(Lat. fortieth). 1. The 40 days of Lent (Ash Wednesday to Holy Saturday, excluding Sundays); 2. Ancient name of the 1st Sunday in Lent (with preceding Sundays named by analogy: Quinquagesima, Sexagesima, Septuagesima); 3. The 40th day after Easter: Ascension (cf. Acts 1:3).
See also Church Year, 35, 8, 9, 14, 16; Tempus clausum.
(Kodratos; early 2d c.). Christian apologist; a fragment of his apology to emp. Hadrian ca. 124/129 preserved by Eusebius* of Caesarea (HE, IV, iii, 12); erroneously identified by Jerome with Quadratus, early bp. Athens (perhaps under Marcus Aurelius or Antoninus Pius) and by others with bp. Quadratus of Utica (martyr in Valerian persecution; see Persecution of Christians, 4). See also Apologists, 2; Christian Church, History of the, I 2.
(Lat. crossroads; place where 4 roads meet). In the Middle Ages, the group of studies consisting of arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy. Quadrivium was the higher group of the 7 liberal arts, trivium* the lower. The concept of the quadrivium is ascribed by some to A. M. T. S. Boethius.* See also Cassiodorus, Flavius Magnus Aurelius; Martianus Capella.
Common name for mems. of Soc. of Friends.*
(16861772). B. Königsberg, Prussia, Ger.; educ. Halle and in the Neth.; prof., pastor, court preacher Königsberg; exponent of orthodox Lutheranism. Issued Neue Sammlung alter und neuer Lieder.
(4 ember periods, from Lat. for 4 and OE ymbren, perhaps a corruption of ymbryne, period; revolution of time; cycle, from ymb, about; round and ryne, course; running; or from Lat. quatuor tempora, 4 periods). Four periods, of 3 ember days each, set aside for fasting,* prayer, and almsgiving in the 4 seasons (Lat. ieiunia [fasts] quatuor temporum). The pattern followed in modern times was est. in the 11th c.: Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after (1) 1st Sunday in Lent; (2) Pentecost; (3) Holy Cross Day, September 14; (4) St. Lucia's Day, December 13.
4 saints (identity indefinite) commemorated November 8 since the 6th c. in a ch. dedicated to them in Rome, It.
See Canada, B 27, D.
Fund est. 1704 by Queen Anne of Eng., from first fruits (annates*) and tenths confiscated by Henry* VIII, to augment livings of poorer Angl. clergy.
(d. 1529). B. Storkow, Lusatia, Ger.; chancellor of duke Frederick II of Liegnitz till 1523; then bp. Pomesania (later called Marienwerder; now Kwidzyn, Poland); joined Reformation movement 1524.
(161788). Nephew of J. Gerhard*; Luth. dogmatician; b. Quedlinburg, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt and Wittenberg; prof. logic, metaphysics, and theol. Wittenberg; noted for mild, irenic spirit and retiring, pious disposition. F. A. Tholuck* (in J. J. Herzog,* Roalencyklopadie, 1st ed., XII, 421) calls him the bookkeeper and secretary (Buchhalter und Schriftführer) of Luth. orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 15). This verdict does not agree with the facts. Quenstedt was independent in his judgment. Works include Theologia didactico-polemica, sive Systema theologicum, a standard of Luth. orthodoxy. See also König, Johann Friedrich; Novators.
(Syn. at The Oak). Held 403 on the imperial estate called The Oak (Lat. Quercus), in a suburb of Chalcedon (modern Kadiköy, opposite Istanbul, on E side of entrance to Bosporus); attended by perhaps ca. 36 bps.; condemned and deposed J. Chrysostom* in his absence on charges that were for the most part of no importance and showed nothing but the enmity of his accusers. See also Acacius of Bercea.
(Paschasius; 16341719). B. Paris, Fr.; mem. Fr. Oratory (see Oratorians, 3) 1657; exiled to Brussels, Belg., 1685 for not condemning Jansenism.* Works include Réflexions morales, which reflected also his extreme Gallicanism*; the book was condemned by Unigenitus* 1713. Quesnel was arrested 1703 in Brussels; escaped; fled to Amsterdam; est. a Jansenist ch. in the Neth.; died RC
(18851944). Angl. theol.; educ. Harrow and Oxford; priest 1912; held various positions, including regius prof. divinity Oxford; upheld orthodox Anglicanism. Works include Essays in Orthodoxy; Catholic and Protestant Elements in Christianity; Doctrines of the Creed.
Form of mysticism; holds that spiritual exaltation is reached by self-abnegation and by withdrawing the soul from outward activities and fixing it in passive religious contemplation; representatives included A. Bourignon,* F. de S. de la M. Fénelon,* Guyon,* M. de Molinos.*
(180266). Mental healer; b. Lebanon, New Hampshire; clockmaker; hypnotist; office Portland, Maine; tried to formulate a religious philos. and a science of happiness and health; consultants included M. M. Eddy*; followers developed New* Thought. See also Church of Christ, Scientist.
(2d Trullan, from ML trullus, dome; so called from the domed hall in the imperial palace where it was held; the 1st Trullan syn. or council was held here 680681). Convened by Justinian* II; held ca. 691/692 Constantinople; adopted 102 disciplinary canons (including one reasserting canon 28 of Chalcedon) to complete the work of the 5th and 6th (hence called Quinisext; Gk.: penthekte) Ecumenical Councils (see Councils and Synods, 4); there were no duly-appointed W legates; its acts were rejected by Sergius* I. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine; Germanos I; Monothelitism; Schism, 4.
(perhaps ca. 1475/801540). B. León, Sp.; Franciscan 1498; minister gen. Observants* 152328; mediated bet. Clement* VII and Charles* V from 1526; cardinal 1527 (1528?); defended the interests of the queen in the question of the divorce of Henry* VIII. Compiled a breviary that influenced the Book* of Common Prayer. See also Counter Reformation, 3.
(Fr.: Cinquabres; Johann; d. ca. 1587). B. Aurillac, Auvergne, S cen. Fr.; philol.; prof. Heb. Paris 1558. Works include Opus de re grammatica Ebraeorum; Epitome grammaticae Ebraeae; Lat. tr. of the Targum, of Jonathan (see Bible Versions, B) on Hos, Jl, and Am and of that of an unknown Chaldean on Ru and Lm.
(Marcus Fabius Quintilianus; 1st c. AD). Roman rhetorician; b. Calagurris (modern Calahorra), Logroño prov., N Sp.; educ. Rome, It.; in Sp. ca. 5768; taught rhetoric in Rome; pupils included Pliny* the Younger. Works include Institutio oratoria. See also Higher Education, 6.
(Queirós; Fernandez; perhaps ca. 1560/65ca. 1614/15). B. Évora, Port.; explored Pacific; envisioned a city of God there; est. New Jerusalem as miss. base on the New Hebrides island Espíritu Santo; tried to est. a new soc. order. See also Society Islands.
Name of several Luth. theologians, including (1) Johann (15841648). Grandfather of 2; b. Rostock, Ger.; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Rostock; prof. theol. 1614, archdeacon 1616, supt. 1644, all at Rostock; firmly confessional; practical in preaching; zealous for educ. of the young; indefatigable. Works include Articuli Formulae concordiae illustrati; Manducatio ad studium theologicum; commentaries on books of the Bible. (2) Johann Nikolaus (16511715). Grandson of 1; b. Rostock, Ger.; educ. Rostock and Konigsberg; traveled through Ger., Holland, and Den.; deacon 1676, then successively pastor, supt., prof. theol., all in Rostock. Works include De sanctissima et omni tempore sufficientissima Christi satisfactione; De Bedarmini in ecclesiam notis non notis; De principio theologiae cognoscendae unico; De privata confessione; De poenitentia; De quaestione, an peccatum originis formaliter sit mere privativum an positivum simul.
(August 7, 1760June 26, 1832). Luth. theol.; b. Iserlohn, Duchy of Cleves, Westphalia, near the lower Rhine; educ. Halle, where he was influenced by J. S. Semler*; private tutor 2 yrs.; ordained 1783 by Luth. consistory Amsterdam; pastor Curaçao, W. Indies; pol. unrest caused him to sail with his family for home via New York 1795; decided to stay in Am.; pastor at various places in New York more than 30 yrs.; pres. New York Ministerium 180725. Rationalism* and Socinianism* increased under his leadership; he denied the doctrine of original sin; the doctrines of the Trin., deity of Christ, Baptism, Lord's Supper, wrath of God, and Christ's priestly office are either not mentioned or are not clearly taught in his writings. Works include a catechism; a treatise on magic; 3 sermons on the Luth. Reformation.
H. J. Kreider, History of The United Lutheran Synod of New York and New England (Philadelphia, 1954); J. Nicum, The Doctrinal Development of the New York Ministerium, The Lutheran Church Review, VI (1887), 140152; Annals of the American Pulpit, issued also as part of Annals of the American Pulpit, ed. W. B. Sprague, IX (New York, 1869), 115121. WWW
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