(phallism). Type of nature worship in which generative powers as symbolized in the penis, or phallus, are worshiped; common among primitive peoples and usually assoc. with fertility cults, but found also among such more advanced peoples as Phoenicians and Greeks; in many cases assoc. ceremonies are orgiastic.
Residence and court of the patriarch of Constantinople.
(18651943). B. New Haven, Connecticut; educ. Yale Coll. (now Yale U.), New Haven, Connecticut, and Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; instructor English at Harvard 189192; instructor Yale 189296, asst. prof. 18961901, prof. 190133. Works include Reading the Bible; Human Nature in the Bible; Human Nature and the Gospel.
Philos. term used in various senses. I. Kant* called subjects and events as they are in experience phenomena. G. W. F. Hegel* regarded phenomenology as the science in which we come to know mind as it is itself through the ways in which it appears to us.
In the 19th c., phenomenology came to mean descriptive study. In E. Husserl's* philos. it is used for the assertion of the intentional structure of consciousness, the analysis of the ontological ground of that structure, and the classification of the types of intentionality.
The expression phenomenology of religion is used in various ways, including (1) that part of phenomenology developed by thinkers beginning with E. Husserl which is devoted to the study of religion; (2) hist. studies that use methods related in a gen. way to those of phenomenology in the study of religions; (3) gen. phenomenological methods applied to the study of the whole spectrum of religious ideas, activities, institutions, customs, and symbols. EL
Organized in Eng. ca. 1670 by T. Bromley,* J. Lead(e),* and J. Pordage,* who professed a kind of mystic pantheism and held that their souls were immediately illumined by the Holy Spirit. See also Lee, Francis.
(lay name Vasili Mikhailovich Drozdov; 17821867). B. Kolomna, near Moscow, Russ.; monk 1808; prof. St. Petersburg (now Leningrad) 1808; mem. Holy Syn. 1818; bp. Jaroslav 1820; abp Moscow 1821; metropolitan of Moscow 1825. Proponent of syn. state ch. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 4.
(April 14, 1775-August 27, 1851). B. Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scot.; educ. Hoxton theol. school, London, Eng.; preached at Newbury Cong. Ch., Berkshire, 1802; pastor Aberdeen, Scot., 181418; helped inspect LMS miss. stations in S. Afr. 1818; pastor Cape Town 1822; supt. LMS miss. stations in S. Afr.; tried to protect natives from abuse and exploitation. Works include Researches in South Africa. See also Africa, B 5.
(Philip Augustus; 11651223). Son of Louis* VII; king of Fr. 11801223; engaged in various wars, including war with Eng. 118789; built many chs. and institutions; a leader of the 3d Crusade (see Crusades, 4).
(Philip the Magnanimous; 150467). Son-in-law of George* the Bearded; father-in-law of Maurice* of Saxony; b. Marburg, Ger.; landgrave of Hesse 150967; declared of age 1518; met M. Luther at the Diet of Worms 1521; successfully opposed F. v. Sickingen* and the knights'* revolt; helped suppress rebellious peasants (see Peasants' War); introd. reforms; founded the U. of Marburg 1527 (1st Prot. U.). For his part in union maneuvers after the 1529 Diet of Speyer see Luther, Controversies of, g; Lutheran Confessions, A 2. Signed the AC but felt the art. on the Lord's Supper should have been milder. Helped form Schmalkaldic* League 1531. Entered bigamous marriage 1540 with private consent of M. Luther and P. Melanchthon, who did not have full knowledge of the facts; scandal resulted; for further results see Schmalkaldic War. After his defeat at Mühlberg 1547 (see also John Frederick), Philip was imprisoned; approved the Interim*; released 1552 after the Convention of Passau.* Engaged in further unsuccessful efforts to unite Prots. See also Goths Covenant; Pack, Otto von.
(Philipp; ca. 1177/801208). Son of emp. Frederick* I; bp. Würzburg 1190 [1191?]; resigned his see 1192; duke Tuscany 1195, Swabia 1196; Holy Roman emp. 11981208 but never crowned. See also Crusades, 5.
(184090). Son of F. A. Philippi*; b. Berlin, Ger.; pastor Hohenkirchen. Contributed to K. H. Meusel's* Kirchliches Handlexikon. Other works include Der Knecht Gottes; Das Buch Henoch, sein Zeitalter und sein Verhältnis zum Judasbrief; Die biblische und kirchliche Lehre vom Antichrist; Über die Notwendigkeit und Verbindlichkeit des kirchlichen Bekenntnisses.
(18091882). Father of F. Philippi*; b. Berlin, Ger.; of Jewish descent; became Christian and was bap. 1829 while a student at Leipzig; induced by E. W. Hengstenberg to study theol.; private tutor Berlin 183740; prof. Dorpat (Tartu) 1841/42, Rostock 1851/52; proponent of confessional Lutheranism; upheld verbal inspiration. Works include Commentar über den Brief Pauli an die Römer; Kirchliche Glaubenslehre.
1. Area: ca. 115,800 sq. mi. Consists of ca. 7,100 islands; ca. 2,773 are named; ca. 462 are larger than 1 sq. mi.; part of Malay Archipelago. Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 14801521; Port. navigator), exploring for Sp., discovered the islands 1521 and was slain during a tribal feud. The islands came under dominion and control of Sp. 156484. Intermittent native rebellions led to revolution 1896. At the end of the Sp.-Am. war the islands were ceded to the US 1898; indep. 1946. Filipinos are basically Malayan and Indonesian, but strongly influenced by Sp., Am., and Chinese cultures. Heavy W influence is evident in cities. Civilization is highly developed, but some animistic groups remain, e.g., on Luzon and Mindanao. Languages include 87 dialects; Tagalog is the nat. tongue; Eng. is in gen. use; Sp. is the language of the elite.
2. Ca. 83% is RC As a result of schism ca. the time of the Sp.-Am. war, the Philippine Indep. Ch. (Iglesia Filipina Independiente) was formed 1902. As a result of factionalism, part of the Philippine Indep. Ch. entered into full communion with the Prot. Episc. Ch. of the US 1961; the other part, Unitarian, broke into several sects. Other Christian bodies total less than 5% of the pop. Other religious groups include Muslim (ca. 2,000,000), animists (ca. 400,000), and Buddhists (ca. 43,000, mostly Chinese).
3. The Mo. Syn. entered the Philippines 1946. Under leadership of Alvaro A. Carino, a native, educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, work expanded from Manila to Pangasinan and Ilocos Sur provinces 1948, to Mountain province 1949. Missionaries also entered Mindanao is. 1949, the Visayas 1959, Cebu and Leyte 1960. 1962 saw the beginning of miss. work among Muslim on Mindanao and est. of the Dept. of Mass Communications and the Dept. of Lay Training (later called Dept. of Parish Educ.). Other ventures include a med. program among highlanders and a theol. sem. (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, VII, 14). The Luth. Ch. in the Philippines (1966 constitutional name) adopted new bylaws 1968; reorganized 1970; joined Nat. Christian Council in the Philippines; was accepted 1971 as a sister ch. of LCMS; pres: Alvaro A. Carino 196872, David Schneider 1972 JJJ
(Interimists; synergists). Called Philippists because they favored the synergistic tendencies of Philpp Melanchthon* and his compromising statements of the Lord's Supper. Called Interimists because, with Melanchthon, they agreed to the Leipzig Interim (see Interim, 2), holding that it yielded to RCm only in matters that were adiaphora.* Included J. Bugenhagen,* J. Camerarius,* N. Crell,* C. Cruciger the Younger (see Cruciger, 2), P. Eber,* G. Major,* P. Melanchthon,* K. Peucer,* J. Pfeffinger,* V. Strigel.* Opponents called Gnesio-Lutherans.* See also Synergism; Synergistic Controversy.
(182184). Eng. hymnist; educ. Westminster, The Charterhouse (London), and Oxford. Vicar Downe-Ampney, Cricklade, Gloucestershire, 1851; rector Henley-on-Thames 1867, Ewelme 1883. Hymns include Every Morning Mercies New.
(190682). B. London, Eng.; Angl. cleric; educ. Emmanuel Coll. and Ridley Hall both at Cambridge, Eng.; prebendary of Chichester cathedral 195760; canon, then canon em. Salisbury cathedral 1964 Works include Your God Is Too Small; The New Testament in Mondern English. See also Bible Versions, L 13.
(Lat. the Jew; Philo of Alexandria; ca. 20/30 BC to ca. 50 AD). Hellenistic Jewish philos. of Alexandria; tried to fuse Judaism and Gk. thought by showing that the latter was contained in the OT; regarded this world as imperfect; held that God's contact with it was through the Logos; by allegory he transforms OT persons and events into abstractions. See also Therapeutae.
Study of the original languages of the Bible.
Philos. may be regarded as the science of the principles and methods that underlie all knowledge and existence. It tries to think methodically and clearly about notions that occur in thinking but are not solved by special sciences. It tries to present a harmonious and comprehensive world view.
Main divisions of philos.: 1. epistemology*; 2. metaphysics, dealing with principles at the basis of all phenomena; 3. natural philos., dealing with the origin and nature of the world; 4. psychology*; 5. ligic; 6. ethics*; 7. aesthetics.*
The term philos. has been used in a popular way for private wisdom or consolation. Philos. and religion have in common a concern with the nature of God and His relation to the world. Philos. of hist. tries to find meaning in the course of hist. Exponents of a philos. of hist. include Augustine* of Hippo, W. C. L. Dilthey,* J. G. Fichte,* G. W. F. Hegel,* J. G. v. Herder,* I. Kant,* G. E. Lessing,* Origen,* F. W. J. v. Schelling,* Tertullian,* G. B. Vico.* Philosophy* of religion tries to investigate religions generally and impartially.
Philos. may be divided into formal philos. (science of knowledge) and material philos., which tries to grasp the truth and essence of the universe. In this division, formal philos. includes logic (which deals with the science of the intellect or mind) and metaphysics (which deals with reason and the domain of ideas); material (or real) philos. tries to understand and explain the universe: nature, spirit, God. As regards the last 3: The philos. of nature deals with matter and energy as expressed in the organism; the philos. of spirit treats of the individual spirit in the science of psychol., organized community life in pol. science, and of beauty in its various forms in the science of art; the philos. of God takes up the idea and reality of religion in the philos. of religion, morality in the science of ethics, and the development and progress or retrogression of humanity in the philos. of hist.
We are here concerned mainly with philos. as it appears in the philos. of religion, in ethics, and in the philos. of hist. We want to know how near the intellect and reason of man has come to understand God and things divine and explain the relation bet. God and the universe.
The human mind can arrive at some knowledge of God (Ro 1:1825). Philosophers even before Christ drew a picture of a Supreme Being, one in essence, Father of all, omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, eternal, holy, just, wise, truthful.
If the science of philos., esp. philos. of religion, had continued along lines of the last remnant of the natural knowledge of God (Ro 12), there would have been no need of debates bet. Paul and philosophers (Acts 17:1834) or of such warnings as in Cl 2:8.
Pre-Christian Gk. philosophers performed a propaedeutic service to Christianity. They sought the I permanent element (Anaxagaras,* Anaximander,* Anaximenes* of Miletus, Democritus,* Thales*), the Being (Parmenides,* Xenophanes*), the law of change (Heraclitus*), the mathematics of the universe (Pythagoras; see Pythagoreanism) unsuccessfully. Sophists made man the measure of all things, gave language precision, and introd. skepticism.* Socrates* and Plato* introd. inductive reasoning and gen. definitions, developed the doctrines of ideas and recollections (which played a promin ent part in later struggles bet. realism* and nominalism*), and turned philos. into a study of ethics. After Aristotle* the followers of Pyrrho revived skepticism.* In a period of corruption the Epicureanism* and Stoicism* made happiness the goal.
The apostolic ch. opposed philosophy. Ro 12:2 was followed literally. The wisdom of this world was largely ignored. Christians considered themselves strangers and pilgrims who had no continuing city here (Heb 11:13; 13:14). For E speculation in the early ch. see, e.g., Gnosticism.
A. M. T. S. Boethius* was the last true philos., except J. S. Erigena,* before nominalism and realism. The theol. of the ch. in the Middle Ages was governed by the philos. of Aristotle; scholasticism* dominated (see, e.g., Abelard, Peter; Albertus Magnus; Alexander of Hales; Anselm of Canterbury; Duns Scotus, John; Gilbert de la Porré; Peter the Lombard; Roscellinus; Thomas Aquinas). As a result, theol. degenerated and ch. life decayed.
M. Luther was influenced in his youth by nominalist philos. He thought highly of W. of Ockham* because he saw traces of the influence of the Gospel in him. But he repudiated medieval philos. in its rejection of free grace and spoke harshly of Aristotle. His position may be summarized: he maintained an ambivalent attitude toward the place of philosophy in the Church. In general he regarded philosophy as dangerous; and yet, when the occasion seemed to demand it, he was not at all averse to philosophical speculation. Luther saw that philosophy and theology differ as to method, content, purpose, and result [and that] the work of the theologian is to describe the workings of faith, and to do so in faith's own terms. Nevertheless [Luther] was competent in the use of Aristotelian logic and acknowledged it as valid (J. Pelikan, From Luther to Kierkegaard, pp. 10, 12, 13).
Through P. Melanchthon* the influence of ancient philosophies came to bear on construction of Luth. thought. His description of faith in mental or intellectual terms has been called the Melanchthonian blight (R. R. Caemmerer, The Melanchthonian Blight, CTM, XVIII , 321338); its influence has not entirely disappeared.
On the influence of philos. in theol. in the 18th20th cents. see, e.g.,Deism; Doctrine, Christian, History of, 5; Dogmatics; Existentialism; Fichte, Johann Gottlieb; Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; Kant, Immanuel; Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von; Objectivism; Rationalism; Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von; Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst; Semler, Johann Salomo; Wolff, Christian von.
T. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, vol. 1 tr. L. Magnus, vols. 24 tr. G. G. Berry (New York, 190112); H. O. Taylor, The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages, 3d ed. (New York, 1925); T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists, 2d ed. (New York, 1928); M. M. C. J. de Wulf, History of Mediaeval Philosophy, 2 vols. (New York, 192526); J. Pelikan, From Luther to Kierkegaard (St. Louis, 1950); D. D. Runes, The Dictionary of Philosophy (New York, ); V. Ferm, An Encyclopedia of Religion (New York, 1945); The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed.-in-chief P. Edwards, 8 vols. (New York, 1967).
The term philos. of religion was apparently first used in Ger. near the end of the 18th c. in connection with the Enlightenment.* It refers to the application of philosophy* to the world of religion; see, e.g., God, Arguments for the Existence of. Some read Scripture in the light of philos.; others, including some followers of K. Barth,* question the validity of the very notion of philos. of religion. See also Apologetics, IV B; Religion, Comparative.
(ca. 368ca. 430/440). Arian hist.; b. Borissus, near Nazianzus, Cappadocia, Asia Minor; follower of Eunomius*; spent most of his active life in Constantinople. Wrote a ch. hist. covering ca. 300ca. 430.
MPG, 65, 455638.
(ca. 440/450523). B. Tahal, Persia; bp. Mab(b)ug(h) (Hierapolis) 485519; Monophysite (see Monophysitism). Contributed to tr. of the Bible into Syriac; other works include dogmatic, exegetical, and liturgical writings. See also Bible Versions, C 2, 5.
The name Phocas bobs up at various times and places and in various connections in the mingled stream of ancient legend and tradition; e.g., he is said to have been a gardener at Sinope in Pontus, bp. Sinope, martyr in Trajan or Diocletian persecution, a martyr of unspecified time at Antioch; there probably were 2 or more men named Phocas; in the E the patron saint of mariners is called Phocas.
Christology of Photinus (d. ca. 376; b. probably Ancyra, Galatia (now Ankara, Turkey); bp. Sirmium, Pannonia ca. 343/344; exiled 351; returned yrs. later; exiled again perhaps ca. 364); it has been variously described and seems to have been a form of Monarchianism*; some call it Sabellianism; others assoc. it more closely with the views of Paul of Samosata.
(ca. 810/820ca. 891/898). Lay scholar; patriarch Constantinople 858(857?)867 and 878 (877?)886; twice deposed and excommunicated. Works include De Spiritus Sancti mystagogia. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine; Patristics, 2; Schism, 5.
Worship of plants.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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