practice emphasized adequate training of the young in mind, spirit, and body.
The importance of the human body is reflected, e.g., Gn 2:7 (God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life), Jn 1:14 (assumed by Christ in incarnation), 1 Cor 3:17; 6:19 (temple of God), 1 Co 15:12; Ph 3:21 (shares in resurrection). Kinds of recreation mentioned in Scripture include storytelling and riddles (Ju 14:1219; Eze 17:2), archery (1 Sm 20:3540), mirth making (Neh 8:12), dancing (Jb 21:11; see also Dance), racing (Ps 19:5; Ec 9:11; 1 Co 9:2427; 2 Ti 4:7; Heb 12:l); feasting (Am 8:10), children playing (Zch 8:5), children making music and dancing (Mt 11:17), feasting, merrymaking, music, and dancing (Lk 15:2325). Recreation under sinful circumstances: Ex 32:6; Ju 16:25; 1 Sm 25:36; Am 6:46; Mt 14:6. Attempts to introd. nat. games similar to those of the Gks. were made in the reigns of Antiochus Epiphanes and Herod the Great (1 Mac 1:1014; Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae, XV, viii, 1).
In the Middle Ages, Teutonic influence caused interest in physical and military games. The monastic view that the body should be degraded to glorify the soul caused a negative attitude toward pleasurable bodily recreation. In the Renaissance,* humanistic interests fostered ideals opposed to monastic asceticism.
M. Luther* restored a positive attitude toward recreation: God created body and soul, and He wants recreation allowed to both, but with moderation and purpose (WA 43, 331). He emphasized the importance of the body (WA 28, 208209; 36, 666667). Not to care for the body, or abuse it, as was done in monasteries, he considered a mortal sin (WA 52, 415416). The pleasing things at hand should be enjoyed (WA 20, 189193), but recreation should be sanctified by prayer (WA 19, 313314).
Forms of recreation in America included husking bees and ch. socials. Concentration of population in cities and shortened working hrs. led to development of parks, playgrounds, camps, etc. for recreation. First activities were gen. sports, games, etc. for the young; then came arts, crafts, hobbies, music, dramatics; finally all legitimate leisure interests of all were included.
In planning activities, chs. have recognized the need for recreation on all age levels. LFW
Title of a leader, e.g., (1) head of a school or university; (2) Prot. Episc. clergyman in charge of a parish; (3) incumbent of an Angl. benefice in full possession of its rights; (4) RC priest dir. a ch. without a pastor or a ch. whose pastor has other duties.
Founded by J. H. Dunant,* who was influenced by F. Nightingale's* service in the Crimean War (185456) and his own witness of carnage at Solferino, N It., the day after battle bet. Fr. and It. on one side and Austria on the other (1859; ca. 40,000 lay dead or wounded; described in his Un Souvenir de Solférino). The Société genovoise d'Utilité publique, a Swiss welfare agency, named a committee of 5 (including Dunant) that arranged a conf. of 36 delegates from 16 nations at Geneva October 1863 to consider ways of implementing Dunant's ideas. A diplomatic conf. 1864 drew up the 1st Geneva convention, signed by 12 govts., arranging for care of sick and wounded in war; a red cross on a white field (similar to the Swiss flag, but with colors reversed) was adopted as emblem. Thus the 1863 committee of 5 was the beginning of the Internat. Committee of the Red Cross. The convention, repeatedly updated, has been ratified by most nations.
The Am. Red Cross traces its hist. to the US Sanitary Commission, which was organized mainly through efforts of H. W. Bellows* and functioned in the Civil War. The Am. Red Cross itself was founded 1881 as the Am. Assoc. of the Red Cross under leadership of Clarissa (or Clara) Harlowe Barton (18211912; b. Oxford, Massachusetts; schoolteacher 183654; patent office clerk, Washington, D. C., 185461; interested in war relief; 1st pres. Am. Red Cross), who had extended volunteer care to wounded in the Civil War and worked with the Red Cross in the Franco-Prussian War. The Am. Red Cross introd. peacetime services in times of disaster and presented the Am. amendment regarding such work to the Internat. Red Cross 1884.
(from Lat. for buy back). The concept is found in classical Gk. and the NT for setting a captive free by paying a ransom. In Christian theol. the term stands for recovery from sin and death by the obedience and sacrifice of Christ, who is therefore called the Redeemer (Jb 19:25; Is 59:20. Cf. Mt 20:28; Ro 3:24; 1 Co 6:20; Gl 3:13; 4:45; Eph 1:7; 1 Ti 2:56; 1 Ptr 1:18). The subject is sinful mankind, under guilt and the curse of the Law and the power and dominion of the devil, servants of sin. liable to death and eternal punishment. Redemption applies to all, but is not gratuitous; the ransom paid was divinely sealed by the resurrection (1 Co 15:320).
Community of priests and lay brothers founded 1732 at Scala, near Naples, It., by A. M. de' Liguori* for miss. work among the poor. Mems. add to the 3 usual vows* a vow not to accept any dignity or benefice outside the cong. except by express command of the pope or superior gen. and to remain in the cong. till death unless dispensed by the pope.
(180076) B. Pappenheim, on the Altmühl, Bav.; educ. Erlangen; private tutor; vicar; pastor; opposed rationalism* and the order of the Bav. ministry of war requiring all soldiers, also Prots., to genuflect to the host when carried in procession; suspended; sentenced to prison, but appeals by Prots. led the king to remit this penalty; after a pastorate in Saxony he returned to Bavaria. Works include Lesebuch der Weltgeschichte; sermons; devotional writings; a hist. of the Reformation.
(18481908). B. Sydenham (or Forest Hill?), London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; Angl. deacon 1872, priest 1874; held various positions. Collaborated with E. Hatch* on a concordance to the LXX (see also Concordances, Bible).
Nickname for cardinal prefect of the Sacred Cong. for the Propagation of the Faith (see Curia, 2 f) because of the importance and widespread jurisdiction of that cong.; red, because that is the color distinctive of both cardinals and missionaries.
Sem. of the Hauge* Syn. founded 1879 at Red Wing, Minnesota, as Hauge's Sem.; renamed 1883 Red Wing Norw. Ev. Luth. Sem. In 1917 the theol. dept. united with the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. sem. and Luther Theol. Sem. St. Paul, to form Luther* Theol. Sem., St. Anthony Park, St. Paul; the coll. dept. merged with St. Olaf Coll. (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B). An academy under the name Luther Sem. continued at Red Wing till consolidation with Saint Olaf Coll. 1932.
(1787[1788?]1862). Philanthropist; hymnist; b. London, Eng.; educ. London; Cong. pastor London; founded several orphan asylums, an asylum for idiots, and a hosp. for incurables. Hymns include Holy Ghost, with Light Divine.
(March 21, 1873April 3, 1972). B. North Wales, Pennsylvania; educ. Franklin and Marshall Coll., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 18951903; Jeannette, Pennsylvania, 190405. Librarian 190650, prof. 191145, pres. 193845 Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia. Works include The Lutheran Liturgy; Worship.
1. Reformation in this sense involves improvement by correction and presupposes formation and deformation.
2. In ch. hist., the Reformation is the 16th-c. movement to restore the ch. (founded and formed by Christ; deformed mainly by the papacy) to its early condition; it resulted in separation of a great part of the W ch. from the medieval ch. of Rome.
3. Before the Reformation, humanism* provided freedom of thought and learning; to some extent it absorbed the pagan philos. of the ancient classics; where it fostered study of Scripture it promoted only moral and ethical reformation. Univs. led in demanding reform but were only intellectual centers. Mysticism demanded inwardness of religion and a personal relationship bet. creature and Creator (in contrast to the externalism and institutionalism of the ch.), but became wholly subjective. Growing nationalism helped prepare for the Reformation by arousing (a) violent criticism of, and opposition to, the arrogant claims and demands of the pope as a for. prince; (b) willingness to protect a fellow citizen against attacks from abroad.
But more was needed, because the root of corruption was not recognized.
4. The doctrine of the merit of good works denied the Gospel and made necessary such a thorough reformation as had been attempted by such reformers before the Reformation as P. Waldo (see Waldenses). J. Wycliffe,* J. Hus.* See also Brethren of the Common Life; Jerome of Prague; Wessel; Savonarola, Girolamo.
7. The man of the Reformation was M. Luther.* The beginning of the Reformation may be traced to his question, How do I obtain a gracious God? and the answer he found ca. 1514 in Ps 31:1; 71:2; Ro 1:17.
8. When Luther found that through indulgences the people were taught a false way of salvation, he posted 95 Theses (see Theses, Ninety-five, of Luther) on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Ch. October 31, 1517. There followed the Leipzig* Debate 1519 and the trilogy 1520: An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate; The Babylonian Captivity of the Church; On the Freedom of a Christian Man. The Diet of Worms* 1521 was a bench mark in hist. Scripture was Luther's standard also in dealing 1522 with inconoclastic radicals (Ger.: Bilderstürmer) who, among other things, sought to remove images and organs from chs. in Wittenberg.
9. Papal action against Luther began soon after October 31, 1517, culminated in the bulls Exsurge, Domine (1520; threatened excommunication) and Decet Romanum Pontificem (1521; excommunicated him). The emp. added his condemnation of Luther in the Edict of Worms.*
10. The Reformation spread rapidly, entering various lands mainly through Luther's writings. The only attempt to impose the Reformation by force was made in Den. by Christian* II for pol. reasons and proved unsuccessful; but by 1530 Den. was gained for the Reformation by preaching (see also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 2).
11. At times pol. and personal reasons helped motivate efforts to introd. the Reformation in some lands. But occasional use of Prot. force was usually in defense against RC attacks or in suppression of RC plots against govt. authority.
12. By 1540 RCm had lost all N and most of cen. Ger. and all Scand.; in Poland, Boh., Moravia, Hung., and Transylvania nine-tenths of the pop. was said to be Luth.; Luth. influence was strong in S Germany. Eng. had separated from Rome and, though still Cath., was beginning to lean toward Protestantism.
RC response was first partly conciliatory (see Hagenau Colloquy; Regensburg Conference; Worms, Colloquy of), then turned to open and violent attack, led by the Society* of Jesus and resulting in wars of religion in most of W Eur. (see France, 910; Huguenots; Schmalkaldic War; Switzerland, 2, 46; Thirty Years' War; William I (153384).).
13. The Luth. Reformation led to all other true modern reform efforts. Divisions in Protestantism are not a result of the Reformation but of replacing Scripture with rationalism and/or subjectivism.
J. Mackinnon, Luther and the Reformation, 4 vols. (London, 192530) and The Origins of the Reformation (London, 1939); P. Smith, The Age of the Reformation (New York, 1920) and The Life and Letters of Martin Luther (Boston, 1911); T. M. Lindsay, A History of the Reformation, 2 vols. (New York, 190607); J. T. Köstlin, The Theology of Luther in Its Historical Development and Inner Harmony, 2 vols., tr. C. E. Hay from the 2d Ger. ed. (Philadelphia, 1897); T. v. Kolde, Martin Luther, 2 vols. (Gotha, 188493); publications of Verein für Reformationsgeschichte; A. C. McGiffert, Martin Luther: The Man and His Work (New York, 1910); A. H. Böhmer, Road to Reformation, tr. J. W. Doberstein and T. G. Tappert (Philadelphia, 1946); B. K. Kuiper, Martin Luther: The Formative Years (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1933) and a shorter version under the same title (Grand Rapids, 1943); The Cambridge Modern History, IIIV, ed. A. W. Ward et al. (Cambridge, Eng., 190306); E. G. Schwiebert, Luther and His Times (St. Louis, 1950); R. H. Bainton, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century (Boston, 1952); H. J. Grimm, The Reformation Era 15001650, rev. ed. (New York, 1965); H. Bornkamm, Luther's World of Thought, tr. M. H. Bertram (St. Louis, 1958); C. L. Manschreck, Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer (New York, 1958); É G. Léonard, A History of Protestantism, 1: The Reformation, ed. H. H. Rowley, tr. J. M. H. Reid (London, 1965); Illustrated History of the Reformation, ed. O. Thulin, tr. J. E. Nopola, H. C. Oswald, P. D. Pahl, and O. E. Sohn (St. Louis, 1967); G. Rupp, Patterns of Reformation (Philadelphia, 1969).
Conc. Hist. Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, has a collection of Luther and Reformation coins and medals. Literature on the subject includes C. Juncker, Vita D. Martini Lutheri et successuum Evangelicae Reformationis jubilaeorumque evangelicorum historia nummis cxlv atque iconibus illustrata (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1699), 1706 title of enl. Ger. ed. Das Guldene und Silberne Ehren-Gedächtniss Des Theuren Gottes-Lehrers D. Martini Lutheri; F. C. Lesser, Besondere Müntzen (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1739); H. G. Kreussler, D. Martin Luthers Andenken in Münzen nebst Lebensbeschreibung merkwürdiger Zeitgenossen desselben (Leipzig, 1818); M. Bernhart, Reformatorenbildnisse aud Medaillen der Renaissance, Numismatik (December 1933).
A movement that began in the 1950s; Calvinistic; holds to First London Confession (1646 Second London Confession (1689) and the Philadelphia Confession (1742). See also London Confession.
1. Beginnings of Ref. chs. may be traced to Switz., Fr., Holland, Scot., and Eng. The name Ref., in gen. use by the end of the 16th c., was given esp. to followers of J. Calvin,* H. Zwingli,* M. Bucer,* J. H. Bullinger,* and J. Oecolampadius,* to help distinguish them from followers of M. Luther,* who came to be called Lutheran* in the 1520s, esp. after the Colloquy of Marburg 1529 (see also 3; Lutheran Confessions, A 2). Since the Arminian controversy (see Arminianism) the Ref. are divided into Calvinistic (see Calvinism) and Arminian Ref. The term Ref. is used commonly of Calvinists, rarely of Arminians. Calvinists are commonly known in Scot. and Eng. as Presbyterians (see Presbyterian Churches, 12), on the Continent (esp. Switz., Holland, Fr., and parts of Ger.) as Ref. In its stricter sense, then, Ref. denotes continental Calvinistic chs. The main difference bet. Presb. and Ref. chs. is in nomenclature: Presbs. speak of session*, presbytery,* assembly (see also Polity, Ecclesiastical, 7); Ref. speak of consistory,* classis,* synod. See also Presbyterian Churches, 3; Switzerland, 26.
2. Ref. Ch. in the Netherlands.* Forerunners of the Reformation in the Neth. include R. Agricola* and Wessel.* See also Erasmus, Desiderius. Some of M. Luther's early writings were well received in the Neth., but the main Reformation movement followed Ref. lines, often under severe persecution. The congs. worshiped at first as The Chs. of the Neth. under the Cross. Organization began under leadership of Menno* Simons. Tr. hymns of T. Beza* and C. Marot* became popular. The Belgic Confession (see also Reformed Confessions, C 1) was adopted by a syn. at Antwerp 1566 and later syns. (see also Dordrecht, Synods of). Her scholars and theologians, schools and univs., zeal and martyr spirit gave the Ref. ch. in the Neth. a lead position among Ref. chs. on the Continent and the religious liberty that she achieved attracted many who were persecuted in other lands (see also Robinson, John; United Church of Christ, I A 1 ). See also Marnix, Philip van.
3. Ref. Ch. in Ger.. The Ref. Ch. was est. in Ger. largely as a result of the controversy concerning the Lord's Supper (see 1). During the Crypto-Calvinistic* Controversy the Palatinate became Ref. (see also Frederick III . Brandenburg became Ref. under John* Sigismund. For developments from 1817 see Prussian Union.
b. Ref. Ch. in Am. (also called The Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. in N. Am.; The Prot. Dutch Ch. in N. Am.; Dutch Ref. Ch.). Est. as Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. by immigrants from the Neth., who formed the colony of New Netherland. Its first Comforters of the Sick included Sebastian Jansen Krol (Bastiaen Crol) and Jan Huyck. First minister: Jonas Michaelius (1584after 1637; b. Grootebroek, Holland; educ. Leiden; minister Brabant and Holland 160525; miss. W. Afr. 162527; to New Amsterdam, New Neth., via Holland 1628; founded Collegiate Ch., NYC, and Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. ca. 1628; returned to Holland 1632). The cong. consisted of Walloons and Dutch and was organized with at least 50 communicant mems. The 1st ch. was built at New Amsterdam 1633. At first the work was in charge of the Syn. of Holland. But the question of authority led to controversy ca. the middle of the 17th c. and independence became the issue in the latter part of the c. Under leadership of T. J. Frelinghuysen* Queen's Coll. (see also Protestant Education in the United States) was founded 1766 at New Brunswick, New Jersey The Ref. Dutch Ch. in the USA (or The Dutch Ref. Ch. in N. Am.; both names were in use 1792) expanded in New York and New Jersey It was inc. 1819 as The Ref. Prot. Dutch Church. Ca. the middle of the 19th c. there was a large Dutch immigration, including whole congs. with their pastors, who settled in the North and Midwest, beginning in Michigan and Iowa In 1867 the name of the ch. was changed to The Reformed Church in America. The doctrinal standards of the Reformed Church in America are the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort. The church is thus a distinctively Calvinistic body. It has a liturgy for optional use in public worship, with forms of prayer. Some parts of the liturgy, as those for the administration of baptism and the Lord's Supper and for the ordination of ministers, elders, and deacons, are obligatory; the forms of prayer, the marriage service, etc., are not obligatory. Children are 'baptized as heirs of the Kingdom of God and of His Covenant; adults are baptized (by sprinkling or immersion, as preferred) on profession of repentance for sin and faith in Christ. All baptized persons are considered members of the church, are under its care, and are subject to its government and discipline. No subscription to a specific form of words being required, admission to communion and full membership is on confession of faith before the elders and minister (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Religious Bodies: 1936, II, Part 2 [Washington, 1941], 1506).
c. Christian Ref. Ch. in N. Am.. Organized 1857 Holland Michigan, by congs. and ministers who withdrew from the Ref. Prot. Dutch Ch. for reasons of doctrine and discipline. Names adopted: 1859 Holland Ref. Ch.; 1861 True Dutch Ref.; 1880 Holland Christian Ref. Ch. in Am.; 1890 Christian Ref. Ch. in Am.; 1904 Christian Ref. Ch. Creeds: Belgic Confession, Heidelberg Catechism, Canons of Dordrecht (see Reformed Confessions, C 12, D 2). Besides Calvin Coll. and Theol. Sem., Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Dordt Coll., Sioux Center, Iowa, it supports a system of Christian elementary schools.
d. Hung. Ref. Ch. in Am.. The Ref. Ch. of Hung. organized a Hung. Ref. Ch. in New York 1904. Work among Hung. Ref. in US had been begun by others 1891. The Ref. Ch. in Hung. transferred jurisdiction of its US chs. to the Ref. Ch. in the US by 1921 agreement at Tiffin, Ohio; but some congs., refused to accept the agreement and organized the Free Magyar Ref. Ch. in Am. at Duquesne, Pennsylvania, 1924. Name changed 1958 to Hung. Ref. Ch. in Am. See also Union Movements, 7.
e. Ref. Ch. in the US. The Eureka Classis, organized South Dakota 1910, continued as the Ref. Ch. in the US when most of the parent body (Hung. Ref. Ch. in Am.; see d) merged into the Ev. and Ref. Ch. 1934 (see United Church of Christ, II A).
f. Prot. Ref. Chs. in Am.. Organized 1926 Grand Rapids, Michigan, by a group that separated from the Christian Ref. Ch. (see c); creeds: Belgic Conf., Heidelberg Catechism, Canons of Dordrecht (see Reformed Confessions, C 12, D 2). They stand for particular grace, for the elect only. FEM
A. Swiss Reformed.
1. The 67 Arts. of H. Zwingli* were prepared for, and maintained at, a pub. disputation in Zurich 1523 that practically decided the repudiation of RCm Art. 15: he that believes the Gospel will be saved; 17: Christ is the only eternal and highest priest; 18: the mass is not a sacrifice, but a commemoration of the sacrifice offered once on the cross and, as it were, a seal of the redemption procured by Christ; 49: I know no greater and more serious offense than to forbid priests to marry; 57: Holy Scripture knows no purgatory after this life.
2. 10 Theses of Bern (10 Conclusions of Bern; Theses Bernenses). Rev. by H. Zwingli* (written by others, including B. Haller*) for a 1528 discussion at Bern, Switzerland. Thesis 1: The holy Christian ch. is born of the Word of God; 4: The essential and corporeal presence of the body and blood of Christ can not be demonstrated from the Holy Scripture; 6: it is contrary to the Word of God to propose and invoke other mediators than Christ; 7: Scripture knows nothing of a purgatory after this life, hence all masses and other offices for the dead are useless; 8: Image worship is contrary to Scripture; 9: Matrimony is not forbidden in the Scripture to any class of men, but permitted to all.
3. H. Zwingli* tried, perhaps unsuccessfully, to get a confession of faith into the hands of Charles* V at Augsburg 1530; it differed from the AC mainly on original sin, the unbaptized, and the Sacraments.
4. The Exposition of the Christian Faith, which H. Zwingli* sent 1531 to Francis I (see France, 8), embodies statements of Zwingli's beliefs regarding, e.g., God; saints; Sacraments; Mary; the person and work of Christ; ch.; magistrates; forgiveness; faith and works; eternal life.
5. 1st Confession of Basel (Confessio fidei Basileensis prior; 12 arts.). Drafted 1531 by J. Oecolampadius*; put into final form 1532 by O. Myconius; pub. Basel 1534; adopted at Mühlhausen 2 or 3 yrs. later, hence also called Confessio Mühlhusana (or Mylhusiana); essentially agrees with confessions of H. Zwingli.*
6. The Helvetic Confessions are the most important documents of the Swiss Prot. chs. The 1st Helvetic Confession (Confessio Helvetica prior; also called 2d Confession of Basel [Confessio Basileensis posterior] because it was written there [see 5]) consisted of 27 arts. in the Ger. version (27 or 28 in the Lat.) and was drawn up 1536, (1) as a result of M. Bucer's* and W. F. Capito's* efforts to unite Luths. and Ref. and (2) in hope of a gen. council, by J. H. Bullinger,* S. Grynäus (see Grynäus, 1), L. Jud,* K. Megander,* O. Myconius.* Treats of Scripture, the ancient fathers, and human traditions (IV): God, man, sin, free will, and salvation (VIXIII); faith, ch., Word. ministry, holy assemblies, adiaphora, heretics and schismatics, civil govt., marriage (XIV-end).
In course of time this confession was deemed too short and was replaced by the 2d Helvetic Confession (Confessio Helvetica Posterior), which consists of 30 arts., was originally drawn up 1562 by Bullinger for his own use, and pub. at Zurich 1566. Treats Scripture, traditions, etc. (III); God (III); idols, and worship through Christ (IVV); divine providence (VI); creation (VII); sin (VIII); free will (IX); predestination and election (X); Christ (XI); Law and Gospel (XIIXIII); repentance and justification by faith (XIVXVI); ch., ministry, Sacraments, and holy assemblies (XVIIXXII); various other matters of doctrine and polity (XXIIIXXX). Adopted in Switz., Scot., Hung., Ft., Poland.
7. During his 1st stay at Geneva, Switz. (1536), J. Calvin* prepared a Fr. catechism (Geneva Catechism; Catechism of Geneva) consisting of 58 sections treating the religious constitution of man, the distinction bet. true and false religion, the knowledge of God, the original state of man, free will, sin, death, the way of salvation, the Law, faith, election and predestination, justification, sanctification, repentance, regeneration, good works, an exposition of the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, Sacraments, ch., traditions, excommunication, and the civil magistrate. It appeared in French 1541 or 1542, Lat. 1545, was tr. into It. (1551 and 1556), Sp. (1550), Eng. (1556), Ger., Dutch, Hung., Gk., and Heb., and prepared the way and furnished material for a number of similar works that gradually superseded it (e.g., A. Nowell's,* the Heidelberg [see D 2] and Westminster* Confessions). See also Dordrecht, Synods of, 2.
8. Continued debates bet. Luths. and Ref. regarding the Lord's Supper led to the Consensus of Zurich (Consensus Tigurinus; Zurich Consensus), consisting of 24 propositions in the 1st draft (1548) drawn up by J. Calvin* and annotated by J. H. Bullinger,* 26 arts. in the final form (1549). Adopted by various Swiss centers, creating unity. Contains Calvinistic doctrine adjusted to the Zwinglian; asserts that we receive Christ's body and blood in the Lord's Supper by the power of the Spirit and the lifting of our souls to heaven, but that the internal effect of the Sacraments appears only in the elect.
9. The Consensus of Geneva (Consensus Genevensis; Geneva Consensus), pub. 1552 (written 1551?), is an elaborate argument by J. Calvin* defending absolute predestination; occasioned by attacks of A. Pighius* and Jérôme Hermès Bolsec (d. ca. 1585; b. Paris, Fr.; Carmelite, then Prot.; in Geneva he differed with Calvin on predestination; banished from Geneva and Bern; rejected in Fr.; RC again; wrote libel against Calvin 1577, 1588).
10. Helvetic Consensus Formula (Formula Consensus Helvetica); 1675; 26 arts. After adoption (1620, 1623) of the canons of the 161819 Syn. of Dordrecht* by the Ref. Ch. in Fr., a more liberal school arose at Saumur, France. See Amyraut, Moïse; Cappel, Louis; Place, Josue de la. In defense against the theol. of Saumur, J. H. Heidegger,* L. Gernler,* and F. Turrettini* wrote the Formula consensus ecclesiarum helveticarum reformatarum, which defended, e.g., inspiration (even of vowel points), absolute predestination, immediate imputation of Adam's sin.
B. Ref. Confessions in France. The Gallican Confession (Confession Gallicana; Confession of Rochelle; French Confession of Faith), 40 arts., was drawn up by J. Calvin,* rev. by A de la R. Chandieu* and adopted 1559 by a syn. at Paris, rev. and ratified at a syn. at La Rochelle 1571. Summarizes Calvin's doctrines. See also Waldenses.
1. The Belgic Conf.; 37 arts.; with the Heidelberg Catechism (see D 2) the recognized symbol of the Ref. chs. in Holland and Belg. and of the Ref. (Dutch) in Am.; prepared 1561 by G. de Bres*; adopted by syns. at Antwerp 1566, Wesel 1568, Emden 1571, Dordrecht 1574, Middelburg 1581, Dordrecht 1619; contents follow the order of the Gallican Conf. (see B) but are less polemical and more elaborate, esp. on the Trin., incarnation, ch., and Sacraments.
2. Opposition of Arminians (see Arminianism) to Calvinistic doctrines on predestination led the Neth. States Gen. to convene the 161819 Syn. of Dordrecht,* attended by representatives of the provinces, the States Gen., the academies, and for. countries including the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, E. Friesland, Switz., Eng., and Scot.; Luths. were not represented. Calvinism* triumphed. See also Remonstrants. Canons were adopted, confined to 5 points or Heads of Doctrine that summarize the Calvinistic system both positively and negatively (rejecting Arminian errors): I. Predestination (18 arts.); II. Christ's death and man's redemption (9); IIIIV. Man's corruption and conversion (17); V. Perseverance (15).
See also Reformed Churches, 2.
D. Ref. Confessions in Germany.
1. Tetrapolitan Confession (Confessio Tetrapolitana; Confessio Suevica; Swabian Confession; Strasbourg Confession; Confessio Argentinensis [Argentorati]; Confessio Quatuor Civitatum; Confession der Vier Städte; Vierstädte-Bekenntniss); 23 arts.; oldest Ref. symbol in Ger.; prepared in haste by M. Bucer,* W. F. Capito,* C. Hedio,* and Jakob Sturm* at the Diet of Augsburg 1530 (see Lutheran Confessions, A 2) for Konstanz, Lindau, Memmingen, Strasbourg; tried to effect a compromise bet. Luths. and Ref., esp. on the Lord's Supper.
2. Heidelberg Catechism (Palatinate Catechism); drawn up 1562 by Z. Ursinus* and C. Olevianus* by order of Frederick* III (151576), who professed the Ref. faith as distinct from the Luth. It mentions election to holiness and salvation in Christ but says nothing of double predestination and is polemic on the mass. Its 129 questions are divided: I. Man's misery; II. Man's redemption; III. Thankfulness.
3. Brandenburg Confessions.
b. Efforts were made at the 1631 Leipzig* Colloquy to unite Luths. and Ref. to present a common front against the enemy; but differences persisted on the omnipresence of Christ's human nature, Eucharist, and election.
c. Declaration of Thorn; 1645; careful statement of the Ref. faith drawn up for a colloquy (conf., syn.) at Thorn*; divided into a gen. part and a special declaration; signed by noblemen and clergy from Poland, Lithuania, and Brandenburg. See also Poland, 4.
d. Less important confessions: Catechism of Emden, 1554; Confession of Elector Frederick* III (151576), pub. 1577; Confession of Nassau, 1578; Confession of Anhalt (Repetitio Anhaltina, i. e., Repetition of the AC), 1581; Bremen Confession (Consensus Ministerii Bremensis), 1598; Hessian Confession, adopted at Cassel 1607, pub. 1608; Confession of the Heidelberg Theologians, 1607.
2. Boh. Catechism, 1521; 75 questions; follows The Smaller Questions (see 1) in gen. arrangement, but also treats the Beatitudes and has more on idolatry, Mariolatry, saints and martyrs, and the Lord's Supper.
3. The Bohemian* Brethren wrote 34 confessions 14671671. The 1st, Bohemian Confession of 1535, was presented at Vienna to Ferdinand (150364; brother of Charles* V; b. Alcalá de Henares, Sp.; king of Hung. and Boh. 1526, Ger. 1531; Holy Roman emp. as Ferdinand I 155664); resembles the AC in form and content; Luther disapproved the arts. on celibacy and justification, but after changes had been made he pub. it with a favorable preface. See also Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in, 3; Speyer, Diets of, 13.
4. Maximilian II (152776; son of Ferdinand I [see 3]; b. Vienna, Austria; king of Boh. and of the Romans [i. e. Germans] 1562, of Hung. 1563; Holy Roman emp. 156476) allowed the Prots. to submit their own confession of faith to a diet at Prague; Utraquists, Luths., Calvinists, and Boh. Brethren agreed on a moderate statement prepared by Paul Pressius and M. Krispin; it was adopted with some changes by the diet and presented to the emp. 1575. This 2d Boh. Confession (25 arts.) agrees essentially with the AC and the older Boh. Confession but conforms to P. Melanchthon's* later view of the Lord's Supper.
5. The 1570 Consensus of Sandomierz (Sandomir; Sendomir; Consensus Sendomiriensis) is the only important confessional document of the ev. chs. in Poland. It states that the 3 ev. chs. (Luths., Calvinists, and Boh. Brethren) agree on the doctrines of God, Trin., incarnation, person of Christ, justification by faith, and other fundamental doctrines; in the Lord's Supper it distinguishes bet. the earthly form and the heavenly substance. See also Poland, 2.
6. Hung. Confessions include the Hung. Confession (Confessio Czengerina), prepared and adopted at a syn. in Czenger 1557 (1558?), printed 1570 at Debrecen. It opposes the sacramentarian view of a purely symbolic presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper; holds that Christ is truly though spiritually present; defends infant baptism; teaches free election; is silent on reprobation; denies that God is the author of sin; has only secondary hist. importance; was practically superseded by the 2d Helvetic Confession (see A 6). The Heidelberg Catechism (see D 2) was also introd. See also Hungary. EL
See also Presbyterian Confessions.
Die Bekenntnisschriften der reformierten Kirche, ed. E. F. K. Müller (Leipzig, 1903); Schriften zur reformirten Theologie, I: Die Bekenntnisschriften der reformirten Kirchen Deutschlands, ed. H. L. J. Heppe (Elberfeld, 1860); P. Schaff, Bibliotheca symbolica ecclesiae universalis: The Creeds of Christendom, I. The History of Creeds and III. The Evangelical Protestant Creeds, with translations, 4th ed., rev. and enl. (New York, 1919); Reformed Confessions of the 16th Century, ed. A. C. Cochrane (Philadelphia, 1966).
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1946. First suggested 1924 to the Ref. Ch. in S. Afr., which made overtures for syns. to the Ref. Ch. of the Neth. 1927. These 2, with the Christian Ref. Ch. in Am. (see Reformed Churches, 4 c), arranged the syn. It adopted as bases for future similar syns. the OT and NT (both regarded as infallible) as interpreted in Ref. confessions (1st Helvetic Conf., Gallican Conf., Belgic Conf., Canons of Dordrecht, Heidelberg Catechism [see Reformed Confessions, A 6; B; C 1, 2; D 2]; Scotch Conf., Westminster Conf. [see Presbyterian Confessions, 2 and 3]; Thirty-nine Arts. [see Anglican Confessions, 6]).
Organized 1873 NYC under leadership of G. D. Cummins.* Regards Scripture as the Word of God and sole rule of faith and practice; accepts the Apostles' Creed (but omits He descended into hell) and Nicene Creed, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the doctrines of grace substantially as set forth in the 39 Arts. (see Anglican Confessions, 6), but Art. III, of the descent of Christ into Hades, is omitted; rejects the doctrine that the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements of bread and wine and that regeneration is inseparably connected with Baptism; minister and Lord's Table are substituted for priest and altar in the liturgy. Polity agrees with that of the Prot. Episc. Ch. For worship the ch. uses the Book* of Common Prayer as rev. by the Gen. Conv. of the Prot. Episc. Ch. 1785, but holds that no liturgy should be imperative and reserves full right to alter, abridge, enlarge, and amend the same as may seem best, provided that the substance of the faith be kept entire.
Formed 1524 by Rhineland and S Ger. RC princes and bps. under leadership of L. Campeggio* against Lutheranism; ineffectual, but an official step in the direction of reform; inaugurated denominational leagues (see Dessau, League of).
Basis for discussion at Regensburg* Conference. Developed from bet. RCs J. Gropper* and G. Veltwick* and Evangelicals M. Bucer* and W. F. Capito.* Draft of the conclusions was approved January 1541 by Philip* of Hesse as preliminary to agreement and sent to Joachim II Hektor (see Joachim, 2) to show to M. Luther* and other Prot. princes. The document used at Regensburg had 23 arts.
(also called colloquy and diet). Continuation of Colloquy of Worms*; held April 1541 to restore religious unity in Germany. RC discussants: J. Gropper,* J. v. Pflug,* J. Eck*; evangelicals: M. Bucer,* J. Pistorius the elder (see Pistorius, 2), and P. Melanchthon.* Papal legates G. Contarini* and G. Morone* were also present. Discussions were based on the Regensburg* Book. There was agreement on the first 4 arts. (man before the Fall, free will, cause of sin, original sin); partial agreement on justification; no agreement on doctrinal authority, hierarchy, discipline, sacraments. Charles* V tried in vain to induce the Prots. to accept the disputed arts. Mutual agreement to refer settlement of remaining differences to a gen. council was included in the imperial summation of the conf. (Reichstagsabschied) as Regensburg Interim.
Another conf. was held at Regensburg early 1546 in an unsuccessful effort to overcome differences. RCs present included E. Billick,* J. Cochlaeus,* J. Hoffmeister,* P. de Malvenda*; Prots.: J. Brenz,* M. Bucer,* G. Major,* E. Schnepf.* Failure of the conf. was soon followed by the Schmalkaldic* War. See also Diaz, Juan; Dietrich, Veit; Draconites, Johann(es); Gualther, Rudolf; Pistorius, 2.
A conf. at Regensburg 1601 dealt with the question whether Scripture alone, without tradition, is the source and norm of faith and theol.; Prots. said Yes, RCs No. The gap was not bridged. Main spokesmen: A. Hunnius* for the Props., J. Gretser* and A. Tanner* for the RCs See also Tradition; Trent, Council of.
(18731916). Composer, conductor, pianist; b. Brand, Bav., Ger.; pupil of H. Riemann*; organist Weiden RC ch. 188689; taught at Wiesbaden Conservatory 189596; held various other positions. Works include chorale arrangements; Ger. motets; sacred songs for small choir; a setting of Ps 100 for chorus, organ, and orchestra.
(ca. 840915). B. probably Altrip, near Speyer; Benedictine; abbot Prüm 892, St. Martin at Trier 899. Works include Libri duo de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis; De harmonica institutione; Chronicon.
Organized 1873 by H. G. Guinness* as East* London Institute for Home and For. Missions; interdenom. from the beginning; led to est. of the Livingstone Inland Miss. 1878 (see also Africa, F 2), whose name changed 1888 to Congo Balolo Mission; the latter united 1899/1900 with the East London Institute for Home and For. Missions to form The Regions Beyond Missionary Union. Fields have included Indonesia: Congo; India: Nepal; Peru.
(18481930). B. Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein, Ger.; prof. philos. Greifswald 18851921; sought a philos, outside of materialism and idealism; tried to determine the essence of consciousness; held that God is the real as such, but that there is also something real outside of God.
(171096). B. Strachan, Kincardine. Scot.; licensed to preach 1731; librarian Marischal coll., Aberdeen, 173336; pastor New Machar, near Aberdeen, 1737; prof. philos. King's coll., Aberdeen, 1751; prof. moral philos. Glasgow 1764: founded Scot. or commonsense* realism school. Works include An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense; Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man; Essays on the Active Powers of Man.
(January 4, 1926January 6, 1963). B. Oak Park, Illinois; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Charleston, South Carolina, 1951; asst. prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1955. Works include Let's Study Theology.
(16941768). B. Hamburg, Ger.; rationalistic philos.; taught at Wittenberg from 1719; rector Wismar 1723; prof. Hamburg from ca. 1727/29. Works include Apologie oder Schutzschrift für die vernünftigen Verehrer Gottes, parts of which became better known as Fragmente eines Ungenannten or Wolfenbüttel Fragments under the hands of G. E. Lessing.*
(Reyna; Reinius; ca. 152094). B. Montemolin, Sp.; entered monastery at Seville; fled from Sp. ca. 1557; to Frankfurt am Main, Ger., via Eng. and Holland; became Ref.; preached to ev. Spaniards in London ca. 1559; returned to Frankfurt ca. 1563/64; Luth. preacher Antwerp ca. 1578; est. a Dutch ch. of the AC at Frankfurt 1585, became its pastor 1593. Tr. Bible into Sp.
(16831741). B. Celle, Ger.; educ. Halle; asst. 1709, then pastor (preacher) Berlin; provost Berlin-Cologne 1717; consistorial councillor there 1729; exponent of C. v. Wolff's* rationalistic theol.; tried to show that faith and reason agree.
(Reneccius; 15721613). B. Salzwedel, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Tangermünde, Berlin, and Hamburg; inspector Gymnasium at Hamburg 1612. Works include Panoplia sive armatura theologica; Clavis sacrae theologiae.
(17531812). Luth. theol.; b. Vohenstrauss, in The Palatinate, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; prof. philos. 1780, theol. 1782, Wittenberg; chief court preacher and mem. high consistory Dresden; at first a supernaturalist (see Supernaturalism), holding necessity of revelation over against rationalists (who denied the need of revelation), but practically left little as a matter of revelation; later more orthodox Luth.; his 1800 Reformation sermon led to revival of Luther studies in Saxony. Works include System der christlichen Moral; Vorlesungen über die Dogmatik.
(John Rinehart; Reinhart; March 14, 1776June 7, 1861). Moved as farmer from Washington Co., Pennsylvania, to Jefferson Co., Ohio, 1804; cong. officer Is. Creek Twp.; encouraged by J. Stauch,* he became a mem. Pennsylvania Ministerium; helped organize Gen. Conf. of the Ev. Luth. Preachers in Ohio and the Adjacent States (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 1) and was ordained by it 1818; pastor Jefferson Co., Ohio; name disappears from syn. roll after 1833 without explanation.
(September 29, 1841November 18, 1899). B. Winsen, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Blue Island and Chicago, Illinois; pioneer in Missouri Synod work among deaf (see also Deaf 10); helped found Old Folks' Home, Arlington Heights, Illinois.
(Reincken; Reinike; Jan Adams Reincken; Johann Adam; 16231722). Organist; composer; b. probably Wilshausen, Alsace; pupil of H. Scheidemann,* whom he succeeded in Hamburg; helped found opera in Hamburg; J. S. Bach* went several times to hear him play. Works include compositions for organ and for other instruments.
(Fridericus Danubianus; ca. 1400/011458). Hussite; b. Swabia; priest 1432; attended Council of Basel*; noted preacher; reorganized Waldensian congs. in Ger., Austria, and Switz.; captured and burned in Strasbourg by Inquisition.*
(16551720). Ref. mystic; b. Oberdiebach, near Bacharach, Ger.; educ. Leiden, Bremen, Heidelberg; held various pastoral and educ. positions; changed from Ref. orthodoxy to enthusiasm (see Ecstasy) when he tried to convert B. C. Klopfer* to orthodoxy; returned to orthodoxy ca. 1711. Works include Historie der Wiedergebohrnen; Der geöffnete Himmel; Die Nachfolge Jesu Christi.
(18611931). B. Breslau, Ger.; taught at Breslau, Rostock, Giessen, Strasbourg, Freiburg, Göttingen; exponent of Religionsgechichtliche* Schule. Works include Poimandres; Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen; Studien zum antiken Synkretismus aus Iran und Griechenland.
The view that truth is relative and may vary from individual to individual, from time to time, or from group to group. See also Agrippa von Nettesheim, Henry Cornelius.
In the 2d c. the remains of Polycarp* were honored. Veneration of relics spread under persecution. From the 4th c. the Lord's Supper was celebrated over martyrs' tombs in Roman catacombs.* Belief that relics are instruments of miracles developed gradually. The 787 Council of Nicaea* forbade consecration of chs. without relics. Council of Trent*: The holy bodies of holy martyrs and of others living with Christ are to be venerated by the faithful, through which [bodies] many benefits are bestowed by God on men (Sess. XXV, On the Invocation, Veneration, and Relics of Saints, and on Sacred Images).
SA II ii 2223: Even if there were some good in them, relics should long since have been condemned. They are neither commanded nor commended. They are utterly unnecessary and useless. Worst of all, however, is the claim that relics effect indulgences and the forgiveness of sin and that, like the Mass, etc., their use is a good work and a service of God.
L. H. Jordan, Comparative Religion: Its Genesis and Growth (Edinburgh, 1905); Sacred Books of the East, various translators, ed. F. M. Müller, Am. ed., 12 vols. (New York, 18971901); The Evolution of Ethics as Revealed in the Great Religions (New Haven, 1927); J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3d ed., 12 vols. (London, 191115), abridged ed., 1 vol. (New York, 1922); M. Fitch, Their Search for God (New York, 1947); S. H. Kellogg, A Handbook of Comparative Religion (Philadelphia, 1899); E. D. Soper, Religions of Mankind, 3d ed. rev. (New York, 1951); W. Holsten, Christentum und nichtchristliche Religion nach der Auffassung Luthers (Götersloh, 1932); P. E. Kretzmann, The GOD OF THE BIBLE and other GODS (St. Louis, 1943); N. Söderblom, The Living God: Basal Forms of Personal Religion (London, 1933); M. Eliade, The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion (Chicago, 1969); C. H. Toy, Introduction to the History of Religions (New York, 1970).
Science that aims to investigate the psychological, physiological, and ethnological bases of religion, the primitive popular ideas that underlie all hist. religions, and the alleged development of religion from that of primitive man upward; as it aims to present a hist. of the development of the forms of religious thinking and concerns itself with the origin of Christianity, which it regards not as an absolute religion but as a stage in an evolutionary process, it opposes the Biblical concept of revealed religion. Regarded by some as equivalent to the hist. of religion, by others as equivalent to comparative religion.*
(Historicoreligious School). Term coined 1904 by A. Jeremias*; denotes a 19th and 20th c. theol. school of thought that studied the development of Christianity in light of its hist. and geog. environment. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 13.
M. Günther, Populäre Symbolik, 4th enl. ed. L. E. Fuerbringer (St. Louis, 1913); T. E. W. Engelder, W. F. Arndt, T. C. Graebner, F. E. Mayer, Popular Symbolics (St. Louis, 1934); The American Church History Series, ed. P. Schaff et al., 13 vols. (New York, 189397; some vols. revised later); Yearbook of American Churches, ed. C. H. Jacquet, Jr. (New York, 1972: issued since 1916 at various places and under various titles and editors); H. K. Rowe, The History of Religion in the United States (New York, 1924); T. C. Hall, The Religious Background of American Culture (Boston, 1930); W. W. Sweet, The Story of Religion in America, enl. ed. (New York, 1939; pub. 1930 as The Story of Religions in America); J. L. Neve, Churches and Sects of Christendom (Burlington, Iowa, 1940); E. H. Klotsche, Christian Symbolics (Burlington, Iowa, 1929); W. L. Sperry, Religion in America (Cambridge, Eng., 1946); E. T. Clark, The Small Sects in America, rev. ed. (New York, 1949); C. S. Braden, These Also Believe (New York, 1949); A. L. Drummond, Story of American Protestantism (Edinburgh, 1949); W. S. Hudson, American Protestantism (Chicago, 1961); F. E. Mayer, The Religious Bodies of America, 4th ed., rev. A. C. Piepkorn (St. Louis, 1961); C. E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1960) and Religion in America (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961); G. Weigel, Churches in North America (Baltimore, 1961); E. Routley, Creeds and Confessions (Philadelphia. 1962); The Faith of Christendom, ed. B. A. Gerrish (Cleveland, 1963); Creeds of the Churches, ed. J. H. Leith (Chicago, 1963); S. E. Mead, The Lively Experiment (New York, 1963); E. S. Gaustad, A Religious History of America (New York, 1966); W. A. Clebsch, From Sacred to Profane America (New York, 1968); J. A. Hardon, The Spirit and Origins of American Protestantism (Dayton, Ohio, 1968); Issues in American Protestantism, ed. R. L. Ferm (Garden City, New York, 1969); M. E. Marty, The Modern Schism (New York, 1969) and Protestantism (New York, 1972); R. Baird, Religion in America (New York, 1970); F. S. Mead, Handbook of Denominations in the United States, 5th ed. (Nashville, Tennessee, 1970). See also references under Statistics, Ecclesiastical.
1. Classical. Dramas of Gk. tragedians (e.g., Aeschylus [525456 BC], Sophocles [ca. 496406 BC], Euripides [5th c. BC]) were performed at the feast of Dionysus (see Greek Religion, 3 b). Plays of Aeschylus were deeply religious and dealt, e.g., with the power of gods and their relation to men. nemesis, and future life. Sophocles dealt with faith and moral issues (esp. in human relations). Euripides (the liberal in the trio) tried to show psychol. reasons for action. Under Roman influence, drama lost religious character. Christians opposed theater because of its idolatry and obscenity. Classical drama was crushed for ca. 1,000 yrs.
2. Medieval. Spiritual dramas of the Middle Ages originated in the ch. The first, in Lat., were performed at chief ch. festivals (e.g., Corpus* Christi). Guilds, nobility, city fathers, and common folk took part. Secular and diverting features were added (see Feast of Asses). In course of time the liturgy offered opportunity for dramatic action, which in turn led to Passion plays (dramas developed from responses and readings of Lent, esp. Holy Week). Saints' plays, developed from processions and other festival celebrations in honor of saints, led to miracle plays, which used mainly material connected with legends of saints and their intercession for those who venerate them. Mystery plays (or mysteries) originally were enactments of events from the life of Christ and later of the whole Bible; but distinction bet. mysteries and miracle plays disappeared and the terms were used interchangeably. Morality plays (or moralities), allegorical presentations popular esp. in the 15th and 16th cents., tried to teach a moral lesson by personifying vices and virtues (as in Everyman).
Secularization of plays resulted from influence of guildmen as actors, from increasing appeal of Fastnachtsspiele (drolleries of itinerant actors performed at Shrovetide*), and from revival of classicism with renewed interest in dramas of L. A. Seneca,* Titus Maccius Plautus (ca. 254184 BC; Roman playwright), and Terence (Publius Terentius Afer; 185159 BC; Roman playwright).
3. Reformation. M. Luther* took a positive attitude toward secular drama (see Theater) and encouraged religious drama. His praise of drama in his 1534 Bible (WA-DB 12, pp. 7, 109, 493) sparked use of the stage for the Reformation. The whole plan of salvation was dramatized, though Luther discouraged Passion plays (WA 2, 141). Die Parabel vom Verlorenen Sohn by B. Waldis* is one of the most outstanding 16th-c. dramas. Other authors include C. Lasius,* G. Major,* H. Sachs.*
Drama was used by evangelicals (e.g., N. Manuel,* W. Pirckheimer*) also for polemics (e.g., to portray the pope as Antichrist). Radtschlag des allerheiligsten Vaters Bapsts Pauli des Dritten, mit dem Collegio Cardinalium gehalten, wie das angesetzte Concilium zu Trient fürzunemen sey, Anno 1545 has a woodcut entitled DAS CONCILIUM ZUTRENT (the last word  indicating the place of assem. [Trent] and  being a play on the Ger. word zertrennt, divided). Some opposition dramas were directed against Luther's marriage.
4. Jesuits, noting the influence of dramas, soon produced plays of fixed form, with great pomp, and for pedagogical purposes and continued doing so till the gen. suppression of the order 1773.
5. Modern. The Passion play of Oberammergau,* Upper Bav., Ger., first presented 1634 by inhabitants of the RC village in fulfillment of a 1633 vow in gratitude for cessation of the Black Death; performed once every decade.
Gen. interest in religious drama was revived ca. the beginning of the 20th c. Pageants, dramas, and dramatized stories came to be widely used in ch. work via radio (various radio plays), motion pictures (e.g., Martin Luther), and TV (e.g., This Is the Life series [see Radio and Television Evangelism, Network, 8]).
Religious novelistic dramas of the 20th c. include M. Anderson, Journey to Jerusalem; C. R. Kennedy, The Terrible Meek; A. MacLeish, J. B.; J. Masefield, The Trial of Jesus. Dramas with religious themes include M. Connelly, The Green Pastures. EL
K. Young, The Drama of the Medieval Church, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1933); N. C. Brooks, Processional Drama and Dramatic Procession in Germany in the Late Middle Ages, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXXII (1933), 141171; H. Holstein. Die Reformation im Spiegelbilde der dramatischen Litteratur des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts (Halle, 1886); H. A. Ehrensperger, Conscience on Stage (New York, 1947); The Questing Spirit, ed. H. E. Luccock and F. Brentano (New York, 1947); P. E. Kretzmann, The Liturgical Element in the Earliest Forms of the Medieval Drama, with Special Reference to the English and German Plays (Minneapolis, 1916); O. B. Hardison, Jr., Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages (Baltimore, 1965); A. G. Loomis, Guide for Drama Workshops in the Church Prepared for Leaders and Instructors (New York, 1964); K. M. Baxter, Contemporary Theatre and the Christian Faith (New York, 1965; pub. London 1964 as Speak What We Feel); C. J. Stratman, Bibliography of Medieval Drama (Berkeley, California, 1954).
Organization of Prot., Cath., and Jewish professional leaders of educ. and religion; beginning traced to organization effected 1903 Chicago, Illinois, mainly through influence of W. R. Harper.* Pub. Religious Education; The Religious Educator. HQ NYC.
Am. movement, mainly of leftwing Unitarians, which holds that scientific advance removed distinctions bet. secular and sacred and that man must seek salvation through control of the physical and soc. world; doctrines pub. 1933 in Humanist Manifesto. See also Humanism.
Freedom of religious profession, worship, and propaganda. US Constitution: No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States (Art. VI); Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof (1st Amendment); the 14th Amendment (No State shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law) was interpreted 1922 by the US Supreme Court to assure the right of the individual to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.
(Journalism). The 1st exclusively religious journal in Am. was the weekly Christian History (Boston, 174345), devoted to promoting the Great* Awakening. From 1745 to 1772 three religious papers were attempted in New York and 2 magazines in the Philadelphia area; only 1 survived its 1st yr.
More than 500 religious journals were founded 17891830; in 1830 ca. 175 were still alive. Circulation figures of 5,00010,000 were common. In 1829 the Meth. Christian Advocate (est. 1826) had the world's largest subscription list: ca. 25,000.
183080 was a golden age. By 1880 there were more than 500 journals, with ca. 3 copies per inhabitant. The no. of journals continued to increase after 1880. but denominational interest waned; journals of broader interest flourished.
Prot. denominational journals have included Christian Advocate; Baptist Leader; AD; (beginning September 1972 and including the former Presbyterian Life and United Church Herald in separate editions); The Church Herald. Prot. nondenom. journals have included The Christian Century; Christian Herald; Christianity Today.
Luth. periodicals have included The Lutheran; The Lutheran Standard; Lutheran Herald; Lutheran Companion; The Lutheran Messenger; Lutheran Sentinel; The Lutheran Synod Quarterly; The Lutheran Voice; The Lutheran Witness; Der Lutheraner. Various areas produce local publications.
Widespread use of religious tracts began with the Reformation. The Meth. movement in Eng. made extensive use of tracts. A Soc. for the Distribution of Religious Tracts Among the Poor was est. 1782. In proposing this soc. J. Wesley* said: Men wholly unawakened will not take the pains to read the Bible. They have no relish for it. But a small tract may engage their attention for half an hour and may, by the blessing of God, prepare them for going forward. Tracts pub. by this soc. include Ten Short Sermons; Tokens for Children; A Word to a Swearer; A Word to a Drunkard. H. More* wrote the tract William Chip and The Cheap Repository Tracts and distributed 2 million copies the 1st yr. See also Simeon, Charles.
The Religious Tract Soc. of London was organized 1799; its work led to organization of the BFBS Other tract socs., of Gt. Brit. include The Religious Tract and Book Soc. of Scot. (1793), The Stirling Tract Enterprise (1848), The Dublin Tract Soc., The Monthly Tract Soc. (London, 1837). Many other tract socs. were est. in Eur., India, China, Australia, New Zealand, S. Afr., West Indies, Can., and elsewhere.
Tract socs. in the US included Massachusetts Soc. for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (1803), Connecticut Religious Tract Soc. (1807), Vermont Religious Tract Soc. (1808), The Prot. Episc. Tract Soc. (1809), New York Religious Tract Soc. (1812), Ev. Tract Soc., Boston (1813), Albany Religious Tract Soc. (1813), New Eng. Tract Soc. (1814; became the Am. Tract Soc., Boston, 1823), Religious Tract Soc. of Philadelphia (1815), Religious Tract Soc. of Baltimore (1816), New York Meth. Tract Soc. (1817), Am. Tract Soc., Boston (1823). Bap. Gen. Tract Soc. (1824), Am. Tract Soc., New York (1825), NYC Tract Soc. (1827), NYC Mission and Tract Soc. (1864), Willard Tract Soc., Boston (1866), Monthly Tract Soc. of the US New York (1874).
The Am. Tract Soc., Boston, merged with the Am. Tract Soc., New York, 1878. The Bap. Gen. Tract Soc., organized Washington, moved to Philadelphia and became the Am. Bap. Publication Soc. 1840. The New York Meth. Tract Soc. later was inc. as Tract Soc. of the Meth. Episc. Ch.
See also Tractarianism.
(from Lat. remanere, to remain). Doctrine that in the Lord's Supper the substance of bread and wine remains after consecration coexistent with the body and blood of Christ. See also Grace, Means of, IV, 34.
(Harmenszoon; Ryn; other variants; probably 160669). Painter, etcher; b. Leiden, Neth.; moved to Amsterdam ca. 1631/32. Works include Abraham's Sacrifice; Woman Taken in Adultery; Descent from the Cross. See also Art, Ecclesiastical and Religious, 7.
(February 24, 1841January 2, 1927). B. near Staunton, Virginia; served with 131st Pennsylvania Volunteers 186263; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor Pennsylvania, Georgia, New York; pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 191113. Works include The Lutheran Manual; What the World Owes Luther.
Ca. 45 Arminian ministers who 1610 addressed a 5-art. remonstrance to the States Gen. of Holland and W. Friesland stating their differences from Calvinism. Calvinists presented a counter-address and were called Counter-Remonstrants. The remonstrant arts. were condemned at the Syn. of Dordrecht* 1619; remonstrants, whose leaders included S. Episcopius* and H. Grotius,* were deposed, imprisoned, banished, but permitted to return 1630. See also Arminianism; Bogermann, Johannes; Faukelius, Hermann; Gomarus, Francis(cus); Netherlands, 5.
The concept of the Renaissance as a distinct period is largely the creation of J. C. Burckhardt,* who held that the Renaissance marked a rebirth of culture and, with the Reformation, gave rise to the modern world. The Renaissance began in It. in the 14th c., came to affect the rest of Eur. in varying degrees, and was marked by a change in the style of living, a greater degree of individualism, a more secular direction, a new appreciation of the world of nature, and a renewed emphasis on classical antiquity as form and norm for culture and way of life.
One feature of the Renaissance was an increase of learning assoc. with the renewal of classical culture. Humanists, many of whom served as profs. of poetry and rhetoric or as secretaries in city-states characteristic of It. pol. organization in this period, were men of letters mainly responsible for the revival of interest in Lat. and Gk. antiquity. A variety of types and a certain progression in Renaissance humanism is discernible. Literary humanists, e.g., Petrarch* and G. Boccaccio,* felt a sense of distance from the ancient past and tagged the cents. just preceding as the dark* ages. Civic humanists, e.g., Lino Coluccio di Piero dei Salutati (13311406; b. Stignano, It.; chancellor Florence 1375) and Leonardo Bruni (Bruno; also called Leonardo Aretino; 13691444; b. Arezzo, It.; chancellor Florence 1427) helped develop republican consciousness. Metaphysical humanist, e.g., M. Ficino* and G. Pico* della Mirandola introd. revival of Neoplatonism. The Gk. revival, begun, e.g., by M. Chrysoloras* and J. Bessarion.* centered in Florence under Medici patronage and was the most important single element in the gen. expansion of the It. intellectual horizon.
The change from Gothic to neoclassic is indisputable in architecture and other visual art; but the significance of the Renaissance for science, economic hist., and the Reformation is not completely clear. Humanism, e.g., in criticism of abuse, interest in religious enlightenment, rediscovery of important texts, development of critical method, and cultivation of Gk. and Heb. helped prepare the way for the Reformation; but the reformers went beyond humanist emphasis on moral philos. to basic and distinctively Christian affirmations.
J. C. Burckhardt, Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Leipzig, 1860), tr. S. G. C. Middlemore, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, rev. and ed. I. Gorcon (New York, 1960); W. K. Ferguson, The Renaissance in Historical Thought (New York, 1948); The Rise of Modern Europe, ed. W. L. Langer, II: M. P. Gilmore, The World of Humanism 14531517 (New York, 1952); D. Hay, The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Background (Cambridge, Eng., 1961); The New Cambridge Modern History, I: The Renaissance, ed. G. R. Potter (Cambridge, Eng., 1957). LWSj
(182392). Orientalist, philos., philol.; b. Tréguier, Fr.; studied for the priesthood till 1845; studied Semitic philol.; prof. Coll. de Fr., Paris, 1862. His Vie de Jésus (pub. 1863) describes Jesus as ambitious, vain, sensuous, half-consciously deceiving himself and others. Renan was suspended 1862 for his views; reinstated 1870/71; mem. Fr. Academy 1878/79. Other works include Les Apôtres; Saint Paul; L'Antéchrist; Histoire de peuple d'Israel.
(Renée de France; 151075). Daughter of Louis XII (14631515; king of Fr. 14981515); b. Blois, Fr.; duchess Ferrara, It., 1528; patron of the Reformation; temporarily imprisoned by her husband; threatened with banishment by her son; to Fr.; died Huguenot.
(d. after 1570). It. Anabap.; b. Sicily; private tutor in the Valtellina valley, N. It.; in controversy with Zwinglian preacher at Chiavenna 1545; friend of L. Socinus* after 1547. See also Rhaetian Confession.
(18601937). Father of H. Rendtorff*; b. Gütergotz, near Potsdam, Ger.; educ. Kiel, Erlangen, Leipzig; held various pastoral positions; taught at Kiel and Leipzig; pers. Gustav-Adolf Soc. 1916; main academic interest: hist. roots of Prot. pub. worship and of religious educ.
(18881960). Son of F. Rendtorff*; b. Westerland, on the island of Sylt, in the North Sea, off W coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Kiel, Leipzig; pastor 1919; home miss. 1921; dir. sem. Preetz, Holstein, 1924; prof. Kiel 1926; bp. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and prof. Rostock 1930; deposed by Nazis 1933; pastor Stettin; prof. Kiel 1945. Inaugurated Bible Weeks; prepared NT study guides.
Works include Holy Family (etching); Samson Victorious
(18151903). B. Montpellier, Fr.; idealistic philos.; influenced by I. Kant* and G. W. v. Leibniz.* Founded Critique philosophique (1872) and Critique religieuse (1878). Held that reality consists of subjects as experienced. Works include Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique; Le Personnalisme.
(original name Kukkonen; changed to Renqvist, from Swed. for pure branch; 17891866). B. Ilomantsi, Fin.; educ. Turku; ordained 1817; pastor Liperi and Sortavala; held that repentance and faith are valid only if followed by pure life; opposed use of alcohol and tobacco; imprisoned 10 yrs. for harsh measures. See also Finland, Lutheranism in, 4.
Formal repudiation of the devil and all his works, pomp, and ways; observed in the ch. since ancient times in connection with Baptism.
(November 25, 1838June 2, 1906). B. Wytheville, Virginia; educ. Roanoke Coll., Salem, Virginia, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pastor Salem (186972) and Staunton (188485). Virginia; Allentown, Pennsylvania, 18851906. Served in army during Civil War; pres. theol. sem., Salem, Virginia, 187384 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27); pres. Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. in N. Am. (later known as Gen. Syn. South; see United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South, The, 1) 187172. Ed. The Church Messenger.
In the wide sense, change from a rebellious state to one of harmony with the will of God, from trusting in human merit to trusting in the merit of Christ; embraces contrition* and justifying faith*; sometimes the fruits of repentance are included (Ap XII 28). In the narrow sense, faith and fruits are not included. The means to repentance is the Word of God. Cf. Jer 31:18; Acts 5:31. Sometimes taken as equivalent to penance* and penitence. See also Conversion.
(missa pro defunctis; Totenmesse). Mass for the dead; named after the 1st word of the 1st antiphon in the RC rite (Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine: Grant them eternal rest, O Lord). There are 4 such RC masses: 1. for commemoration of all dead (November 2); 2. for the day of death or burial; 3. for anniversary of death; 4. for daily (i. e., unspecified) use. See also Brahms, Johannes. EFP
1. Retention by the pope of the right to appoint to a certain benefice; see also Execrabilis, 1. 2. Retention of tithes. 3. Retention of certain powers (e.g., of absolution of certain sins) by an ecclesiastical superior from an inferior; see also Reserved Cases. 4. In RC, E Orthodox, and Angl. chs., retention of a portion of the consecrated species after Communion to communicate those unable to attend (e.g., sick and dying).
Power of absolution of certain more atrocious and grace crimes is reserved by bps. and popes to themselves; if absolution is pronounced by an unauthorized inferior, it is declared invalid also in God's sight; but there is no reservation at the point of death; cf. Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, Sacrament of Penance, chap. vii. See also Reservation, 3.
(probably the same as Balthasar Harzer, or Hartzer; ca. 14851544). Composer; b. Tetschen (or Jessen?), Boh.; chorister in Hofkapelle of Maximilian* I; pupil of H. Isaak*; educ. Leipzig; priest; Luth. pastor Leipa, Boh., 1534. Works include Responsoriorum numero octoginta libri duo.
(apocatastasis, apokatastasis [Gk. word in Acts 3:21]; restoration). View that all moral creatures (mankind, angels, and devils) will finally be saved. Arose in the time of Clement* of Alexandria. Ascribed, perhaps falsely, to Origen* (cf. J. A. Quenstedt,* Theologia didactico-polemica, Part I, Ch. XIV, Sect. II, Question V, Antithesis, I). Opposed by Augustine* of Hippo. Not supported by Acts 3:21, which speaks of the fulfillment of all things spoken by God's prophets. Adopted by some Anabaptists and in whole, in part, or in modified form by some others. Condemned and rejected by AC XVII, See also Hereafter, B 7; Unitarianism; Universalism.
Imperial edict secured 1629 by RCs; provided (1) all former RC property that had become Prot. since the convention of Passau* 1552 to become RC; (2) Prots. to be excluded from RC territories; (3) among Prots., only those adhering to the AC to have freedom of religion.
Raised ledge or shelf at the rear of an altar on which altar lights, cross, and flower vases may be placed; or: framework arising from the rear of an altar and enclosing a decorated panel.
(November 16, 1869October 14, 1943). Luth. theol.; b. Diebach, near Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Bav.; educ. Neuendettelsau; to Am. 1889; asst. pastor (Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States), Mendota, Illinois, 1889; pastor Rock Falls, Illinois, 1890; prof. Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, 1899. Prominent in efforts toward Luth. unity at home and abroad. Ed. Kirchliche Zeitschrift. Other works include Die Alttestamentlichen Perikopen nach der Auswahl von Professor Dr. Thomasius; Quellen zur Geschichte des kirchlichen Unterrichts in der evangelischen Kirche Deutschlands zwischen 1530 und 1600; Homiletics: A Manual of the Theory and Practice of Preaching, tr. A. Steinhaeuser; Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism: A History of Its Origin, Its Distribution and Its Use; The Augsburg Confession: A Collection of Sources with An Historical Introduction; Catechetics: Or Theory and Practise of Religious Instruction; Luther's German Bible: An Historical Presentation Together with a Collection of Sources; Luther and the Scriptures.
Johann Michael Reu: A Book of Remembrance: Kirchliche Zeitschrift 18761943 (Columbus, Ohio, 1945); A Bibliography of the Writings of Johann Michael Reu, 18691943, comp. J. K. Burritt (Dubuque, Iowa, 1969, unpub.); R. C. Wiederaenders, The Manuscripts of J. Michael Reu in the Archives of The A. L. C. Wartburg Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa (Dubuque, Iowa, 1970, unpub.); L. C. Green, J. M. Reu and Reformation Studies, CHIQ, XLII (1969), 147156, and Introduction and Index to the Quellen of J. M. Reu, Bulletin of the Library, Foundation for Reformation Research, VI (1971), 911, 1724, 2532; VII (1972), 17. LCG
(Roeubli; Raebl; many other variants; ca. 1480/84-after 1559). Anabap.; b. Rottenburg on the Neckar, S Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Freiburg and Tübingen; pastor Griessen, near Schaffhausen; people's priest Basel 1521; banished 1522; preacher Zurich and Witikon; opposed infant baptism; helped introd. believer's* baptism ca. 1525; banished from Zurich; applied believer's baptism to B. Hubmaier*; active in Strasbourg (where he was imprisoned October 1528January 1529), Austerlitz and Auspitz (expelled from both), Rottenburg (1531); renounced Anabaptism; spent last yrs. as a restless figure in various cities.
(Johannes; Grecized Kapnio or Capnio; 14551522). Humanist; granduncle of P. Melanchthon*; b. Pforzheim, Ger.; educ. Freiburg im Breisgau, Paris, Basel, Orleans, and Poitiers; 1481 in service of Duke Eberhard of Württemberg (im Bart; mit dem Bart; Barbatus; 144596); in similar work at Heidelberg 1497; continued study of Gk. and Heb. in connection with a journey to Rome; returned to Stuttgart; judge in Swabian League 150213; in controversy with the U. and Dominicans at Cologne; prof. Gk. and Heb. lngolstadt and Tübingen. Works include writings on Lat., Gk. and Heb. See also Cabala; Letters of Obscure Men.
(18251900). Old* Catholic; b. Brilon, Westphalia, Ger.; educ. Bonn, Tübingen, Munich, Cologne; priest 1849; prof. Bonn 1858; rejected papal infallibility.* Scholarly interest included exegesis and ch. hist.
(Reussner; Reisner; Reissner; ca. 1496/1500 to ca. 1575/82). B. Mündelsheim (now Mindelheim), Bav. Swabia; educ. Wittenberg and ingolstadt; private secy. to Georg von Frundsberg (Frondsberg; Fronsperg; 14731528; Ger. gen.; b. Swabia; met M. Luther at Diet of Worms 1521); adherent of K. Schwenkfeld*; hymnist. Hymns include in dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr.
(180491). Alsatian-Fr. Prot. theol.; b. Strasbourg; prof. Strasbourg; exponent of historicocritical* method of Bible interpretation. Works include Histoire de la théologie chrétienne au siècle apostolique; La Bible: Traduction nouvelle avec introductions et commentaires.
(181789). B. Hildesheim, Ger.; educ. Göttingen and Berlin; private tutor Berlin 1843; prof. Breslau, Greifswald, and Göttingen; cofounder Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte. Other works include Geschichte der religiösen Aufklärung im Mittelalter vom Ende des achten Jahrhunderts bis zum Anfange des vierzehnten; Abhandlungen zur systematischen Theologie; Augustinische Studien.
(15581613). B. Mosbach, Ger.; educ. at the Sapienzkollegium, a theol. institution in Heidelberg; to Neustadt 1578; tutor Breslau 158082; to Neustadt as teacher and preacher 1583: preacher Bensheim 1584; Neuhausen 1587; prof. Sapienzkollegium, Heidelberg, 1589; pastor Speyer 1593; ephor* Sapienzkollegium, Heidelberg, 1598; prof. OT theol. Heidelberg 1602. Ed. works of Z. Ursinus.* Other works include De cultu dei naturali: De lege morali non abrogata; De reformatione ecclesiae.
(17951870). B. Malmö, SW Swed.; educ. Lund; tutor at the theol. Sem., Lund, 1817; assoc. adjunct in the theol. faculty 1824; prefect in the Sem. 1826; 1st adjunct of theol.; chief librarian of the university 1838; prof. theol. 1844; deputy to the diet for the theol. Sem. 1844; provost of the cathedral at Lund 1845; minister of religion 185255; bp. Lund 1855; abp. 1856. Helped found Theologisk Quartalskrift; other works include Svenska kyrkans historia.
(183788). Waldensian; b. Torre Pellice, Torino prov., Piedmont, NW It.; educ. Torre Pellice, Florence, and Edinburgh; ordained 1861; prof. Torre Pellice and Florence. Works include Letteratura ebraica; Le origini del Papato; Teoria del culto.
1. In revelation God Himself takes the initiative in bridging the gap bet. Himself and His creatures; for He is a hidden God (Is 45:15). In disclosing Himself to men in ways of judgment and grace, God always remains both subject and object of revelation. The knowledge that God grants is unified as regards its object but variable in the matter of means.
2. There is a revelation of God in nature (Ro 1:1920); but there is a difference from other ancient religions in this, that in Scripture nature is only the garment, not the body, of God. The revelation of God in nature is part of gen. revelation, whose evidence is also found in man's capacity, e.g., for soc. institutions, pol. order, artistic creation.
3. Scripture is more concerned with special revelation, which takes place in various ways, e.g., in a theophany,* as when God appeared personally to Abraham and Lot (Gn 1819). In gen., such direct assocs. with God are reserved for persons esp. chosen to this end (e.g., Moses; other prophets).
4. A dream can also be a medium of revelation (Gn 20:3; 28:12; 41:140; 46:2). Prophets criticized the illusory character of this kind of revelation when claimed by lying prophets (Jer 23:2532; 27:9; Zch 10:2).
6. God's name constitutes a revelation (Ex 3:14; Is 30:27).
7. God reveals Himself most completely and precisely in the Word* of God. That Word is, above all, God's Son (the incarnate Word; Jn 1:114). The Word may also take the form of the spoken or written Word (Jn 20:31; 1 Co 2:13).
a. The most ancient laws are known as words. The preamble to the 10 Commandments (Ex 20:12) recalls God's revelation to Moses and God's deliverance of His people. The laws of the holiness code (Lv 1726; see also Law Codes, 2) are motivated, e.g., Lv 19:32, 34, 36.
b. The Word is characteristic of the prophetic office (Jer 18:18). The prophet is subordinate to his message. The formula Thus saith the Lord designates the Word as a royal message to be delivered faithfully and fully. The divine Word is placed into the prophet's mouth (Jer 1:9) or spoken in his ears (Is 5:9). Having been present in the council of God (Jer 23:18, 22), the prophet delivers what has been confided to him. At times the Word seized a prophet with such power that it cast him into an abnormal state of mind (e.g., Eze 3:15). By means of symbolic action or unusual dress a prophet sometimes illustrated his message (e.g., nakedness, Is 20; yoke, Jer 28; belt, or girdle, Acts 21:11).
c. The term mashal (Heb. discourse; parable), applied to the maxims of Wisdom literature, is also used of mysterious oracles (Nm 23:7; 24:3). This suggests that the element of revelation is the primary feature of these materials, at whose heart lies the statement that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom (Pr 1:7).
8. The distinctive mark of Biblical religion is the revelation of God in hist. God calls Abraham to go from his land to one that God would show him. God delivers His people from bondage in Egypt and reveals His power and purpose in the crucial events of Israel's hist., including the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ and the creation of the ch. But essential to the full fact of revelation is the sending of prophets, apostles, and evangelists as proclaimers and interpreters of these events. Through the confusion that characterizes man's hist., God accomplishes His saving purpose (Is 5:12, 19; 10:12; 28:21) acc. to a plan conceived in eternity (Mt 25:34; Eph 1:36; 1 Ptr 1:2).
9. Revelation deals with the event in which God breaks through to man; inspiration (see Inspiration, Doctrine of), as the term is used in theol., deals with the coming into being of the written Word (2 Ti 3:16) under special guidance of the Holy Spirit. The doctrine of inspiration deals with the way in which God, who reveals Himself in word and deed, is active in the process by which the message is committed to writing. The unique significance of the Bible is that it is to this book that we go for knowledge of the revelation that God has given of Himself in hist.
10. Since the knowledge of God transcends reason, the truth of revelation cannot be reached by the human mind left to its own devices. Yet the content of revelation is not irrational. Paul spoke to Festus and Agrippa of a proclamation that included his witness to the resurrection; but Paul insists that he is not beside himself (Acts 26:2425). It is the province of God's gift of human reason to take God's revelation of Himself as given in Scripture and formulate and articulate it in such a way as to relate it to the particular situation of the ch. in a given age (systematic* theol.). MHS
J. Baillie, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (New York, 1956); H. E. Brunner, Revelation and Reason, tr. O. Wyon (Philadelphia, 1946); Revelation and the Bible, ed. C. F. H. Henry (Philadelphia, 1958); J. McIntyre, The Christian Doctrine of History (Grand Rapids, Mich;, 1957).
(18261906). Father of J. Réville*; b. Dieppe, Fr.; educ. Dieppe, Geneva, Strasbourg; pastor Nimes, Luneray (in N Fr.), Rotterdam; prof. Paris. Works include Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Native Religions of Mexico and Peru, tr. P. H. Wicksteed; Histoire de dogme de la divinite de Jesus-Christ.
(18541908). Son of A. Réville*; b. Rotterdam, Holland; educ. Geneva, Paris, Berlin, Heidelberg; pastor Sainte-Suzanne, Fr.; teacher and prof. Paris. Works include Les Origines de l'épiscopat; Le Protestantisme libéral: ses origines, sa nature, sa mission.
(15861658). B. Deventer, Neth.; educ. Leiden and Franeker; pastor Zeddam, Winterswijk, Aalten, Deventer; regent of state coll. Leiden; helped est. Athenaeum at Deventer 1630. Active in Bible tr. tr. Belgic Conf. (see Reformed Confessions, C 1) into Lat. and Gk. (approved by C. Lucaris*). Other works include Libertas Christiana, circa usum capillitii, defensa; Over-ysselsche sangen en dichten; Daventriae illustratae.
(from Lat. revivo, to live again). 1. The phrase revivals of religion commonly indicates renewed interest in religious subjects or, more gen., religious awakenings. In its best sense it may be applied to the work of Christ and the apostles and to the 16th c. Reformation. But the term is often applied also to excitements that can hardly be assoc. with true religion since they do not revive spiritual life by preaching the Word but are mere enthusiastic outbursts of emotion. The term revival is gen. confined to an increase of spiritual activity in Eng.-speaking Prot. chs.
2. There were revivals in Scot. beginning at Stewarton 1625, extending north to Shotts 1630, and at Cambuslang and Kilsyth in the early 1740s. See also Great Awakening in England and America. There was a revival at Northhampton, Massachusetts, beginning 1734 and throughout New Eng. in the early 1740s (see also Edwards, Jonathan, the Elder). From the close of the Great Awakening (ca. 1750 in Am.) there were no gen. revivals in Am. till ca. 1800, when L. Beecher* and T. Dwight* (17521817) began their remarkable work. A revival began in Kentucky in the 1790s, spread to Pennsylvania and Ohio, and was accompanied by violent physical phenomena called the jerks. See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 b.
Other revivalists include Asahel Nettleton (17831844; b. North Killingworth, Connecticut; educ. Yale; Cong. evangelist Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York), C. G. Finney,* D. L. Moody,* Benjamin Fay Mills (18571916; b. Rahway, New Jersey; Cong. minister Cannon Falls, Minnesota, and Rutland, Vermont; Presbyterian minister Albany, New York; evangelist; indep. 1897: Unitarian pastor Oakland, California; Presb. 1915), R. A. Torrey,* John Wilbur Chapman (18591918; b. Richmond, Indiana; Presb. pastor Ohio, Indiana, New York, and Pennsylvania; assoc. with D. L. Moody), Rodney Smith,* and W. A. Sunday.* The 1859 Irish revival was an import from the 185758 US revival (a movement directed mainly by laymen). The Great Welsh Revival occurred 190406.
F. G. Beardsley, A History of American Revivals (New York, 1904); W. W. Sweet, Revivalism in America: Its Origin, Growth and Decline (New York, 1944).
(March 4, 1812September 5, 1876). B. Little Falls Forge, Fayette Co., Pennsylvania; educ. at Jefferson Coll., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and at Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; prof. Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pres. of Capital U., Columbus, Ohio (185054), and of Illinois State U. (see Carthage College); Prot. Episc. cleric 1864. Founded Evangelical Review; other works include tr. of I. Acrelius'* hist. of New Swed.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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