(Carl; pseudonym Jakob Corvinus; 18311910). Poet and novelist; b. Eschershausen, Ger.; his trilogy Der Hungerpastor, Abu Telfan, and Der Schüdderump has been called Christian symbolic realism. Other works include Deutscher Mondschein; Nach dem grossen Kriege; Unruhige Gäste.
(Hrabanus; Rhabanus; originally Rabanus Magnentius; called Maurus by Alcuin, after St. Maur [see Maurists]; ca. 776856). Frankish theol., scholar, teacher; b. Mainz, Ger.; educ. Fulda and Tours (under Alcuin*); head of Fulda school 803; priest 814; abbot Fulda 822842; abp. Mainz 847. Works include De institutione clericorum; De laudibus sanctae crucis; Poenitentiale. See also Predestinarian Controversy, 1.
(171894). B. Bédarieux, Hérault dept., in Languedoc, S Fr.; vicar Nimes 1738; studied under A. Court* from 1740; pastor Nimes 1742; severely persecuted; withdrew from active ministry 1785; imprisoned; died soon after release.
(Rabbulas; Rabula[s]; ca. 350ca. 435/436). B. Qennesrin, near Aleppo, NW Syria; monk ca. 400; bp. Edessa 411 [412?]; opposed Nestorianism,* esp. Theodore* of Mopsuestia; Peshitta (see Bible Versions, C 4) ascribed to him; succeeded by Ibas.*
(perhaps ca. 1483/951553). Satirist; humorist; b. near Chinon, Indre-et-Loire dept., NW cen. Fr., on the Vienne R.; Franciscan, then Benedictine, then secular priest; taught at U. of Montpelier; physician; traveled, held various positions, finally a parish at Meudon from 1552. Works include Pantagruel and Gargantua, issued under pseudonym Alcofribas Nasier (anagram of his name) and satirizing the monastic ideal, superstitious veneration of saints, old-fashioned educ., and university theology.
(183799). Founder Jewish-Christian movement in Kishinev, Bessarabia, S Russ., on a tributary of the Dniester R., 90 mi. NW of Odessa; b. Resina, on the Dniester, Bessarabia; reared in strict Judaism; visited Palestine in the early 1880s; became Christian; studied NT; est. a cong. in Kishinev called Israelites of the New Covenant; bap. 1885. Works include apologetic writings.
(18731943). Composer, pianist, conductor; b. Oneg estate, near Ilmen Lake, Novgorod govt., Russ.; US resident 1918. Works include symphonies; piano concertos; sonatas; Liturgy of St. John Chrysostomus for mixed chorus.
(190171). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Friedrich-Alexander-U. (Erlangen-Nürnberg) and Tübingen; prof. Jena, Göttingen, Heidelberg; investigated peculiarities of individual Biblical witnesses; gave special attention to the relationship bet. theol. and philos. in wisdom literature; influenced exegesis and systematics. Works include Das erste Bach Mose; Das fcünfte Buch Mose; Theologie des Alten Testaments; Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament.
(Paschase Radbert; ca. 785/ 786ca. 860/865). Benedictine theol.; b. Soissons, Fr.; monk at Corbie; abbot there ca. 842/843ca. 851/853. Works include De corpore et sanguine Domini. See also Eucharistic Controversies; Ratramnus.
(Radegunda; Radegundis; 518587). Pious Frankish queen; wife of Clotaire I (Clothaire; Ger.: Clothar; also Lothar and Lothaire; king Soissons 511588, of all Franks 558561); after Clotaire murdered her brother, she fled from court, was ordained deaconess, and est. a nunnery near Poitiers.
1. Religious broadcasting began January 2, 1921, when Edwin Jan van Etten (18841956), rector Calvary Episc. Ch., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, conducted an Epiphany service over Station KDKA, Pittsburgh.
2. Religious broadcasts over networks were common by the 1950s.
3. Policies of the various radio and TV networks differ and have been changed repeatedly. NBC and ABC gave free time to Prots. (but not, as a rule, to individual denominations), RCs, and Jews. CBS est. the Columbia Ch. of the Air, giving time on successive Suns. to representatives of various denominations in approximate proportion to their numerical strength in the US MBS also gave considerable time for religious programs.
5. Sponsored network radio religious broadcasts have included The Lutheran Hour, Bringing Christ to the Nations (Oswald C. J. Hoffmann, b. 1913; see also 6 and 7); The Hour of Decision (Billy Graham, b. 1918); The Old Fashioned Revival Hour (founded 1925 by Charles Edward Fuller,* 18871968; Bap. evangelist; b. Los Angeles, California); The Voice of Prophecy (Harold Marshall Sylvester Richards, 1894 ). See also World Confessional Lutheran Association.
Religious network TV programs (sustaining) have included Frontiers of Faith (NBC); Lamp unto My Feet (CBS); Look Up and Live (CBS); Direction '63. Nationally distributed TV filmed programs have included This is the Life (Lutheran TV Productions Bd.; see also 8); Talk Back and Breakthru (TV, Radio, and Film Commission, The Meth. Ch.), Davey and Goliath (children's puppet program, LCA).
6. The Luth. Hour began 1930, was suspended 193135 (partly because of uncertain financial support), was heard in the 1970s in 125 lands over more than 1,500 stations.
C. T. Griswold and C. H. Schmitz, compilers, How You Can Broadcast Religion, ed. L. J. Anderson (New York, 1957); H. E. Luccock, Communicating the Gospel (New York, 1954); E. C. Parker et al., Religious Radio: What to Do and How (New York, 1948); J. W. Bachman, The Church in the World of Radio-Television (New York, 1960); E. A. Nida, Message and Mission (New York, 1960); E. C. Parker, Religious Television: What to Do and How (New York, 1961).
1. Christian chs. in gen. were slow to realize the vast potential of owning and operating a radio station. In the early days of radio, facilities were available in abundance. The fed. govt. would have gladly assigned desirable frequencies to stations owned by denominations. But nearly all frequencies were soon assigned to commercial interests. Only a few denominations or congregations began to operate stations. Some of these soon discontinued operation; some became completely commercial; some became largely commercial, reserving only a small amount of time for religious broadcasts. It became nearly impossible for chs. to est. new AM stations. The advent of FM offered chs. a 2d chance.
Colorado: KPOF-Pillar of Fire, Inc., Denver.
Rhode Island: WPTL-Providence Bible Institute, Providence.
Texas: KMHB (FM)-Mary Hardin-Baylor Coll., Belton; KWBU-Baylor U. (Bap. Gen. Conv. of Texas), Corpus Christi; KYBS (FM)-Bap. Gen. Conv. of Texas, Dallas; KSMU (FM)-Southern Meth. U., Dallas; KELP-Paso Broadcasting Co., Inc. (Richey Evangelistic Assoc.), El. Paso; KHBL (FM)-Wayland Bap. Coll., Plainview; KFTW-Southwestern Bap. Theol. Sem., Fort Worth.
3. KFUO, The Gospel Voice, St. Louis, Missouri, was dedicated December 14, 1924. It had a 500-watt transmitter. Control room and studio were in the attic of Conc. Sem. on S. Jefferson Ave. The cost of $14,000 was covered by sem. students and mems. of the LLL, Walther League, and others. 1st radio committee: J. H. C. Fritz* and W. A. Maier.* The St. Louis Luth. Publicity Organization appropriated an annual sum toward maintenance of the station. At first the station broadcast 2 hrs. a week. H. H. Hohenstein* became full-time dir. 1925. In 1927 the station moved to the new campus, 801 De Mun Ave., Clayton (suburb of St. Louis), and was rebuilt for $50,000 contributed by the LLL The new plant was dedicated May 29, 1927, and given to the Mo. Syn. It had a 1,000-watt transmitter; broadcast hrs. were increased to ca. 30 a week. In 1940 the Fed. Communications Commission granted KFUO a new frequency, with full daytime broadcasting privileges, from 80 1/2 to 102 1/2 hrs. a week; this led to erection of a new tower and antenna system, enlargement and renovation of the radio bldg., and installation of a 5,000-watt transmitter; later the bldg. was enlarged and FM added.
See also Radio Voice of the Gospel.
(RVOG). Radio station ETLF, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was owned and operated by LWF and affiliated with the Coordinating Committee for Christian Broadcasting, which represents the All Afr. Conf. of Chs., the East Asia Christian Conf., and the Near East Council of Chs. The franchise to build and operate the station was granted by the Ethiopian govt. 1959. The station began operations 1963, was taken over by the government 1977.
(Nikolaus; Mikolaj; 151565). The Black; b. Nieswiez; military head Vilnyus (Vilna); chancellor Lithuania; joined Reformation movement 1553; Calvinist; J. Laski* was his house guest 1557; sponsored Polish Bible tr. pub. 1563.
(Alexander; 18661947). Educ. Pozsony (Bratislava), Jena, Leipzig, and Basel; prof. Pozsony 1896; pastor Budapest 1908; bp. 191845. Noted preacher and organizer; helped arrange 1st LWC Tr. NT into Hung.; helped prepare an order of service.
(18681945). B. Tamins, Graubünden, Switz.; cathedral pastor Basel 1902; became socialist; prof. Zurich 1908; resigned in the early 1920s to devote himself to soc. work. Influenced by C. F. Blumhardt's (see Blumhardt, 3) concept of the kingdom of God, he worked for its realization through democratic soc. order, discipleship of Christ, Franciscan poverty, and peace movements.
(Rathmann; 15851628). B. Lübeck, Ger.; diaconus 1612, pastor 1626 Danzig. His Jesu Christi: des Königs aller Könige und Herrn aller Herren Gnadenreich led to widespread controversy in Lutheranism on the relationship bet. Word and Spirit and to a fuller systematic statement of the doctrine of the Word as means of grace, esp. of the efficacy of Scripture.
(17351811). B. Gloucester, Eng.; in 1757 he inherited the Gloucester Journal (est. 1732) and issued it 40 yrs.; philanthropist; interested in soc. problems, esp. prison reform; saw the chief cause of degradation in inadequate training of children; in 1780 he engaged a woman to teach a Sunday school. See also Sunday School, 2.
(Reynolds; 15491607). B. Pinhoe, near Exeter, Devonshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; pres. Corpus Christi Coll., Oxford, 15981607; Aristotelian scholar; Calvinist; chief representative of Puritans* at Hampton* Court Conf. See also Bible Versions, L 10.
(Racovian Catechism). First statement of Socinian principles; begun by F. P. Socinus*; pub. in Polish 1605, Ger. 1608; Lat. 1609; takes its name from Raków, Kielce dept., Poland, on a tributary of the Vistula; not a formal confessional creed. See also Smalcius, Valentinus; Socinianism.
(18581922). Hindu educator; b. S India; father Brahmin; because of her gifts and learning and the esteem in which she came to be held she was called Pandita (related to Eng. pundit), highest title possible for a native woman in India; known in full as Pandita Sarasvati Ramabai or Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati (sarasvati: divine embodiment of language, literary expression, and learning); bap. 1883 in England; visited Am. 1886 and with resultant gifts est. Sarada Sadan (House [or Home] of Wisdom), a nonsectarian school for high caste Hindu girls, esp. child widows, at Bombay 1889; this school moved to Poona 1890/91. At Khedgaon (Kedgoan), ca. 30 mi. from Poona, an additional institution called Mukti Sadan (House [or Home] of Salvation) was est., largely for girls of low caste; it included a farm, ch., hosp., and printing press. Tr. Bible into Marathi.
(183486). Hindu mystic, yogi; b. Kamarpukur, Hooghly dist., W Bengal; tried to grasp the divine also in Islam* and Christianity; held that the Absolute transcends all appearances of deity. See also Hinduism, 7.
(perhaps ca. 1017?/50perhaps ca. 1137/50). Hindu philos.; b. perhaps Bhutapuri or Conjeeveram, S India; founded Vaishnava sect; held 3 eternal principles: God (the highest soul), the world (without soul), the individual soul.
(16931735). B. Halle. Ger.; educ. Halle and Jena; helped J. H. Michaelis* prepare his Heb. Bible; pietist; taught at Halle from 1723; prof. theol. and supt. Giessen 1731; dir. Giessen Paedagogium 1732; hymnist. Hymns include Gesetz und Evangelium sind beide Gottesgaben; Ich bin getauft auf deinen Namen; Mein Schöpfer, steh mir bei.
(Ram Mohan Rai; Ram Mohan Ray; Ramamohana Rai; Rammohun Roy; ca. 1772/741833). B. Radhanagar, Hugli dist., near Murshidabad, Bengal; Hindu religious reformer; founded Brahma (or Brahmo) Samaj (see Hinduism, 6); sometimes credited with founding comparative religion.* See also Adam, William.
(18511939). Classicist, archaeol., NT scholar; b. Glasgow, Scot.; taught at Oxford and Aberdeen; traveled extensively in Asiatic Turkey. Works include The Church in the Roman Empire; St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen; The Christ of the Earliest Christians; The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament; The Cities of St. Paul; A Historical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians; Luke, the Physician; The Historical Geography of Asia Minor; The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia; Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? See also Abercius, Inscription of.
(Pierre [de] la Ramée; 151572). Philos. and mathematician; b. Cuth (or Cuts), Vermandois, in Picardy, near Soissons and Noyon, in Oise, Fr.; opposed Aristotelianism; Prot. 1561 (1562?); to Switz. 1568, Ger. 1569; returned to Fr. 1570(1571?); perished in Bartholomew's* Day Massacre.
(190582). Writer; b. St. Petersburg Russ.; educ. Petrograd (as St. Petersburg was called 191424); to US 1926; worked in the Hollywood, California, film industry. Works include We the Living; The Fountainhead; Atlas Shrugged; For the New Intellectual: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand; The Night of January 16th. See also Objectivism.
(17951886). Hist.; b. Wiehe, Thuringia, Ger.; founded the modern school of history; prof. Berlin 182571. Works include Die römischen Päpste, ihre Kirche and ihr Staat in 16. und 17. Jahrhundert; Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation.
1. Name of reproach given to an antinomian and spiritualistic sect in mid-17th c. Eng. 2. Term applied colloquially to 19th-c. Primitive Meths. (see Methodist Churches, 1, 4 b) because of the loud tones of their preaching and responses.
(Raffaello [in full Raffaello Santi, or Sanzio]; Raffael; Raffaelo; Rafael; 14831520). Painter; b. Urbino, It.; to Florence 1504; to Rome after 1508; in service of Julius II (see Popes, 19); protege of Leo X (see Popes, 20); chief architect of St. Peter's, Rome, 1514; conservator of Roman excavations 1515. Works include St. George and the Dragon; Coronation of the Virgin; Sistine Madonna.
(17571847). B. Iptingen, near Vaihingen, Württemberg, Ger.; linen weaver; mystic; separatist; est. a sect; persecuted; to US Est. Harmony, Butler Co., Pennsylvania, ca. 1803/05; New Harmony, Posey Co., Indiana, 1814; Economy, Beaver Co., Pennsylvania, ca. 1825. Followers called Rappists.*
(Rasel; ca. 1562/641602). Luth. composer; b. Hahnbach, near Amberg, Upper Palatinate, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg; active in Regensburg and Heidelberg. Arranged chorales so that the cong. could sing the melody in the upper part, while the choir provided the harmonies, but not always simply note-for-note.
(18581924). Theol. and philos.; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; held various teaching and preaching positions; tried to combine features of idealism* and utilitarianism.* Works include The Theory of Good and Evil. See also Modern Churchmen's Union.
(January 9, 1829August 15, 1898). B. Stavanger, Norw.; to Am. 1850; teacher Lisbon, Kendall Co., NE Illinois; attended the Mo. Syn. practical sem. at Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Ministry, Education of, X F) 185354; ordained 1854; pastor Lisbon, Illinois; mem. Norw. Syn.; helped promote the movement that resulted in the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 810).
(ca. 18711916). Monk, mystic, adventurer; b. Pokrovskoe, near Tyumen, Tobolsk, Siberia; left his family 1904 and devoted himself to religion; gained influence over czar and czarina; interfered in ch. and secular affairs; noted for debauchery; murdered by nobles.
(Ras Tafarians; from Ras [Prince] Tafari, precoronation name of Haile Selassie [18921975; b. Hararar, Ethiopia; king of Ethiopia 1928, emp. 193074]). Pol.-religious movement among Jamaican Blacks who regard Haile Selassie as a divine being and the Blacks as the true Jews; their beliefs can be traced to the Back-to-Africa* Movement. Spokesmen included Bob Marley of reggae music fame, who died 1981 at 36.
(Rathier; ca. 890974). Benedictine; b. near Liège. Bp. Verona, It., 931934, 946948, 962968; Liège 953955. Involved in many controversies; supported eucharistic views of P. Radbertus.* Works include Excerptum exdialogo confessionali; De proprio lapsu.
(Ratich; Ratke; 15711635). B. Wilster, Holstein, Ger.; educ. at Hamburg Johanneum* and Rostock; educ. adviser in various parts of Ger.; considered a practical failure, but helped achieve recognized standing for the vernacular and for psychol. principles in educ.
The term rationalism has been used in many different ways; care must be exercised to avoid misrepresentation and misunderstanding. Lucretius* ascribed to Greeks leadership in investigating the essence of things on basis of reason. Rationalism in philos. is usually traced to the Eleatic* School, Pythagoreans (see Pythagoreanism), and Plato.* Systems called rationalistic include those which are deductive; which hold that reason, apart from sense, is the highest criterion; which apply mathematical methods; which make coherence a criterion of truth. Contrasted with empiricism, rationalism has been described as being abstract, supernatural, absolute, certain, peaceful, authoritative, eternal, religious.
Religious use of the term rationalism does not correspond completely to philos. use. The term rationalistic applied to scholasticism implied application of dialectics to theol.; scholastic rationalism and Aristotelianism (see Aristotle) have been identified. Applied to the theol. of H. Zwingli* or J. Calvin,* the term rationalistic often means to say that they interpreted revelation in such a way as to render it harmonious with deductive reasoning, logic, and/or phenomena.
Attempts were made in the 17th c. to show that Christianity is reasonable (see Cambridge Piatonists; Locke, John). Revelation was not rejected but was regarded as in harmony with reason (rational supernaturalism).
When reason gained the upper hand in the 17th c., the transition to deism* followed. The rationalism of deism rejected revelation but was tempered by assumption of 5 principles common to all religions.
The next stage, which also began in the 17th c., was rejection of all dogmatic assertions, thus leading to the rationalism of skepticism; leaders included P. Bayle,* D. Diderot,* T. Hobbes,* D. Hume,* Voltaire.*
Four types of attitudes toward rationalism in the religious realm: (1) Revelation is above reason; (2) Revelation and reason are in harmony; (3) Revelation and reason conflict but may be held in compartments; (4) Revelation is to be discarded in favor of reason.
Antiauthoritarian rationalists must be distinguished from those who are antisupernaturalists. EL
A. Tholuck, Geschichte des Rationalismus (Berlin, 1865); J. F. Hurst, History of Rationalism (New York, 1866); W. E. H. Lecky, History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, rev. ed., 2 vols. (New York, 1914); J. B. Bury, A History of Freedom of Thought (New York, 1913); H. R. Mackintosh, Types of Modern Theology: Schleiermacher to Barth (London, 1937); T. E. W. Engelder, Reason or Revelation? (St. Louis, 1941); H. Martin, The Inquiring Mind (New York, 1947); E. Bizer, Frühorthodoxie und Rationalismus (Zurich, 1963); K. Aner, Die Theologie der Lessingzeit (Hildesheim, 1964).
(common rationalism). Type of rationalism common in Ger. 180033; reduced religion to a system of morals based at the most on two or three religious principles; exponents included C. F. v. Ammon,* K. G. Bretschneider,* H. E. G. Paulus,* J. F. Röhr,* D. Schulz,* J. A. L. Wegscheider. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 9.
(Rathramnus; d. after 868). Benedictine monk Corbie, Somme, Fr., from ca. 825/830. Requested by Charles* II (when he was Charles I as king of Fr.) to evaluate P. Radbertus'* De corpore et sanguine Domini, he wrote a treatise with the same title. See also Eucharistic Controversies; Predestinarian Controversy.
(Ratzenberger; 150159). B. Wangen, near Stuttgart, S Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; friend of M. Luther; city physician Brandenburg 1525; physician of the count of Mansfeld and 153846 of Elector John* Frederick; medical adviser of Luther; opposed Philippists.* Works include a hist. of Luther and his times.
(17831865). Geologist; educator; b. Wörlitz, Anhalt, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Halle, Paris; prof. Breslau 181119, Halle 181923; tutor Nürnberg; prof. Erlangen 1827. Issued Sammlung geistlicher Lieder. Other works include Geschichte der Pädagogik; Palästina.
(180784). B. Kassel, Ger.; educ. Marburg, Halle, Berlin; pastor Kassel; opposed rationalism; driven out of Kassel; pastor Rengshausen, where he est. a home for neglected children and a printery. Works include sermons.
(18611918). Bap. cleric; b. Rochester, New York; educ. Rochester; pastor Louisville, Kentucky, and (188697) NYC, where he engaged in religious work among Ger. immigrants; taught in Ger. dept. Rochester Theol. Sem. 18971902; prof. ch. hist. Rochester Theol. Sem. 190218. Exponent of the social* gospel; identified the kingdom of God with soc. evolution. Works include Christianity and the Social Crisis; Prayers of the Social Awakening; Christianizing the Social Order; The Social Principles of Jesus; A Theology for the Social Gospel; Dare We Be Christians? JD
A. M. Singer, Walter Rauschenbusch and His Contribution to Social Christianity (Boston, 1926); D. R. Sharpe, Walter Rauschenbusch (New York, 1942); V. P. Bodein, The Social Gospel of Walter Rauschenbusch and Its Relation to Religious Education (New Haven, Conn., 1944).
(17971875). B. Vienna, Austria; priest 1823; prof. theol. Salzburg 1825; prince bp. Vienna 1853; cardinal 1855; opposed Josephinism*; voted against dogma of papal infallibility but soon submitted to it.
(19451926). B. Novasolka, Ingria (S of the E end of the Gulf of Finland). Fin. miss.; educ. Helsinki, Fin.; sent by Finnish* Miss. Soc. to Ovamboland, South-West Afr., 1870. Works include Afr. native language grammar and dictionary; tr. of M. Luther's SC, the NT, and at least parts of the OT; hymnal; ch. hist.; ethnographic works in Eur. languages. See also Africa, B 8.
(173485). B. Platten (Blottendorf), near Böhmisch-Leipa, Boh.; Benedictine 1750; prelate of united monasteries of Braunau and Brewnow 1773; dir. theol. faculty Prague 1774 and later Vienna; exponent of modified Josephinism*; favored laying more stress on exegesis, ch. hist., and practical theol. in educ. of clergy.
(ca. 1220ca. 1285/86). Dominican; b. Subirats, Catalonia, Sp.; miss. to Muslim; taught at Tunis and Barcelona; Heb., Aramaic, and Arabic scholar. Works include Explanatio symboli apostolorum; Capistrum Iudaeorum; Pugio fidei adversus Mauros et Iudaeos; Summa contra gentiles.
(delle Vigne; de Vineis; ca. 133099). B. Capua, It., of the royal Delle Vigne family; educ. Bologna; Dominican ca. 1347; dir. monastery Montepulciano 1363; prior Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, 1367; spiritual dir. Catherine* of Siena 1374; master gen. Dominicans 1380; promoted prestige of pope.
(ca. 11751275). B. Vilefranca de Penades, near Barcelona, Sp.; educ. Barcelona; confessor of Gregory IX (see Popes, 11); chaplain and penitentiary collected papal letters for Decretales Gregorii IX; master gen. Dominicans; helped est. Inquisition* in Aragon. Works include Summa iuris canonici (unfinished); Summa de casibus poenitentiae.
(Sabiende; Sebonde; Sibiuda; d. 1436). B. Barcelona, Sp.; taught at Toulouse, Fr.; held that nature and Scripture cannot conflict since both come from God. Wrote Theologia naturalis (or Liber creaturarum).
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