(18471936). Unitarian theol.; b. Boston, Massachusetts; pastor Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1874; prof. Harvard 18811913; exchange prof. Berlin 1905/06; exponent of Social* Gospel. Works include Jesus Christ and the Social Question; The Approach to the Social Question.
Movement centering in Father* Divine; strongly marked by New Thought and theosophy; its followers were led to believe that heaven is here and now and that the interracial character of the movement expressed the atonement.
(18651929). Biblical scholar; b. Leek, Staffordshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; taught at Hartley Primitive Meth. Coll., Manchester; prof. Biblical criticism and exegesis Manchester U. Works include The Bible: Its Origin, Its Significance, and Its Abiding Worth; The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testament; a 1-vol. commentary on the Bible.
(February 23, 1917November 24, 1982). B. Edmonton, Alta., Can.; educ. Conc. Coll., Edmonton, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor in Alta. 194244; Canadian Army chaplain 1944; pastor London, Eng., 1946; head of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Eng. from its beginning in 1954.
(161386). Prelate and theol.; b. Great Snoring, Norfolk, Eng.; educ. Eton and Cambridge; pastor Thorington, Suffolk, 1640; supported Royalists in the Civil War of the 1640s; under the Commonwealth (164960) he lived in semi-retirement in London; prof. Cambridge 1661; bp. Chester 1673. Works include An Exposition of the Creed; Vindiciae epistolarum S. Ignatii. See also Arminianism.
Uprising of Ger. peasants 1525 brought on by oppression under wealthy and powerful landowners operating under the feudal system; establishment of codified Roman law in Ger. had given the lords advantages over the peasants. M. Luther* first sided with the peasants, but when they refused to refrain from violence and murder he called on the govt. to take necessary countermeasures. The authorities overreacted, disregarding Luther's admonition for mercy to innocent peasants. T. Münzer was among the slain. See also Philip of Hesse; Schilling, Johann.
E. Baumgartner, Der grosse Bauernkrieg (Vienna, n. d.); E. B. Bax, The Peasants War in Germany 15251526 (London, 1899; reprint. New York, 1968); E. Bohnenblust, Lather und der Bauernkrieg (Bern, 1929); G. Franz, Der deutsche Bauernkrieg, 2 vols. (Munich, 193335) and Quellen Zur Geschichte des Bauernkrieges, in Ausgewählte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte der Neuzeit, II (Darmstadt, 1963); P. Althaus, Luthers Haltung im Bauernkrieg(e) in Luther-Jahrbuch VII (Wittenberg, 1925; repub. separately Basel, n. d.); H. J. Grimm, Luther, Luther's Critics, and the Peasant Revolt, The Lutheran Church Quarterly, XIX (1946), 115132.
(17891858). Bap. cleric; b. Litchfield, Connecticut; pastor New York; itinerant miss. Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri; est. a sem. 1827 at Rock Spring, Illinois, which moved to upper Alton after several yrs., where it was renamed Shurtleff Coll. 1835; helped found Am. Bap. Home Mission Soc. 1832.
(Pecham; ca. 122592). B. Patcham (formerly Pecham), Sussex, Eng.; Franciscan ca. 1250; educ. Oxford and Paris; pupil of Bonaventura*; lector sacri palatii Rome 1276; abp. Canterbury 1279; supported the papacy and worked for correction of abuses in the ch.
(ca. 1390/95ca. 1460/61). B. Wales; educ. Oxford; master Whittington Coll., London, 1431; bp. St. Asaph 1444, Chichester 1450; opposed what he regarded as uncritical biblicism of Lollards with the law of kind written in men's souls by God; critical of authority of Apostles' Creed, Decalog, ch. fathers; questioned Mosaic authorship of Pentateuch.
Cross, usually of precious metal, worn by ch. dignitaries on the breast and suspended from a chain around the neck.
(ca. 14801554). B. Helsingör (or Svendborg?), Den.; educ. Paris; chancellor of the abp. of Lund; fled to his fugitive king, Christian* II, in the Neth. 1526, where he supported the Reformation; after imprisonment of Christian II in the early 1530s, Pedersen returned to Den. 1532 and became a printer at Malmö Founded modern Dan. literature. Tr. NT and Ps; helped produce the Dan. Bible issued by Christian* III 1550. See also Palladius, Peder Esbernsen.
(18731914). Fr. poet and author; at first socialist and Dreyfusard, later a mystic nationalist and leader of Cath. renewal movement; founded Cahiers de la Quinzaine, organ of religious, patriotic, indep. socialists; anticlerical.
(18391914). Physicist; mathematician; logician; b. Cambridge, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard U., Cambridge; lectured at Harvard 1903; influenced by George Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic and An Investigation of the Laws of Thought; laid foundation in logic of relations; founded pragmatism,* later developed by W. James,* and pragmaticism, which he differentiated from James's system. See also Agapastic Evolution.
(Pectoral theol.). Term derived from the statement of J. A. W. Neander*: Pectus est, quod facit theologum (Lat. the heart makes the theologian); pectoral theol. emphasized emotion, esp. in opposition to rational supernaturalism and neoorthodoxy; other exponents include J. Lassenius.*
2. Legends of other virgins named Pelagia (e.g., a converted actress of Antioch; a martyr of Tarsus) became interwoven with the story of the martyr of Antioch.
2. There had been no full agreement among ch. fathers on justification.* In gen. they agreed that man's nature was depraved by the Fall and that man thereafter needs God's grace and a rebirth. Some (e.g., Ambrose,* Cyprian,* Hilary* of Poitiers, Tertullian*) taught a total depravity; others (e.g., the Cappadocian* Theologians, J. Chrysostom,* Clement* of Alexandria, Didymus* of Alexandria) held that man retained a remnant of free will, which is active toward good independently of grace.
3. In his early writings, Augustine* of Hippo did not exclude free will from conversion; later he excluded it emphatically, but rationalism misled him to a false view of election. He held that all men since Adam's fall (which ruined human nature physically and morally) are essentially in the same state of estrangement from God and of condemnation, in which they can do only what displeases God. From this state they can be rescued only by God's grace in Christ. This grace attracts man's depraved will with inner conquering necessity (gratia irresistibilis), and whoever receives it is saved. Not all receive it. Out of lost mankind (massa perditionis), God, acc. to His compassion in Christ, elects some to salvation, fitting them thereto by kindling faith in them by His grace (gratia praeveniens, operans, et cooperans); all others God, acc. to His justice, leaves in depravity and consigns to merited damnation. The reason why grace is accorded only to part of mankind lies in an eternal, holy, inexplicable, absolutely free decree (decretum absolutum) of God. Cf. H. E. F. Guericke,* Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, I (Leipzig, 1866), 351352.
4. Pelagius and his followers held that man's nature is not depraved since the fall but is still in its original state of moral indifference and depends on the individual will to develop the moral germ of his nature and be saved. Irresistible grace and absolute predestination do not fit this system. But acc. to the view of Pelagius, neither was grace or salvation by Christ necessary (a view incompatible with the essence of Christianity).
5. Pelagius first taught his view in a commentary on Paul's epistles ca. 400; then he spread them personally at Rome ca. 409/410. He went to Carthage with Celestius* ca. 410/411. When the latter applied for the office of presbyter, he (Celestius) was accused of heresy by Paulinus* of Milan and had to defend himself before a syn. at Carthage, probably 411. Views of which he was accused included: (1) Adam would have died even if he had not sinned; (2) his sin affected only himself, not his progeny; (3) newborn children are in the same state in which Adam was before the fall; (4) it is not true that all men die in Adam and rise in Christ; (5) the Law leads to salvation as much as the Gospel; (6) before the Lord's coming there were people without sin. Celestius is reported to have been excommunicated when he refused to recant.
6. Meanwhile Pelagius had gone to Palestine and the controversy continued. Augustine of Hippo wrote De natura et gratia (Of Nature and Grace) against Pelagius. At the syns. of Milevis and Carthage (both 416) Afr. bps. condemned Pelagianism; pope Innocent I confirmed the judgment and excommunication, but his successor Zosimus declared Pelagius and Celestius orthodox 417. The Afr. bps. repeated their condemnations 417/418. Emp. Flavius Honorius also opposed Pelagianism. Then Zosimus concurred with the judgment of the Afr. bps. and issued a statement widely circulated for subscription; the 18 bps. who refused to sign, including Julian* of Eclanum, were deposed. Pelagius was expelled from Palestine and disappeared from hist.
7. Esp. through the influence of Marius* Mercator, probably a layman, also the E condemned Pelagianism at the 431 council of Ephesus.* But the E did not fully accept Augustinian theol.; e.g., Theodore* of Mopsuestia and Isidore of Pelusium stood midway bet. Augustinianism and Pelagianism.
8. In the W, Augustinianism found new foes in semi-Pelagianism,* which held that free will was only partly impaired by the fall and needs the help of grace. The question why not all are saved, since grace alone saves and is universal, and since all are in equal corruption and guilt (a question that the Bible leaves unanswered) was discussed. Both parties erred. Augustinianism looked for the answer in God, who does not treat all alike; semi-Pelagianism looked for the answer in man (some using their natural powers aright, others not). Augustine refuted extreme misconstructions of his view (e.g., that all moral effort is unnecessary and all punishment of sin unjust).
9. Early semi-Pelagian leaders include J. Cassianus, who held that man, despite inclination to evil after the fall, could by free choice turn to good but needed grace to grow in sanctification. Augustine wrote De praedestinatione sanctorum and De dono perseverantia (both 428/429) to justify his system. After his death his friend Prosper* of Aquitaine also wrote against semi-Pelagianism. But the movement continued. Prosper induced pope Celestine I to issue a statement, albeit somewhat indeterminate, condemning bps. of Gaul for opposing Augustine. Vincent* of Lerins supported semi-Pelagianism as in harmony with monastic belief in human merit.
10. After Augustine's death some of his followers, including Prosper, tried to reduce the harshness of his system. They distinguished bet. gen. and special grace; only reception of the latter would save. But they left unsolved the mystery why not all received special grace. Other followers of Augustine continued to stress the harshness of his system. Semi-Pelagians charged them with going beyond Augustine and gained some victories, including a semi-Pelagian work written on assignment given by a syn. at Aries in the 470s to Faustus of Riez (Faustus Reiensis; Rhegiensis; of Rhegium, or Regium, or Reji, in Provence, SE Fr.; ca. 408490; abbot Lérins; bp. Rhegium 454) in which he compared the relation of grace and free will to that of Christ's 2 natures and held that free will was not destroyed by the fall but that an indestructible germ of good remained. But these victories were only in Gaul.
11. Augustinianism was championed in Afr. and Italy. C. G. Fulgentius* refuted Faustus. Through the influence of Caesarius* of Arles the 2d syn. of Orange 529 restated Augustinianism, albeit modified, over against Pelagianism and semi-Pelagianism; its position was confirmed 530 by Boniface II (pope 530532).
12. The W had thus taken a stand for the essence of Augustine's doctrine of sin and grace, decisively anti-Pelagian; but the speculative dialectic predestinarian matter was not resolved.
(ca. 354/360ca. 418/420). B. probably Brit. or Ireland; to Rome ca. 400; ascetic; to Carthage ca. 410/411; then to Palestine; expelled ca. 418; disappeared from hist. Works include commentaries on 13 epistles of Paul; a book on faith; treatises on Christian life, virginity, and on the divine law; letters. HTM
(latinized from Ger. Kürschner, furrier; 14781556). Hebraist; b. Ruffach, Alsace; Franciscan 1493; supported the Reformation in Basel and esp. Zurich, Switz.; prof. theol. Basel 1523, Zurich 1525/26. Works include Commentaria bibliorum.
Fourth of the 7 RC sacraments*; molded from the Office of the Keys,* and the ancient practice of pub. penance for grave offenses (see Penitential Discipline), under influence of RC teaching of the merit of works and with aid of the monastic spirit.
Those who by sin have fallen from the grace of justification which they had received can be justified again when, moved by God, they shall have taken steps, through the sacrament of penance, to recover, by Christ's merit, the grace which they lost. For this manner of justification is restoration of the fallen, which the holy fathers have aptly called a second plank after the shipwreck of grace lost (Baptism being the 1st).
So great is the liberality of divine munificence that we can, through Jesus Christ, make satisfaction to God the Father, not only by punishments voluntarily undertaken by ourselves to atone for sin, or by those imposed at the priest's discretion according to the measure of the offense, but also (and this is the greatest proof of love) by temporal afflictions imposed by God and borne patiently by us. See also Indulgences; Merit.
If anyone says that there are only two parts of penance, namely the terrors with which a conscience convinced of sin is stricken and faith generated [or conceived] by the Gospel or by absolution, whereby one believes that sin is forgiven him through Christ, let him be anathema.
If anyone says that the whole punishment is always remitted by God together with the guilt and that the satisfaction of penitents is nothing else than faith, by which they grasp the fact that Christ has made satisfaction for them, let him be anathema.
Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent,* Sess. VI, Decree Concerning Justification, chap. 14; Sess. XIV, The Most Holy Sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction, chaps. 3 and 9, and Canons Concerning the Most Holy Sacrament of Penance, canons 4 and 12.
AC XII: It is taught among us that those who sin after Baptism receive forgiveness of sin whenever they come to repentance, and absolution should not be denied them by the church. Properly speaking, true repentance is nothing else than to have contrition and sorrow, or terror, on account of sin, and yet at the same time to believe the Gospel and absolution (namely, that sin has been forgiven and grace has been obtained through Christ), and this faith will comfort the heart and again set it at rest. Amendment of life and the forsaking of sin should then follow, for these must be the fruits of repentance, as John says, 'Bear fruit that befits repentance' (Matt. 3:8) Rejected are those who teach that forgiveness of sin is not obtained through faith but through the satisfactions made by man.
See also Repentance.
(Pennington; 161979). The Younger; son of a Lord Mayor of London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; Quaker ca. 1657/58; distinguished preacher; repeatedly imprisoned. Works include The Fundamental Right, Safety, and Liberty of the People Briefly Asserted.
Various days of penance, repentance, or penitence, have been proclaimed and observed from time to time at various places, to the extent that it is difficult to distinguish anything near a common long-standing pattern. In the early ch., Wednesdays and Fridays of every week were thought of as penitential days. The 1st of M. Luther's* 95 Theses* reads: Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in saying: 'Repent ye,' etc., intended that the whole life of believers should be penitence. In modern times, esp. under Ref. influence (e.g., in Kassel, Hesse, and Württemberg) quarterly and even monthly penitential days were appointed. After 1893 many Luths. in Ger. observed the Wednesday before the last Sunday after Trin. as a penitential day. Luth. liturgical books provide for a Day of Humiliation and Prayer without setting a specific date. Advent and Lent are gen. observed as penitential seasons. See also Hallelujah.
Procedure in the early ch. by which one guilty of wrongdoing was subjected to punishment intended to restore him to membership, usually by a series of steps: (1) Prosklausis (Gk.), or fletus (Lat.); both terms refer to weeping. Penitents (cheimazomenoi [Gk.], or hiemantes [Lat.], troubled, distressed, or lugentes [Lat.], mourning), in mourning, admitted only to the ch. vestibule, wept and requested prayers of the assembling cong.; usually 1 yr. (2) Akroasis (Gk.), or auditio (Lat.); both terms refer to hearing. Penitents admitted into ch. for Bible readings and sermon, but restricted to the background, near the entrance; constrained to leave before missa* fidelium; usually 3 yrs. (3) Hypoptosis (Gk.), or genuflexio or substratio (Lat.); reference is to gestures of humble obedience and respect. Penitents admitted farther into the ch. to kneel at prayer and receive special assignments, e.g., burial of the dead in times of pestilence; time indeterminate. (4) Systasis (Gk.), or consistentia (Lat.), lit. a standing together. Penitents permitted to stand with the cong. to the end of the service; time indeterminate. At the end of this step full membership, including admission to Communion, was restored in a special ceremony by the bp. Advancement from step to step was usually in Lent, restoration to membership usually on Maundy Thursday See also Discipline, Church; Genuflectentes.
(16441718). B. Tower Hill, London, Eng.; studied at Oxford, where he was dismissed 1661 for refusal to conform to Anglicanism; Quaker; anti-Trinitarian; imprisoned for nonconformity 1667, 1669, 1670; received grant of lands now constituting Delaware and Pennsylvania in satisfaction of his father's claims against the king; in Am. 168284, 16991701; made the colony a refuge for Quakers and others in search of liberty of conscience; developed good relations with Indians. See also Friends, Society of.
(Cen. Pennsylvania Syn.). See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23.
(East Pennsylvania Syn.). See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23.
(West Pennsylvania Syn.). See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22, 23.
(Penri; Ap-Henry; 155993). B. Brecknockshire, Wales; educ. Cambridge and Oxford; Puritan; fled to Scot. 1590 under suspicion of having written the Marprelate* tracts; to Eng. 1592; Brownist (see United Church of Christ, I A 1); hanged on charge of treason.
System in which a minister and/or those who employ him pay a percentage of the minister's salary into a fund that provides income for him when he retires.
Organized ca. 1914 in midwest US; practice baptism in the name of Jesus; other requirements for membership include baptism of the Holy Ghost evidenced by speaking in tongues as the Spirit gives utterance; similar to Meths. in organization. HQ Indianapolis, Indiana See also Pentecostalism.
Organized 1918 Nicholson, Georgia; consolidated ca. 1919/20 with Pent. Free Will Baps. Stresses sanctification as a 2d work of grace subsequent to regeneration and baptism by the Holy Spirit evidenced by speaking in tongues. See also Pentecostalism.
Est. 1855 as Cape Fear Conf. of Free Will Baps.; reorganized 1959 by 3 Free Will Bap. conferences in North Carolina Other Free Will Bap. Chs. that had embraced Pentecostalism in the 1st half of the 20th c., but had remained indep., joined the movement. See also Pentecostalism.
Modern Pentecostalism in the US and Can. drew most of its first strength from the revivalism of the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th c. (see Latter Rain Movement). It spread through Tennessee, North Carolina, Minnesota, New Eng., Ohio, Kansas, California, other states, and elsewhere in the world, e.g., Swed., Switz., Fr., Eng., Fin. Pentecostalists believe that speaking in tongues, the gift of healing, and prophecy are normal for every truly converted believer. Meetings of spirit-baptized Pentecostals also include testifying and other features said to be evidence of the Holy Spirit's immediate presence. The psychological phenomena of Pentecostalism resemble the ecstatic experiences of Montanism* and the Camisards,* the tongues movement under E. Irving,* and features of revivals in Kentucky (see Presbyterian Churches, 4 b) and under leadership of G. Whitefield.* The theol. of modern Pentecostalism is a fusion of the Bap. inner light theory and Arminian perfectionism.* Pentecostals usually claim to proclaim the Full Gospel or Foursquare* Gospel (terms often imbedded in names of their chs.), referring to special emphasis on conversion, entire sanctification, divine healing,* and the premillennial coming of Christ (see Millennialism). Their preaching centers in the necessity of being baptized with the Holy Spirit; some classify their membership as converted, saved, and Spirit-baptized. Typical Pent. beliefs: that Jesus Christ shed His blood for the remission of sins that are past, for the regeneration of penitent sinners, and for salvation from sin and sinning; the Scriptural doctrine of justification by faith alone; that Jesus Christ shed His blood for the complete cleansing of the justified believer from all indwelling sin and from its pollution, subsequent to regeneration; that entire sanctification is an instantaneous, definite 2d work of grace, obtainable by faith on the part of the fully justified believer; that the Pentecostal baptism of the Holy Spirit and fire is obtainable by a definite act of appropriating faith on the part of the fully cleansed believer, and that the 1st evidence of the reception of this experience is speaking with other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance. Pent. groups include The Church* of God in Christ; The Church* of God in Christ, Internat.; Internat. Ch. of the Foursquare* Gospel; International* Pent. Assemblies; Pentecostal* Assemblies of the World, Inc.; Pentecostal* Ch. of God; Pentecostal* Fire-Baptized Holiness Ch.; The Pentecostal* Free Will Bap. Ch., Inc.; Pent. Holiness Ch., Internat. (see Holiness Churches, 2); United* Pent. Ch. Internat. See also Full Gospel Assemblies, International; International Pentecostal Church of Christ; Neo-Pentecostalism. FEM
Philanthropic educ. organization formed 1869 by 7 coll. girls to be a campus sorority; no longer maintains campus chaps.; has become a women's community group interested primarily in bringing to women greatly increased opportunities for higher education. To this end the P. E. O. Sisterhood maintains Cottey Coll., Nevada, Missouri, a jr. coll. of liberal arts est. 1884. The Sisterhood has a religious framework and an optional funeral service which implies that every mem. passes through the sunset gates into the Great Beyond and there sparkles as a star new-set in heaven.
(Pépin le Bref; ca. 714768). Son of Charles* Martel; father of Charlemagne*; king of the Franks 751768; called Pepin III as king of Ger.; with papal blessing he deposed the last of the Merovingian kings 751 and founded the Carolingian dynasty; in return, he conquered the Lombards and by the Donation of Pepin, he gave the pope sovereignty over the exarchate of Ravenna. See also Papacy, 3.
1. Under this term is understood the doctrine acc. to which freedom from sin is possible in this life. That such perfection is attainable was claimed by Franciscans, Jesuits, and Molinists, largely on basis of distinguishing bet. mortal and venial sin; Dominicans and Jansenists denied the claim.
2. Perfectionism was denied by M. Luther* and J. Calvin.* But Christian perfection of sanctification is part of Meth. doctrine. J. Wesley* based his view mainly on commandments and promises of Scripture concerning sanctification, but said he held neither an angelic nor an Adamic perfection but one which does not exclude ignorance and error of judgment, with consequent wrong affections; i. e., not perfection acc. to the absolute Moral Law, but acc. to the special remedial economy introd. by the atonement,* in which the sanctified heart fulfills the Law by love; its involuntary imperfections are provided for, by that economy, without the imputation of guilt, as in the case of infancy and irresponsible persons.
3. Wesley was influenced by Jeremy Taylor,* Thomas* à Kempis, and W. Law.* Perfectionism is found also in other writers, RC and Prot. The Soc. of Friends* holds a perfectionism that still admits of growth and leaves room for possible sin where the mind doth not most diligently and watchfully attend unto the Lord (The Confession of the Soc. of Friends, 1675, 8th Proposition).
4. Oberlin* theol. held that as virtue and sin belong only to voluntary action, and are contradictory in their nature, they cannot coexist in the soul; the soul is either wholly consecrated to Christ or has none of His Spirit; the 2 states may alternate: a man may be a Christian at one moment and a sinner the next, but he cannot be at any one moment a sinful or imperfect Christian.
5. A holiness movement developed in the US in the latter part of the 19th c. in reaction against the wave of immorality and spiritual indifference that followed the Civil War. See also Holiness Churches.
6. Perfectionism implies (a) that Jesus can keep from sin those who trust in Him; (b) that if one trusts Him completely he will be preserved from all deliberate sin; and (c) that unintentional wrong-doings will be regarded as error rather than sin. Some claim to have so lived in the presence of Christ as to have been unconscious of sin for weeks and months. But most who hold perfectionism admit more frequent failures. Opponents of perfectionism hold that it rests (a) on misinterpretation of the Bible regarding sanctification and justification; (b) on defective ethical standards; (c) on antinomianism (see Antinomian Controversy). Cf. Mt 26:41; 1 Ptr 5:8; 1 Jn 1:8.
See also Victorious Life.
W. E. Sangster, The Path to Perfection (New York, 1943); R. N. Flew, The Idea of Perfection in Christian Theology (London, 1934); H. G. A. Lindström, Wesley and Sanctification (Stockholm, 1946); L. G. Cox, John Wesley's Concept of Perfection (Kansas City, Missouri, 1964).
(Gk. a surrounding). Theol. term for the union, communion, and interpenetration (1) of the 3 Persons of the Trinity,* (2) of the 2 natures of Christ (see Christ Jesus, I C), (2) of the 2 natures of Christ. The word was first used as a technical term for both (1) and (2) by John* of Damascus (e.g., Expositio accurata fidei orthodoxae, I, viii; IV, xviii).
2. The oldest known pericopal system of the W ch. is ascribed to Jerome.* It was variously modified till ca. the time of Charlemagne,* when the selections became standardized. But further changes occurred in course of time, e.g., when RCm introd. Corpus* Christi in the 13th c. on the Thursday after Trin. and the festival of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in the 18th c. on the Friday after the octave of Corpus Christi; this resulted in the hist. gospel pericope being read in Luth. and Angl. chs. 1 week ahead of the RC pattern, though the epistle pericopes are usually the same. More modern times have seen the appearance of many more pericopal systems, e.g., those of Eisenach, Württemberg, Nassau, Thomasius,* K. I. Nitzsch,* and the Synodical* Conf. See also Lectionary.
(15581602). Puritan theol.; b. Marston Jabber, Warwickshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; emphasized Biblicism, conscience, rebirth. casuistry. Works include Armilla Aurea; Reformed Catholike; An Exposition of the Lord's Prayer; An Exposition of the Symbol or Creed of the Apostles. See also Ames, William.
(17941876). B. Chieri, near Turin, It.; Jesuit 1815; prof. dogmatic theol. Collegio Romano, Rome, 182430, 183448; coll. rector Ferrara 183034; taught theol. at the Jesuit school Benhart, Wales, 184851; returned to Collegio Romano. Neoscholastic leader; helped formulate doctrine of Immaculate* Conception. Works include Praelectiones theologicae.
(172692). B. Sundridge, Kent. Eng., of Fr. parents; brought up Angl.; joined Meths. by 1746 and became an itinerant preacher; sided with the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion (see Hastings, Salina) against the Wesleys; left the Connexion and became pastor of an indep. ch. Canterbury; hymnist. Hymns include All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name.
1. Persecution, or infliction of penalties for deviation from an acknowledged standard of religious belief, is an invasion of man's original rights that are his as an individual personally accountable to God. Wrong in principle, it is foolish as a policy. M. Luther*: We neither should nor can force anyone to faith (WA 30 II, 400). Persecution is rooted in mistaken religious zeal, ignorant fanaticism, the natural malice of the human heart, and sometimes also in the idea that uniformity in religion is essential to the welfare of the state. Constantine* I, who agreed with Licinius* in granting equal toleration to all religions, banished Arius (see Arianism) and Athanasius.* Theodosius* I made certain religious deviations capital crimes. Priscillian and 6 supporters were executed at Trier 385 (see Priscillianists).
2. Jerome* (appealing to Dt 13:610) and Augustine* of Hippo (appealing to Lk 14:23) advocated physical measures against errorists and heretics. Leo I (see Popes, 2) approved the execution of the Priscillianists (Epistola xv ad Turribium) and advocated the death penalty for heresy, as did Thomas* Aquinas (Summa Theologiae, II, ii, q. xi, art. 3). The 33d of 41 alleged heresies of M. Luther condemned by Leo X (see Popes, 20) was that it is against the will of the Spirit to burn heretics.
Persecution was practically inevitable for early Christianity because of the sharp antithesis bet. it and the Roman empire. Christianity was spiritual, worshiped the King of kings, and looked for the ultimate triumph of His kingdom; the Roman empire was carnal, worshiped the emp., and made the welfare of his realm their goal. As a result, Christians came under suspicion and were charged with treason, atheism, etc. Pub. calamities (e.g., floods, earthquakes) were regarded as signs of divine wrath against them. Heathen priests, artisans, and tradesmen, whose living depended on maintaining the traditional faith, stirred up the masses against them. Extreme charges included incest and cannibalism, based on warped reports of love feasts (see Agape, 2) and Communion.
2. At first, indeed, Christianity was only regarded as a sect of Judaism (cf. Acts 18:1217). But when it became clear that it was not anchored to Jerusalem but was a community knit by distinctive beliefs and practices, it was regarded as a menace and proscribed. This change of imperial policy probably occurred under the Flavian emps. 6996 (Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus [see Vespasian], emp. 6979; Titus* Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, emp. 7981; Titus Flavius Domitianus Augustus [see Domitian], emp. 8196).
3. Orosius* popularized the concept of 10 persecutions, but their numbering and identification are not altogether simple. They may be listed as under (1) Nero*; (2) Domitian*; (3) Trajan*; (4) Marcus* Aurelius; (5) Lucius Septimius Severus*; (6) G. J. V. Maximinus*; (7) Decius*; (8) Valerian*; (9) Aurelian*; (10) Diocletian* and successors to 313.
The persecution under Nero 64 did not result from est. imperial policy. Nero, suspected of burning Rome, apparently used Christians as scapegoats. C. Tacitus* describes the scene: A vast multitude was convicted, not so much of arson as of hatred of the human race. And they were not only put to death, but subjected to insults, in that they were either dressed up in the skins of wild beasts and perished by the cruel mangling of dogs, or else put on crosses to be set on fire, and, as day declined, to be burned, being used as lights by night.
In the persecution under Domitian 96, who called himself Lord and God, many were executed on charge of atheism.
In the persecution under Trajan 112113, which extended over Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine, Christians were not to be sought out, but if accused and convicted they were to be punished. Ignatius of Antioch (see Apostolic Fathers, 2) died in this persecution. Polycarp (see Apostolic Fathers, 3) suffered martyrdom ca. 156 under the reign of Antoninus Pius, but at the hands of the people rather than by will of the authorities.
G. J. V. Maximinus reversed the policy of his immediate predecessor, Alexander Severus, who was apparently well disposed toward Christians. Legends assign the martyrdom of Ursula* to persecution under Maximinus ca. 235.
Martyrs in the persecution under Valerian 257 include Cyprian* of Antioch.
The edict of persecution issued by Aurelian ca. 274 was voided by his assassination.
The persecution 303313 under Diocletian and his successors Galerius* and Galerius Valerius Maximinus* was most violent. Goaded by Galerius, Diocletian issued 3 edicts against Christians 303; Maximian (subordinate coregent; suicide 310) added a 4th 304. Christian chs. were to be destroyed, all Bibles burned, all Christians deprived of pub. office and civil rights, and all were to sacrifice to the gods on pain of death. A 5th edict 308 required all provisions in markets to be sprinkled with sacrificial wine. Eusebius* of Caesarea: Large crowds [were executed] in one day, some suffering decapitation, others tortured by fire, so that the murderous sword was blunted, and becoming weak, was broken, and the very executioners grew weary and relieved each other (HE, VIII, ix, 4). Martyrs assigned by hist. or legend to this persecution include Agnes,* Alban,* Januarius,* Pamphilus* of Caesarea, Peter* of Alexandria, and Phileas.*
The Edict of Milan* granted equal toleration to all religions 313.
Personalism is the philosophic view which holds that person is the ontological ultimate and personality the basic explanatory principle. Personalism in the generic sense connotes all data of self-conscious life. Acc. to this view. characteristic personal values and experiences are the final tests of truth and reality; in the metaphysics of personalistic psychology, conscious personality is the ultimate nature of all reality. Religious personalism regards the real framework of reality as spiritual and makes the active, living God both the immanent reason and the power of the life of the world and all beings in the world. One might perhaps harmonize this with Acts 17:28. See also Bowne, Borden Parker.
Five arts. (requiring kneeling at Communion, observance of Christmas and Easter, confirmation, Communion at home for the dying, baptism on Sunday after birth), forced on the ch. in Scot. at Perth 1618 by James* I.
(17721843). B. Rudolstadt, Ger.; apprentice at ca. 15 to a Leipzig bookseller; to a similar position Hamburg 1793; est. his own bookshop Hamburg 1796, later expanded it to a pub. house; founded nat. museum Hamburg 1810; to Gotha 1822, where he specialized in pub. hist. and theol. works.
Philos. view that regards this world the worst possible and man's lot hopeless; evil triumphs, good is defeated. Pessimism is found, e.g., Ec 1:2, 14; 3:19; 11:8; 12:8; in the Gk. poet Hesiod (perhaps ca. 8th7th c. BC); in A. Schopenhauer,* who tried to expound pessimism philosophically.
(17461827). Educ. reformer; b. Zurich, Switz.; studied theol. and law; est. a school for poor children ca. 1774/75 on his estate Neuhof, near Brugg, Aargau canton; it failed ca. 1779/80; conducted a school for orphans at Stans, Nidwalden, 179899; helped develop a school at Burgdorf 17991804; connected with a school at Münchenbuchsee 1804, which was moved to Yverdon 1805, where he taught till 1825. Engaged in educ. experiments and investigation; tried to psychologize educ.; held that all proper educ. processes start from nature, i. e., a child's own interests and activities; educ. must be essentially religious, develop man as a whole, stimulate and guide self-activity, and be based on Anschauung (intuition; perception; cognition; internalized apperception) and exercise. Works include Lienhard und Gertrud.
(perhaps as late as 406 [or as early as 380?]ca. 450). B. Forum Cornelii, near Imola, It.; bp. Ravenna perhaps ca. 431; famed as orator (hence Gk. Chrysologos, golden-worded); opposed Monophysitism.
MPL, 52, 9680.
(ca. 1580/811654). Apostle of Cartagena; Apostle of the Negroes; b. Verdu, Catalonia, Sp.; desired to convert heathen in the New World; to Cartagena (in what is now Colombia) 1610; worked among slaves brought from W Afr.: priest 1615/16.
(Petrus; ca. 1100ca. 1179/80). B. Troyes, Fr.; chancellor cathedral school Paris 116468. Works include Historia scholastica (hist. from creation to the end of Acts); sermons; commentaries; doctrinal treatises.
MPL, 198, 10451844.
(Pietro Martire Vermigli; 150062). B. Florence, It.; Augustinian at ca. 16; abbot Spoleto 1530; prior Naples 1533; championed Calvinism; prof. Oxford, Strasbourg, Zurich. Works include Tractatio de sacramento Eucharistiae and Disputatio de eodem Eucharistiae sacramento. See also Anglican Confessions, 5.
(Garavito; 14991562). B. Alcántara, Estremadura, Sp.; Franciscan; priest 1524; provincial of province of St. Gabriel 153841; retired to hermitage near Lisbon, Port.; returned to Sp.; founded Alcantarines (Sp. Discalced Franciscans). Works include Tratado de la oración y meditación.
(d. 311). Head of school of Alexandria; bp. Alexandria 300311; advocated mild treatment of lapsi*; when he went into hiding under persecution 306, Meletius of Lycopolis claimed his position (see also Meletian Schisms, 1); beheaded in persecution under Galerius Valerius Maximinus.* See also Persecution of Christians, 4.
MPG, 18, 449522.
MPG, 86, 332136.
(pence is a pl. of penny). Tax formerly paid in Eng. to the pope; originated in the 8th c.; extended to Scand. countries; attempts to introduce it in other countries were not successful; abolished in Eng. 1534; gen. abandoned as a result of the Reformation. Revived 1860 as a freewill offering to compensate for loss of income from states* of the ch.
(Petrus Lombardus; ca. 1100ca. 1160/64). Magister sententiarum; Scholastic (see Scholasticism); b. near Novara, Lombardy, It.; taught at Paris ca. 1139; bp. Paris 1159; helped blend mysticism and scholasticism. Works include Sententiarum libri quatuor, a collection of doctrinal statements of the fathers, with contradictions resolved dialectically; long used as a textbook. See also Sentences.
(Peter of Montboissier; ca. 1092 to 1156). B. Auvergne, Fr.; monk at Cluny 1109; abbot Cluny 1122; friend of Bernard* of Clairvaux; gave shelter to P. Abelard*; preferred literal sense of Scripture, avoiding allegorical speculation. Works include writings against Jews and Saracens.
MPL, 189, 91072.
(Francesco Petrarca; originally Petracco; 130474). Poet.; humanist; b. Arezzo, It.; studied at Montpellier and Bologna; traveled extensively; devoted himself to study of classics. Works include De contemptu mundi; De otio religiosorum; De vera sapientia.
(180373). Luth. theol.; b. Lüthorst, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; pastor Hanover 1829; opposed rationalism and the Prussian* Union; with A. F. O. Münchmeyer* and R. Steinmetz* founded Gotteskasten.*
(Olavus; ca. 14931552). Brother of L. Petri*; b. Örebro, Swed.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; promoted the Reformation in Swed. after 1520; imperial chancellor 153133; fell into disfavor and was condemned to die, but was pardoned; pastor Stockholm 154352; hymnist. Helped tr. the Bible into Swed. Other works include a minister's manual; catechism; postil.
(18531942). Egyptologist; b. Charlton, Kent, Eng.; prof. Egyptology, Univ. Coll., London, 18921933; founded Brit. School of Archaeology in Egypt 1894; excavated in Palestine 192738. Excavation sites include Abydos, Am, Daphne, Hawara, Kahun, Medum, Memphis, Nagada, Naucratis, Tanis, Tarkhan, Thebes, Lachish, Tell el-Amarna, and Tell el-Hesi. Works include Methods & Aims in Archaeology; Seventy Years in Archaeology. See also Geography, Christian, 6.
(early 5th c.). Said to have made a pilgrimage to Palestine in early life; bp. Bologna, It., ca. 432; built a ch. in Bologna modeled after structures in Jerusalem; a ch. begun 1390, finished in the 17th c., was named in his honor.
(18831959). Hist.; b. S. Giovanni Persiceto, Bologna, It.; prof. Bologna 1914, Rome 192458; chm. Internat. Assoc. for the Study of the Hist. of Religions 195059. Contributed esp. to phenomenology of religion.
(ca. 161474). Poet; parish priest Saurbaer, Iceland. Works include 50 Passion hymns (collection known as Passiusalmar, one of the greatest literary works in Icelandic). SP
(15251602). Son-in-law of P. Melanchthon*; b. Bautzen, Ger.; studied math and medicine Wittenberg; prof. Wittenberg 1554; gen. supt. Lat. schools; physician to elector August* of Saxony; furthered Crypro-Calvinism (see Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy); arrested 1574; imprisoned; released 1586; physician and councillor Dessau.
(15391604). B. Plauen, Ger.; educ. Jena and Wittenberg; prof. 1567, preacher 1569 Wittenberg; banished 1576 for Crypto-Calvinism; teacher Siegen, then preacher Dillenburg 1577; openly accepted Calvinism; pastor Herborn 1578; to Bremen 1581. Works include Argumenta et objectiones de praecipuis articulis doctrinae Christianae: catechisms of Bremen and Wittenberg.
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