In Biblical criticism the letter P is the symbol for one of the alleged sources of the Pentateuch. See also Higher Criticism, 613.
(17561844). B. Benevento, Campania, S It.; nuncio to Cologne 1785, Lisbon 17941801; cardinal 1801; led RC opposition against Napoleon* I; imprisoned by French from July 1809 to 1813; worked effectively for restoration of the Society* of Jesus.
(1760 [1773?]1810 or later). B. Valsugana, near Trent, NE It. lacked formal educ.; ambitious of power; merchant; soldier; turned to RC interests; founded Paccanarists* 1797; priest 1800; disinclined to restore Society* of Jesus; imprisoned 1808; released 1809; imprisoned 1810; no further record of his life.
(Bachelbel; Pachelbell; 16531706). Luth. composer; organist; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; held many important positions; one of J. S. Bach's* early models. Works include cantatas (Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan; Christ lag in Todesbanden; chorale fugues and preludes; Magnificat Fugues. See also Schwemmer, Heinrich; Toccata.
(ca. 310ca. 391). B. Sp.; bp. Barcelona perhaps ca. 350/360. Works include De Baptismo; Paraenesis sive exhortatorius libellus; Contra Novatianos (3 letters, the 1st of which contains the phrase Christianus mihi nomen est, catholicus vero cognomen (My name is Christian, but my surname Catholic).
MPL, 13, 105194.
Berkeley, California See Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, X R; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 20, 21.
A. term coined apparently ca. 1905 in reference to attempts to settle internat. disputes by peaceful means; in wider definition it has more gen. reference to use of peaceful means rather than violence. Reasons for pacifism are usually given as either religious (e.g., Mt. 26:52) or humanitarian. Oriental philosophies contain elements of pacifism. See also Buddhism; Gandhi, Mohondas Karamchand; Confucianism; Taoism.
B. Pacifism seems to have been the accepted view in the early ch. Some early fathers opposed military service (e.g., Tertullian, On Idolatry, or De Idololatria, xix, and The Chaplet, or De Corona, xi; Lactantius, The Divine Institutes, or Divinae Institutiones, VI, xx).
After Christianity was given legal standing and imperial support (see Constantine I), Christians helped keep peace in the empire. Augustine* of Hippo (e.g., The City of God, or De civitate dei, XIX, vii) spoke of just wars. Waldenses* first condemned war, finally fought in self-defense. Bohemian* Brethren first opposed, later permitted military service. Pacifism also played a part in the hist. of Dunkers (see Brethren), Dukhobors (see Russian Sects), the Soc. of Friends,* Shakers,* et al.
The 1st peace soc. was organized August 1815 NYC; others soon followed in Am., including the Ohio Peace Soc., Massachusetts Peace Soc., Am. Peace Soc., and others, till ca. the 1850s, in Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and some toward the interior of the country. In Gt. Brit. a similar movement ran parallel, beginning ca. the same time; ca. 1867 it spread to the Continent, later to Norw., Jap., S. Am., and elsewhere. Interrupted by the Civil War, the peace movement began anew in Am. with the organization of the Universal Peace Union 1866. After interruption by WW I, pacifism reemerged with renewed vigor. In WW II pacifists were silenced or liquidated in Ger. and Russ. In Eng. and Am. they were recognized and, if possible, assigned to civilian work or noncombatant service in the armed forces; some were imprisoned for refusal to perform any service.
See also Adventist Bodies, 3.
A. L. Huxley, Science, Liberty, and Peace (New York, 1946); R. M. Jones, The Church, the Gospel, and War (New York, 1948); C. C. Morrison, The Christian and the War (Chicago, 1942); R. H. Bainton, Christian Attitudes Toward War and Peace (Nashville, Tenn., 1960); G. H. C. Macgregor, The New Testament Basis of Pacifism (new and rev. ed. 1954) and The Relevance of an Impossible Ideal (1941), both reprinted together in I vol. (Nyack New York, 1960).
(ca. 14801537). Ger. conspirator; studied at Leipzig; counselor and vice-chancellor of George* the Bearded, duke of Albertine Saxony; early in 1528 he informed Philip* of Hesse (some think with Philip's own connivance) of an alleged plot by George the Bearded, Joachim I of Brandenburg (see Joachim, 1), and other RC leaders, secular and religious, to conquer Hung. and then suppress the Reformation in Ger. In response to the alleged impending attack, Philip of Hesse made an alliance with John* the Constant, elector of Saxony, March 1528 with a view to defense and possible preemptive measures. But on the advice of M. Luther, P. Melanchthon, and J. Bugenhagen, the defensive (or preventive) attack was largely deferred and, instead, the RC leaders accused of the plot were confronted to explain the information that Pack had supplied. The plot was denied; the papers were called forgeries. Under examination in Kassel, Pack maintained that he had transmitted genuine documents bearing official seals; but then he fled, was apprehended in the Neth., admitted forgery under torture and was executed. Neither Luther nor Philip were convinced that the documents were forged. Philip and John came out ahead on balance by securing repayment of armament costs from the Frankish bishoprics (Bamberg and Würzburg) and surrender of jurisdiction over Hesse and Saxony by Mainz. Resultant distrust of Prots. by RCs helped consolidate the latter's position at the 1529 Diet of Speyer.*
(from Lat. paganus, of the country, from pagus, country; village; district). 1. Since Christianity first came to cities of the Roman empire, those who lived in the country adhered longer to non-Christian religions; hence the assoc. of the word pagan with the concept of unbelief; related to heathen meaning one living on the heath, the uncultivated land, e.g., a savage or unbeliever. 2. One with little or no religion.
See also Heathenism.
(18511911). Angl. theol.; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; regius prof. pastoral theol. Oxford and canon Christ Ch. 188592; dean Christ Ch. 18921901; bp. Oxford 190111. Contributed to Lux* mundi; other works include The Spirit of Discipline.
(150563). 1st Baron Paget of Beaudesert; Eng. statesman; one of Henry* VIII's chief advisers; comptroller of king's household on accession of Edward VI (see England, B 4); imprisoned 1551 on charges of conspiracy; restored to privy council by Mary* I 1553; lord privy seal 155658.
(162499). RC ch. hist.; b. Rognes, Provence, Fr.; Franciscan. Works include Critica historico-chronologica in universes annales ecclesiasticos eminentissimi & reverendissimi Caesaris Cardinalis Baronii.
(Pagnini; Pagnino; Sanctes; Xantes; 14701541). B. Lucca, Tuscany, It.; Dominican; Hebraist. His tr. of the Bible into Lat. was used by M. Coverdale* in preparing the Great Bible (see Bible Versions, L 5); other works include a Heb. lexicon.
Far East temple, memorial, or similar structure.
(18391906). Composer; organist; b. Portland, Maine; prof. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 18751906 (the 1st prof. music in any Am. university). Works include cantatas (e.g., The Nativity); St. Peter (oratorio).
(17371809). Pol. philos., and writer; freethinker*; inventor of an iron bridge; b. Thetford, Norfolk, Eng.; to Am. 1774; took part in Am. Revolution; to Eur. 1787; involved in Fr. Revolution (see France, 5); returned to Am. 1802. Foe of Christianity. Pioneer opponent of slavery; agitator for emancipation of women. Works include The Rights of Man; The Age of Reason; Crisis (which begins: These are the times that try men's souls. See also Deism, V.
(162685). Ref. theol.; b. Romorantin, Loir-et-Cher, Fr.; influenced by M. Amyraut* and J. Cameron*; influenced by occasionalism* in his explanation of conversion and by deism* in his view of double* predestination; founded theol., system called Pajonism; some followers became RC, others Socinian (see Socinianism); influenced G. W. v. Leibniz* and F. D. E. Schleiermacher.*
(Antonio della Paglia, or degli [or dei] Pagliaricci; Aonius Palearius; ca. 150370). Humanist; reformer; b. Veroli, Latium, It.; thrice accused of heresy, one of the last charges being that he taught justification by faith alone; he seems to have weakened under pressure for a time; died a martyr.
The Holy Land (Zch 2:12) of Hebrews and Christians. The name is ultimately derived from Philistine. Geog. boundaries have varied but have always included the region (ca. 140 mi. long, ca. 30ca. 70 mi. wide) bet. the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan R. and bordering SW on Egypt. Longitudinal sections in this area: (1) coastal plain; (2) mountains intersected by the Plain of Esdraelon (sometimes called valley of Jezreel) immediately N of Carmel; (3) Jordan valley, from the Anti-Liban mountains S through the Waters of Merom and the Sea of Galilee (or Lake of Gennesaret) to the N end of the Dead Sea. See also Middle East, F; Zionism.
(1525/2694). Composer; b. Palestrina (ancient Praeneste), Roma prov., Latium, cen. Italy. Maestro di cappella, Capella Giulia, Rome, 1551; St. John Lateran 155561; Santa Maria Maggiore 1561. Composer to papal chapel 1565; master of music Cappella Giulia 1571. Works include masses, hymns, motets, litanies, magnificats. See also Offertory. WEB
P. H. Lang, Music in Western Civilization (New York, 1941); H. Leichtentritt, Music, History, and Ideas (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1938); The New Oxford History of Music, IV: The Age of Humanism 15401630, ed. G, Abraham (London, 1968); Z. K. Pyne, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, His Life and Times (London, 1922).
(17431805). Angl. theol.; utilitarian philos.; apologist; b. Peterborough, Northamptonshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; ordained 1767; archdeacon Carlisle 1782; prebendary St. Paul's 1794; subdeacon Lincoln 1795; rector Bishop's Wearmouth (on S side of Wear R., now part of Sunderland) 1795. Opposed deism*; defended the reliability of the NT; supported the teleological argument for the existence of God. Works include The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy; A View of the Evidences of Christianity; Horae Paulinae; Natural Theology.
1. White cloth, usually linen, enclosing a thin substance (e.g., cardboard), usually 6 to 9 in. square; used in Communion services to cover the chalice* before and after Communion or to cover the paten* if the latter is put on the chalice. See also Corporal.
2. Heavy cloth, often velvet (black, purple, or white), draped over a coffin or bier, tomb, or hearse; hence, figuratively, a coffin; formerly pallbearers held up the corners of the cloth; now those who carry the coffin are called pallbearers.
(ca. 363/365425). Probably b. Galatia, N cen. Asia Minor; influenced by Evagrius* Ponticus; monk in Jerusalem; monk in Egypt ca. 388; returned to Palestine ca. 399; bp. Helenopolis, Bithynia (in NW Asia Minor), 400; friend of J. Chrysostom*; accused of Origenism (see Origen) by Jerome* and Epiphanius*; banished ca. 406; returned to Asia Minor ca. 412; bp. Aspuna, Galatia, ca. 417. Works include a hist. of early monasticism.
MPG, 34, 9911262.
(Pallottini Fathers; Societas Apostolatus Catholici). Founded 1835 by Vincent Pallotti (17951850; b. Rome, It.); name changed 1854 to Pia Societas Missionum; original name restored 1947. Original aims resemble those of Catholic* Action. One special interest: return of Oriental Christians to the RC Ch.
(181175). B. Winnenden, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Schönt(h)al (Jagstkreis, near Künzelsau), Württemberg, and Tübingen; held various positions, esp. important at Tübingen and Marburg. Prof. Tübingen 1852; rector 1857. Works include writings on homiletics, catechetics, pedagogy, hymnology, and pastoral theol.
(180887). Cong. cleric; hymnist; b. Little Compton, Rhode Island; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut Hymns include Come, Jesus, from the Sapphire Throne; My Faith Looks Up to Thee; Thou Who Roll'st the Year Around.
(180385). Angl. theol.; b. Dublin, Eire; fellow Worcester Coll., Oxford, 1831; adherent of Oxford* Movement but expressed misgivings when it became less anti-Roman. Works include Origines liturgicae; A Treatise on the Church of Christ.
(181179). B. Mixbury, Oxford-shire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; High Churchman (see High Church) but not very active in Oxford* Movement; traveled repeatedly to Russ., Athens, and Constantinople in the interest of closer relations bet. the Angl. and E& Orthodox chs.; opposed the plan for an Anglo-Luth. bishopric in Jerusalem. Works include Dissertations on Subjects Relating to the Orthodox or Eastern Catholic Communion.
Sunday before Easter; introd. Holy Week. The name is derived from the Gospel for the day (Mt 21:19) and in RCm is assoc., since the 6th c. with blessing the palms. Since 1955 RCm uses also the original Roman name, 2d Sunday of the Passion. The custom of the procession of the palms originated early (at least by the 4th c.) in Jerusalem. See also Church Year, 4, 8, 14, 16; Feast of Asses.
(Genser? Zenser? Jeuser? ca. 14451511). Perhaps b. Pfalzel, near Trier, Ger.; studied at Erfurt; Augustinian monk; prof. theol. Erfurt 1483; active in reforming Augustinians; emphasized cross of Christ, Eucharist, Bible reading; teacher of M. Luther* 1505/06. Works include Coelifodina (in defense of indulgences).
(Friedrich instead of Ferdinand? August 11, 18451926). B. Crivitz (or Krakow?), Mecklenburg, Ger.; educ. Rostock and Berlin; ordained Rudolstadt 1877; miss. to India for the Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss. 1877. At Tranquebar 187880, Tanjore 188084; instructor at Leipzig Miss. Sem., India, since 1885; head of Leipzig Miss. in India provisionally 1887, definitively 1893; returned to Ger. 1920.
(ca. 240ca. 309). B. Berytus (modern Beirut, Lebanon); studied at Alexandria, Egypt, under Pierius*; presbyter Caesarea, Palestine, ca. 290; martyr. See also Schools, Early Christian, 3; Persecution of Christians, 4.
In the E Orthodox Ch., ceremonies directly and collectively concerning the edification of the whole cong.: Evensong (Esperinos, Vespers), Matins (Orthros), the Hours, the Compline (Apodeipnon), the Chairetismoi or Salutations, the Coming of the Bridegroom (the Vigils of Passion Week), and the Divine Service.
(Gk. all holy). E Orthodox term for (1) Mary; (2) case enclosing an image of Mary and worn on the breast by bps. (see also Encolpion); (3) bread blessed in honor of Mary, esp. at the 1st morning meal.
(d. perhaps ca. 190/200 AD). Christian philos.; b. perhaps Sicily, Athens, or Alexandria; convert from Stoicism*; head of catechetical school at Alexandria ca. 180 (see Schools, Early Christian, 1); taught Clement* of Alexandria; said to have been a miss. to India (probably S Arabia). EK
(from Gk. panteleemon, all-merciful). Legendary martyr; known for having helped the poor and forsaken; said to have been beheaded under Diocletian (see Persecution of Christians, 4) as physician of Galerius (or Maximian?).
1. Monistic religious and philos. view that God and the universe are one; denies the personality of God; ascribes to Him only an immanent existence in the universe and identifies Him with it.
One kind of pantheism, pancosmism, holds that God is merged in the universe; it emphasizes nature and its unity, almost loses sight of God, hence approaches atheism.* Another kind, acosmism, holds that the universe is merged in God. There is little practical difference bet. the 2 kinds; both are aspects of the same thing.
2. The concept of pantheism is older than the term. The word pantheist was apparently coined 1705 by J. Toland.* Pantheism is the fundamental doctrine of much ancient philos. (see e.g., Hinduism, 2). True pantheistic ideas are rare in medieval literature. In modern times the pantheism of B. Spinoza* influenced J. G. Fichte,* J. W. v. Goethe,* G. W. F. Hegel,* J. G. v. Herder,* G. E. Lessing,* F. W. J. v. Schelling,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* et al.
3. Pantheism has occurred among Eng. and Am. thinkers only in a veiled or partial form. RCm has found pantheistic leanings linked more with mysticism than doctrine and has always opposed the basic notions of pantheism; pope and council have formally condemned pantheism repeatedly since 1861.
4. Besides destroying the personality of God and reducing Him to a lower object of worship, pantheism destroys the personality of man, who becomes merely a part of the Whole. Individual responsibility and the moral world order are destroyed. Pantheism does not explain the existence of evil. Christ's redemptive work becomes an illusion.
See also Monism.
1. Beginnings of the papacy are obscure; growth was gradual.
2. The ch. at Rome, the world's capital, became prominent early on as the oldest ch. in the West; Irenaeus* mentions its preeminence (Adversus haereses, III, iii, 2). As it and its bps. grew in honorary preeminence in the first 3 cents., its bps. began with increasing success to claim, though not without widespread dissent, supremacy of right, as successors of Peter. But the 325 Council of Nicaea* mentioned the bp. of Rome only incidentally; neither it nor the immediately following councils were convened by the bp. of Rome, nor did he or his legates preside. Despite protest of the bp. of Rome, the Council of Chalcedon (451) declared the patriarch of Constantinople his official equal.
3. The fall of the W Roman Empire 476 (when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus), enabled Roman bps. to increase their power and enlarge the area of their spiritual sway, including superiority over earthly rulers (see also Church and State, 5). Monasticism became a useful tool. Gregory I (see Popes, 4) is a bridge bet. the ancient and medieval world. The spread of Islam put E rivals of the bp. of Rome into eclipse. Missionaries inculcated obedience to Rome among Germanic peoples. In return for papal favors Pepin* the Short and Charlemagne* laid the foundation of papal temporal power.
4. There followed a period of decline. Attempts were made to undergird the papacy with the Donation* of Constantine and the Pseudo-Isidorean* Decretals. It was a time of moral degradation, including rival popes. The emp. intervened 1046 and secured the election of a pope who crowned the emp., who gained the right to appoint popes. Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) raised the papacy to its peak. It rode the crest of this wave ca. 1073ca. 1303 (see Popes, 712). See also Crusades. Then decline set in, with Fr. and Eng. esp. in revolt against the papacy (see also Babylonian Captivity, 2; England, A 34; France, 3; Schism, 8.
5. The Council of Constance* ended the papal schism, but instead of meeting demands for true and complete reform it burned the reformer J. Hus.* By the end of the 15th c. the papacy had recovered much of its power. But through the Luth. Reformation its power was again reduced and it has not regained its former stature. In some countries nationalism opposes papal claims. Papal temporal power ended 1870, was restored 1929.
(18681938). Gk. Orthodox ch. hist.; b. Madyton, Thrace; prof. theol. School of the Cross, Jerusalem, 1895; prof. ch. hist. Athens 1914; abp. Athens and Greece 1923. Works include histories of the ch. in Jerusalem and Greece.
Called papal court until 1932. In the narrow sense, the papal household (fami[g]lia pontificia) consists of clerics and laymen who have a function by protocol in the papal residence; its mems. live both in and outside Vatican City. In the broad sense, the papal household consists of the papal household in the narrow sense and the papal chapel (capella pontificia), whose mems. may take part in liturgical functions solemnly celebrated by the pope. Not to be confused with curia.*
(Gregorios Papamichael; 1874 1956). Gk. Orthodox theol.; b. Ippion, on Lesbos (Mytilene); prof. School of the Cross, Jerusalem, 1905; head of a printery Alexandria 1907; prof. Athens 1918. Works include a book on socialism and Christianity; a life of Gregorius Palamas (see Hesychasm); apologetics.
Name of many monks in the Egyptian desert, including (1) bp. Upper Thebaid; fl. 4th c.; suffered severely in persecution; said to have helped persuade the 325 Council of Nicaea* to leave the question of continence to the discretion of clerics who had married before ordination; (2) abbot in Desert of Scete (Nitrian Valley ca. 50 mi. S of Alexandria, Egypt); friend of J. Cassianus*; noted for meditation.
Subordination of state to ch.
J. W. Baier, Compendium theologiae positivae, III (St. Louis, Missouri, 1879), 696, 746; J. Gerhard, Loci theologici, Preuss ed., VI (Berlin, 1868), 260, and VII (Berlin, 1869), 4, 457; J. A. Cuenstedt, Theologia didactico-polemica, Part IV, Chap. XII, Section II, Question II, Antithesis, I.
(15491610). Luth. theol.; b. Lindau, Bav., Ger.; educ. Strasbourg and Tübingen; prof. Strasbourg and pastor of the cathedral there; in controversy with Johannes Sturm*; opposed the Tetrapolitan Confession (see Reformed Confessions, D 1); successfully promoted adoption of a Luth. ch. order and the FC in Strasbourg 1598.
Tall sedge plant of the Nile valley; used ca. 5th c. BC to ca. 4th c. AD for making writing material often used for Bible MSS The word paper is derived from the Gk. papyros. See also Manuscripts of the Bible, 2 a, c.
G. A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, tr. L. R. M. Strachan, rev. ed. (New York, 1927); R. K. Harrison, Archaeology of the New Testament (New York, 1964); F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, 5th ed., rev. A. W. Adams (New York, 1958); E. C. Malte, Light from the Papyri on St. Paul's Terminology, CTM, XVIII (1947), 499517.
(Theophrast[us] Bombast[us] [Bombast] von Hohenheim; ca. 1493/941541). Alchemist; physician; b. near Einsiedeln, Switz.; may himself have invented the name Paracelsus to indicate equality with, or superiority to, Aulus Cornelius Celsus (early 1st c. AD; Roman writer; compiled an encyclopedia on agriculture, law, medicine, military science, and philos.); tried to recast reed. science; proponent of iatrochemistry (chemistry combined with medicine; ca. 1525ca. 1660); empiricist; emphasized nature study; Christian mystic philos. Lived a restless life; studied at several univs., esp. Padua and Ferrara, It.; army surgeon in It. and Den., probably also Moscow and Constantinople; lived at Strasbourg, Basel, Nürnberg, Vienna, and Salzburg. PR
F. Gundolf, Paracelsus (Berlin, 1928); W. E. Peuckert, Pansophie, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 193667); F. Spunda, Das Weltbild des Paracelsus (Vienna, 1941/42); H. M. Pachter, Magic into Science (New York, 1951).
(from Lat. parare, adorn, prepare, equip). 1. Paraments in the wide sense include all liturgical vestments, coverings, and hangings; in the narrow sense paraments are distinguished from vestments.
2. Nondecorative altar paraments should be white in all seasons; some have found in this a symbol of unchanging doctrine. These paraments include a linen cloth covering the altar without front overhang and resting on 1 or 2 layers of linen that have no front or side overhang; corporal*; possibly a veil, of silk or linen, ca. 30 or 36 in. square. See also Pall, 1; Purificator.
3. The decorative paraments of altar, lectern, and pulpit are called antependia (sing.: antependium; from Lat. for frontal hanging) and are properly in the liturgical color of the season (see Colors, Liturgical); the altar antependium is attached to a linen cloth under the white linen altar covering (see 2).
(Eduard; April 29, 1867March 21, 1926). B. Indianapolis, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Chicago, Illinois, 18901902. Prof. St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 190212; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 191223. Ed. Der Lutheraner 191213; other works include Logen und weltliche Unterstützungsvereine; essays on the Trinity, the Priesthood of Believers, and other subjects for Mo. Syn. Dist. convs.
(15481622). Ref. theol.; b. Frankenstein in Schlesien (present Zabkowice, Poland); educ. Heidelberg; held various pastorates; prof. Heidelberg 15981622; tended to compromise with Luths. but not with RCs Issued the Neustüdter Bibel 1587; other works include exegetical writings.
Founded 1822 by Fr. Prots.; several similar groups previously organized in Fr. became auxiliaries; Maison des Missions (Mission House) opened 1823; its 1st student was J. King.* Began work in Bechuanaland 1829 (see Africa, B 3; soon abandoned), Basutoland 1833 (see Africa, B 6), Senegal 1862 (see Africa, C 1), Barotseland (in W Northern Rhodesia; see Africa, B 11) 1885. The PEMS lent aid to miss. work in Madagascar (see Africa, B 9) in the late 1890s. The work of Am. Presbs. in Gabon (in W equatorial Afr.) was gradually transferred to the PEMS 18921913. As a result of WW I the work of Ger. missionaries in Toga (see Africa, C 13) and of Ger. and Swiss missionaries in Cameroon (see Kamerun) passed into the hands of the PEMS Other fields have included Tahiti (see Society Islands) and the Loyalty Is. and New Caledonia (see Melanesia).
A. Parish Educ. Defined.
1. Responsibility for Christian educ. is shared by parents (Dt 6:67; Ps 78:16; Eph 6:4) and the ch. (Mt 28:1920; Jn 21:1517). The ch. emphasizes the importance of Christian training in the home and organizes an educ. program for all ch. mems. Dt 32:46; Acts 20:28; Cl 1:10; and 2 Ptr 3:18 show that parish educ. is to meet high standards set by God, continue through life, and provide for spiritual growth and regular opportunities for Christian education.
2. All parish educ. activities should try to achieve the 3-fold aim of Christian educ.: the glory of God, the temporal and eternal happiness of the individual, and the welfare of mankind. This art. concerns parish educ. esp. in LCMS.
B. Parish Educ. at the Preschool Level.
1. The ch. was slow in arranging programs for children too young for formal agencies.
2. The preschool program of the ch. includes the S. S. nursery (or cradle) roll (birth to age 3), the S. S. nursery class (ages 34), the S. S. kindergarten class (ages 45), and weekday kindergarten (age 5 up to 6).
3. S. S. Nursery (or Cradle) Roll. Nursery Roll and Cradle Roll are somewhat interchangeable designations for the dept. giving attention to infants and small children. Some use Cradle Roll for birth to age 1, Nursery Roll for 13. Aims:
a. To awaken in parents a sense of responsibility for the religious instruction and training of their little ones and to give them initial guidance;
c. To give the ch. additional access to homes of unchurched who have prekindergarten children;
d. To provide basic materials for a head start in Christian nurture.
4. Nursery and Kindergarten Classes in the Sunday School. 3-yr.-olds who attend S. S. comprise the Nursery Class; 4-to-5-yr.-olds comprise the Kindergarten Class. In 1970, congs. in the US and Can. enrolled ca. 48,700 in Nursery Classes and ca. 79,900 in Kindergarten Classes.
5. Weekday Nursery School and Kindergarten. The Nursery School aims to provide learning experiences in a Christian environment for 3- and 4-yr.-olds. Some congs. operate nursery schools as part of the elementary school or as part of a nursery school-kindergarten program. The Kindergarten promotes learning through work and play in a Christian environment; it helps the child adjust to school life, develops creative abilities, broadens interests, and helps develop skills in learning, language, and self-expression.
D. Parochial, or Elementary, School.
a. That the child in relation to God develop (1) a growing knowledge of the Triune God, a growing trust in Jesus Christ as the Savior from sin, and an increasingly worshipful, sanctified life; (2) a growing knowledge of the Bible as the Word of Life, a proper understanding of Law and Gospel, and increased ability to apply God's Word to life situations, and a desire to gain the blessings of Holy Baptism and the Lord's Supper; (3) an understanding of the nature, function, and responsibility of the ch. as the body of Christ, plus a willingness and ability to serve as an active mem. of this body and as a priest of God.
b. That the child in relation to himself and his powers (1) develop knowledges, attitudes, and conducts needed to function effectively as God's child (spiritual powers); (2) understand his body and accept responsibility for its health, safety, and recreation (physical powers); (3) develop logical, scientific, and creative thinking habits, gain knowledge and communication tools, and acquire significant elements of his cultural heritage (mental powers); (4) develop soc. skills needed to live competently and creatively (soc. powers); (5)understand and control his emotions, find security and a true picture of himself through firm reliance on God and trust in Christ, and practice Christian love toward all men (emotional powers); (6) appreciate the beauties of nature and the fine arts and express himself in various fine-arts media (aesthetic powers).
c. That the child in relation to his fellowmen (1) recognize all men to be God's creation and show respect, courtesy, and consideration for the rights and welfare of others; (2) respect parents as God's representatives and appreciate his privileges and responsibilities as a mem. of an earthly family of which Christ is Head; (3) develop Christian soc. responsibility and cooperative skills; (4) develop concern for the spiritual and material welfare of all men and show this concern by witnessing and welfare activities; (5) respect govt. as God-ordained and appreciate his privileges and responsibilities as a mem. of the local, state, nat., and world community.
d. That the child in relation to nature (1) understand that God is the Creator, Ruler, and Preserver of nature; (2) thank and praise God for the gifts of nature; (3) develop knowledges, attitudes, and conducts needed to understand, use, and care for God's gifts in nature; (4) willingly use nature to glorify God and serve man.
3. The school stresses Christian growth opportunities in the whole school experience and provides for complete education in the curriculum.
4. See Teachers.
5. The curriculum may be defined as the sum of the experiences the child has in school. The teacher tries to provide a Bible-based, Christ-centered, and life-related curriculum. The Bible is frame of reference for all school activities.
6. At first special instructional materials were produced and promoted on a local or regional level. Production of such materials was assigned to the 1st Gen. School Bd., est. 1914. Materials have included textbooks in Bible Hist. and Catechism, the Concordia Primary Religion Series, Units in Religion for Lutheran Schools, and other textbooks. Materials for the teacher include General Course of Study for Lutheran Elementary Schools (1943); A Curriculum Guide for Lutheran Elementary Schools (3 vols. 1964; updated by annual supplements).
7. LCMS statistics covering US, Can., and S. America (figures for congs. usually include preaching stations). 1850: 41 congs., 41 schools, 41 teachers, 1,342 pupils; 1860: 155 congs., 129 schools, 129 teachers, 6,843 pupils; 1870: 214 congs., 226 schools, 20,369 pupils; 1880: 851 congs., 784 schools, 43,368 pupils; 1890: 1,662 congs., 1,226 schools; 1,305 teachers, 78,061 pupils; 1900: 2,147 congs., 1,767 schools, 1,907 teachers, 92,042 pupils; 1910: 2,736 congs., 2,130 schools, 2,360 teachers, 93,890 pupils; 1920: 3,283 congs., 1,310 schools, 1,954 teachers, 73,063 pupils; 1930: 3,843 congs., 1,339 schools, 3,335 teachers, 79,956 pupils; 1940: 4,358 congs., 1,259 schools, 2,247 teachers, 71,151 pupils; 1950: 5,608 congs., 1,277 schools, 3,228 teachers, 98,136 pupils; 1960: 6,610 congs., 1,413 schools, 5,501 teachers, 156,244 pupils; 1970: 7,233 congs., 1,215 schools, 6,616 teachers, 150,980 pupils. See par. 8.
8. In par. 7, figures for 1900 and 1910 include many Saturday schools and summer schools. Loss in pupils 193040 was largely a result of economic depression. Declining birth rate, higher school standards, and increased costs brought a decline in the no. of schools and pupils 196070.
9. Statistics for other Luth. bodies in America. 1969 LCA: 19 schools, 153 teachers, 2,908 pupils. 1970 figures for WELS: 244 schools, 1,038 teachers, 26,070 pupils; SELC: 3 schools, 14 teachers, 368 pupils; Ch. of the Luth. Confession: 11 schools, 31 teachers, 453 pupils; The ALC: 52 schools, 389 teachers, 6,975 pupils (plus 156 teachers, 2,846 pupils in kindergartens of 93 additional congs.).
10. LCMS has promoted schools and textbooks from its founding 1847. A Gen. School Bd. was created by syn. 1914. Secretaries of Schools: A. C. Stellhorn* 192160, William Albert Kramer (b. 1900) 196070. Secy. of Elementary and Secondary Schools: Al H. Senske 197180.
E. Sunday School.
4. As the Mo. Syn. grew, many congs. could not, or at least did not, maintain parochial schools. Instead, they organized part-time agencies of religious instruction, including the S. S. Some congs. with parochial schools also recognized the merits of the S. S. The S. S. is the most widespread educ. agency in the Mo. Syn.; few congs. are without one.
5. Materials used in early Sunday schools included esp. the Bible, catechisms, Bible histories, and hymnals. Ger. and Eng. S. S. lesson leaflets first appeared January 1911, Concordia Lesson Helps January 1916 (replaced January 1923 by Concordia Sunday-School Teachers' Quarterly), Interaction October 1960.
6. The Life in Christ series began October 1951. Mission:Life materials appeared 1971, the New Life in Christ series 1976.
7. Meetings to instruct and train teachers were soon held regularly. S. S. assocs. were formed in St. Louis, Missouri, Chicago, Illinois, and Cleveland, Ohio, in the 1920s. Many other assocs. were later formed elsewhere. The Bd. of Parish Educ. promoted circuit S. S. assocs. and provided programs for them through Dist. bds. Most Districts have sponsored S. S. convs. The 1st nat. conv. was held 1960.
8. LCMS est. the office of Gen. S. S. Secy. 1956; Allan Hart Jahsmann was its 1st incumbent 195968 In 1968 the name of the office was changed (present name: Secy. of Sunday, Weekday, and Summer Schools) and Dale E. Griffin appointed to it.
9. In 1938 LCMS approved appointment of a S. S. teacher training committee, which issued 16 courses first called Concordia Teacher Training Series, later changed to Concordia Leadership Training Series (more than 10,000,000 copies 193868).
10. Approximate LCMS S. S. figures. 1910: 53,343 pupils; 1920: 1,587 Sunday schools, 108,133 pupils, 9,553 teachers; 1930: 2,849 Sunday schools, 210,988 pupils, 20,174 teachers; 1940: 3,635 Sunday schools, 281,572 pupils, 29,531 teachers; 1950: 4,421 Sunday schools, 425,499 pupils, 48,514 teachers; 1960: 5,439 Sunday schools, 802,980 pupils, 92,206 teachers; 1970: 5,899 Sunday schools, 885,128 pupils, 98,754 teachers.
Approximate 1970 figures for other Luth. bodies in the US and Canada. LCA: 5,918 Sunday schools, 841,372 pupils, 119,837 teachers; The ALC: 4,596 Sunday schools, 672,461 pupils, 80,361 teachers; SELC: 55 Sunday schools, 4,566 pupils, 683 teachers; WELS: 899 Sunday schools, 53,002 pupils, 6,740 teachers; Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can.: 296 Sunday schools, 21,472 pupils, 3,159 teachers; ELS: 82 Sunday schools, 3,812 pupils, 534 teachers; Ch. of the Luth. Confession: 57 Sunday schools, 1,619 pupils, 256 teachers; Ch. of the Luth. Brethren: 87 Sunday schools, 7,450 pupils, 1,070 teachers.
F. Other Agencies of Elementary Educ..
1. These include weekday schools, vacation Bible (or summer) schools, and confirmation classes.
2. Weekday Schools. For children not attending Luth. elementary schools the weekday school offers 2 or 3 hrs. of Christian educ. in addition to S. S. In 1970, weekday after school classes had ca. 69,420 pupils, Saturday schools ca. 47,000 pupils, released time schools ca. 18,960 pupils. Weekday schools are taught by pastors, professional teachers, and volunteer teachers. Materials were issued in the early and mid-1940s under the series title Lessons in Religion for Part-Time Schools. The Concordia Weekday Series appeared in the 1960s.
3. Approximate summer school (later called VBS) figures. 1945: 1,043 schools, 36,168 pupils; 1950: 1,937 schools, 125,126 pupils; 1960: 3,475 schools, 338,435 pupils: 1970: 4,162 schools, 376,299 pupils. Special VBS materials were developed.
5. Christenlehre is catechetical instruction for all, formerly conducted sometimes only for children, in a ch. service usually Sunday morning or afternoon.
1. A few high schools were est. 185777 in the Mo. Syn. but closed for lack of sufficient financial support. A few other ventures, e.g., in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1903), Chicago, Illinois (1909), and Fort Wayne, Indiana (1935), were more successful. A large increase in the no. of high schools began in the mid-1940s.
As of 1971, LCMS high schools (with yr. founded) included Luther High School North, Chicago, Illinois (1909); Conc. Lutheran High School, Fort Wayne, Indiana (1935); Luth. High School West, Detroit, Michigan (1944); Luth. High School, Racine, Wisconsin (1944); Luth. High School North and Luth. High School South, St. Louis, Missouri (1946); Luth. High School, Houston, Texas (1949); Luther High School South, Chicago, Illinois (1951); Walther Luth. High School, Melrose Park, Illinois (1953); Maier Memorial Luth. High School, Los Angeles, California (1953); Luth. High School, Denver, Colorado (1955); Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Luth. High School (1955); Our Savior Luth. High School, Bronx, New York (1955); Luth. High School East, Harper Woods (near Detroit), Michigan (1957); Luth. High School East, Cleveland Heights, Ohio (1958); Luth. High School West, Rocky River (near Cleveland), Ohio (1958); Long Is. Luth. High School, Brookville, New York (1959); Luth. High School, St. Paul, Minnesota (1959); Luth. High School, Mayer, Minnesota (1960); Martin Luther High School, Maspeth, New York (1960); Minneapolis (Minnesota) Luth. High School (1963); Luth. High School, Baltimore, Maryland (1965); Germantown Luth. Academy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1965); Luth. High School, Rockford, Illinois (1965); Martin Luther High School, Greendale (near Milwaukee), Wisconsin (1968); Luth. High School, New Orleans, Louisiana (1970); Saint John Luth. High School, Ocala, Florida (1970).
H. Parish Education at the Adult Level.
1. Congs. found it desirable to provide for adult educ. in Bible classes and special classes, particularly for parent educ. Topic studies of the LLL and LWML were used in meetings of those organizations. In 1944 the Mo. Syn. assigned the sphere of adult educ. to its Bd. for Parish Education. Secretaries of Adult Educ.: Oscar E. Feucht 1946-end of 1968, Victor Constien 196977. The bd. gave special attention to Bible classes, family life educ., adult school of religion, cottage Bible classes, and leadership training in Bible institutes.
2. In 1947 LCMS launched an intensive syn.-wide Bible study movement. The Train-Two program (aim: to train 2 persons as lay leaders for every existing and every prospective Bible class) began 1959. See also Bible Study.
b. Developing materials for annual observances of Christian Family Month.
c. Developing resources for the whole program of ministry to families.
d. Providing direction and aids for marriage educ. and counseling. An in-service training program in pastoral care to families was developed. An extensive seminar program was projected.
e. Materials in the Parent Guidance Series provided topic studies for Parent-Teacher groups.
g. Research projects resulted in several vols.: Engagement and Marriage; Sex and the Church; Family Relationships and the Church.
4. Congs. were urged to est. a weekday Adult School of Religion with these features: short-term (6 to 8 week) courses in spring and fall; 1 1/2 to 2 hrs. per session; multiple choices based, on needs and interests; teachers selected to teach a specific course. Special short-term courses were also developed for this program.
5. In cottage Bible classes, groups meet in homes of mems.
6. A manual entitled Leadership Training Through Bible Institutes was issued (later reissued as Adult Education Through Bible Institutes) to guide development of intercong. or circuit schools offering advanced courses.
7. In 1962 ca. 100 Bible institutes were in operation, most with weekly sessions for 6 to 8 weeks, some conducted in spring and fall. Programs included courses on the Bible, Christian doctrine, and various areas of ch. work.
I. Financing the Program of Parish Educ..
2. Sunday schools, weekday schools, and vacation Bible schools usually help to finance themselves, with the balance, if any, subscribed by the cong. or other sources.
A 197071 survey revealed annual tuition charges ranging from $1 to more than $400; decisions connected with tuition charges lie within cong. jurisdiction.
Annual operating cost is figured on 2 bases: (1) average daily membership (ADM); (2) average daily attendance (ADA). In the 197071 school yr. the average per pupil cost (ADM) in a survey of 702 schools was $359; on ADA basis it was $364.
4. The supporting organization for a high school may be 1 cong., or, in the case of a cen. school, an assoc. of congs., or an assoc. of individuals. 197071 tuition charges for Luth. mems. ranged from $250 to $1,220, for non-Luth. mems. from $450 to $1,300. In 1969 it was estimated that the capital investment required to est. a Luth. high school ranged from $2,500 to $3,000 per pupil. In 26 high schools the 197071 average operating cost per pupil (ADM) was $643, with the range extending from $472 to $1,261.
5. Government Aid for Lutheran Schools. See Public Aid to Church-Related Elementary and Secondary Schools.
J. Luth. Parent-Teacher Organizations. Gen. meet monthly; program usually planned jointly by parents and teachers. Aims: (1) mutual homeschool understanding; (2) home-school cooperation and unity; (3) supplementing the cong. budget and providing instructional equipment. The Nat. Luth. Parent-Teacher League was formed 1953 as a dept. of LEA Later it became a separate organization. It has provided helps to cong. parent-teacher groups in organization, program, and service projects. 671 groups were affiliated 197071.
K. Educational Administration and Supervision in the Local Congregation.
1. LCMS policy regards the cong. as the basic unit of administration and supervision. As a rule, the cong. exercises its authority and responsibility in this field through such officers as the pastor, bd. of educ., principal, S. S. supt., weekday school supt., VBS supt., and dir. of educ.
c. Provide lay leadership for the program.
d. Promote the agencies.
4. Professionally trained parochial school teachers are usually used in the entire program of the cong.
5. The principal of the school takes the lead in faculty meetings, setting up the curriculum, and evaluating accomplishments. He is also to carry out policies adopted by the bd. of educ. and represent the school in pub. relations. Luth. principals usually teach, but there were 60 full-time principals 197071. Full-time principals function as the educ. leaders of their schools in the administration and supervision of the whole program. Some full-time principals also serve as directors of Christian educ. for the whole parish educ. program.
1. Soon after the Mo. Syn. created a Gen. School Bd. 1914 (see also D 6), various Dists. created similar bds. or committees. Their area of concern grew from the parochial school to include all agencies of parish educ. Functions as defined in the 1971 LCMS Handbook, p. 160: The District board shall cooperate with the Synod's Board of Parish Education and shall assist and advise the local congregation with regard to the whole range of Christian education on all age levels, helping the local congregation achieve the objectives of Christian education. More detailed regulations on the Dist. level usually specify that the bd. shall consider itself advisory both to the Dist. and its officials and to the congs. and their pastors and teachers. See also 2.
3. Some Dists. have appointed full-time functionaries variously called Supt., Ex. Secy., Dir. of Christian Educ., or Counselor in Parish Educ. Development of this office was gradual: 3 Dists. 1918, 5 Dists. 1920/21, 1 Dist. in the 1930s, 6 Dists. in the 1940s, 7 Dists. in the 1950s, 5 Dists. in the 1960s. In 1972 two Dists. provided some service through other Dist. executives; the other 7 Dists. provided leadership through mems. of the Dist. Bd. of Parish Educ.
1. The Mo. Syn. appointed a Gen. School Bd. 1914 (see also D 6). A S. S. Bd. was created 1923. In 1932 these 2 bds. were joined to form 1 Bd. of Christian Educ. In 1944 the Mo. Syn. enlarged the scope of this bd. and changed its name to Board for Parish Education (changed 1959 to Bd. of Parish Educ., 1981 to Bd. for Parish Services). Functions are defined in the LCMS Handbook.
4. In 1932 the Mo. Syn. resolved that the syn. Bd. of Christian Educ. elect an executive secretary, whose field of activities shall be our entire work of Christian childhood-training under instruction of the Board. This resolution was reiterated 1938 and 1941. The office was filled 1943 by the election of Arthur C. Repp, who was succeeded by Arthur L. Miller 194672, Melvin Kieschnick 197276.
6. In 1965, to focus attention on the learner instead of the agencies, staff mems. were assigned to 1 of 3 divisions: children, youth, adults, so they were mems. of a dept. and a division. In 1968 the staff was reorganized into 3 divisions: editorial, field services, and research and development. In this reorganized staff structure Allan H. Jahsmann served as Ex. Dir., Martin F. Wessler as Dir. of Field Services (till 1971), Delbert O. Schulz as Dir. of Research and Development. ALM
See also Schools, Church-Related.
4th LEA Yearbook: 100 Years of Christian Education, ed. A. C. Repp (River Forest, Illinois, 1947); 8th LEA Yearbook: A. L. Miller, Educational Administration and Supervision of the Lutheran Schools of the Missouri Synod, 191450 (River Forest, Illinois, 1951); 13th LEA Yearbook: Readings in the Lutheran Philosophy of Education, ed., L. G. Bickel and R. F. Surburg (River Forest, Illinois, 1956); 14th LEA Yearbook: Tests and Measurements in Lutheran Education, ed. A. L. Miller (River Forest, Illinois, 1957); A. H. Jahsmann, What's Lutheran in Education? (St. Louis, 1960); Lutheran Elementary Schools in Action, ed. V. C. Krause (St. Louis, 1963); M.P. Strommen, Profiles of Church Youth (St. Louis, 1963); A. C. Stellhorn, Schools of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1963); 20th LEA Yearbook: M. A. Haendschke, The Sunday School Story (River Forest, Illinois, 1963); Church and State Under God, ed. A. G. Huegli (St. Louis, 1964); A. C. Repp, Confirmation in the Lutheran Church (St. Louis, 1964); W. H. Beck, Lutheran Elementary Schools in the United States, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1965); 22d LEA Yearbook: The Teaching of Religion, ed. J. S. Damm (River Forest, Illinois, 1965); H. J. Boettcher, Three Philosophies of Education (New York, 1966); F. W. Klos, Confirmation and First Communion (Leader's Guide and A Study Book) (St. Louis, 1968); 26th LEA Yearbook: Christian Education-in Transit! ed. J. F. Choitz (River Forest, Illinois, 1969); F. A. Meyer and H. W. Rast, Foundations for Christian Education (mimeo; n. p., n. d.).
(18631919). Composer; b. Auburndale, Massachusetts; prof. music Yale 18941919; dean Yale Music School 190419. Works include the oratorio Hora novissima: The Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix on the Celestial Country Set to Music for Soli, Chorus, and Orchestra.
(18301902). Cong. cleric; b. Hexham, Northumberland, Eng.; pastor at Banbury 1853, Manchester 1858, London 1869; visited Am. 5 times; eloquent orator. Works include The People's Bible: Discourses upon Holy Scripture.
(150475). B. Norwich, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; friend of T. Bilney* and H. Latimer*; chaplain to Anne Boleyn (150736; m. Henry* VIII 1533; mother of Elizabeth* I; beheaded); vicechancellor Cambridge 1544; friend of M. Bucer*; lived in obscurity under Mary* I; abp. Canterbury 1559. Tried to uphold Elizabethan Settlement of 1559 (see England, B 6) and to est. a middle course bet. RCm and Puritanism. Issued Thirty-nine Articles (see Anglican Confessions, 6) and editions of medieval historians; helped issue Bishop's Bible (see Bible Versions, L 78).
(June 18, 1804January 10, 1888). B. Framingham, Massachusetts; educ. Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll. and Yale Coll. and Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut; studied medicine; ABCFM med. miss. to China 1834; est. ophthalmic hosp. Canton 1835; secy. and interpreter to US legation to China 184455; returned to US; Am. commissioner, minister to China 185557; regent Smithsonian Institution 1868.
(181060). Unitarian cleric; b. Lexington, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard Coll. and Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts Pastor West Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1837; Boston, Massachusetts, 1846. Developed new, liberal school of Unitarianism based on Ger. Biblical criticism and idealistic philos.; denied the authority of the Bible and the supernatural origin of Christianity.
(Olaf; Olof; Olavus; 17161757). Swed. pastor; ordained 1745; to Am. 1750; pastor Philadelphia 1750; succeeded I. Acrelius* as provost 1755/56 (official document dated 1755 in Swed. reached Philadelphia 1756).
(18481918). Composer; b. Bournemouth, Eng.; prof. 1883, dir. 1894 Royal Coll. of Music, London; prof. Oxford 18991908. Compositions include oratorios Job and King Saul; hist. works include The Evolution of the Art of Music.
Zoroastrians (see Zoroastrianism) descended from Persians who fled 7th c. Muslim persecution and settled mainly at Bombay, India; gen. wealthy, prosperous, educated, and prominent in business and the professions; their dead are exposed on towers of silence to be eaten by vultures. See also Fire Worshipers.
(latinized from Ger. Karg; 151276). B. Heroldingen, near Harburg, Swabia, W Bav., Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Ottingen, Schwabach, and Ansbach; supt. Bayreuth; denied doctrine of vicarious active obedience of Christ; suspended from office; retracted 1570; reinstated.
(162362). Scientist, philos., mathematician; b. Clermont, Fr.; assoc. with Jansenists (see Jansenism) 1646; assoc. with Port-Royal* 1655. Stressed the Person of Christ as Savior; held that only faith can free man from the distracting situation bet. greatness and misery and that reason can be used to demonstrate the truth of faith. Works include Les provinciales (tr. Provincial Letters); Pensées (tr. Thoughts).
Large sanctuary candle first lit in a service in the evening before Easter; a symbol of the risen Christ, it is used at liturgical functions throughout the Easter season and extinguished for the last time after the Gospel on Ascension Day.
(15701637). B. Ellar, Nassau, Ger.; prof. Herborn, Ger., and Franeker, Neth. Works include Grammatica Graeca Sacra Novi Testamenti; Lexicon Graeco-Latinum in Novum Domini nostri Jesu Christi Testamentum; Manuale Graecarum vocum N. Testamenti. See also Lexicons, B.
1552 treaty bet. Maurice* of Saxony and Charles* V; signed at Passau, Bav.; granted Luths. freedom of religion till the next diet, which was to reconsider and possibly decide the question. See also Adiaphoristic Controversies; Augsburg, Peace of; Interim, II; John Frederick.
(October 9, 1821June 3, 1894). B. Zelienople, Pennsylvania; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; licensed 1842; ordained 1843. Pastor Baltimore, Maryland, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Helped organize Pittsburgh Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 24) and the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am. Introd. the diaconate in Am. (see Deaconesses, 7); helped est. several hospitals* and orphanages and Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B). Ed. The Missionary; The Lutheran and Missionary; The Workman. See also Charities, Christian, 6; Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary.
G. H. Gerberding, Life and Letters of W. A. Passavant, D. D. (Greenville, Pennsylvania, 1906); O. N. Olson, William Alfred Passavant and the Augustana Synod, The Augustana Quarterly, XXIV (1945), 224241.
(from Lat. passio, suffering). The suffering of Christ. Passion harmonies used in the Luth. Ch. in commemorating the suffering and death of Christ date back to the 16th c.; dramatic forms of portrayal have been traced to the 12th c. (see also Religious Drama, 2, 5); roots of the choral Passion may be traced to the 4th c.
There are many musical settings of the Passion. In the Middle Ages the words of Christ were assigned to bass, evangelists to baritone, others to tenor. At first all parts were sung by priests; later the parts of the mob were sung from the choir loft by other choral groups.
Musical Passions became more dramatic when polyphony was introd. ca. the end of the 9th c. But in Luth. circles the dramatic element was at first absent. Luths. who began to use greater freedom include J. à Burck,* J. C. Demantius,* A. Scandello,* N. Selnecker,* and M. Vulpius.*
In the 17th c., Passions continued to become more dramatic; baroque influence made itself felt (e.g., in the works of T. Selle*); a close relationship bet. Passion and oratorio developed. As of old, a St. Matthew Passion was often presented on Palm Sunday, St. Mark on the following Tuesday, St. Luke on Wednesday, and St. John on Good Friday Where elaborate presentations were impossible, the hymn O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde(n) gross, regarded as the chorale version of the Passion, was often substituted.
The most famous Luth. Passions of the pre-Bach era are those of H. Schütz.* His St. Mark Passion is largely in the old recitative style, but his St. Luke and St. John Passions are more polyphonic. His St. Matthew Passion is his most dramatic, hence most popular. In his Sieben Worte Christi am Kreuz he uses an instrumental accompaniment for the words of Christ.
The Oratorio Passion (which used the Bible text) developed beginning in the 1st part of the 17th c. in works, e.g., of T. Selle* and J. Sebastiani.* The Passion Oratorio (which replaced the Bible text with a metrical rhymed paraphrase) developed late in the 17th c. Reaction, which combined Oratorio Passion and Passion Oratorio, began with G. F. Handel* and included, e.g., J. S. Bach,* J. Mattheson,* and G. P. Telemann.* Because of their proportions, some Passions (e.g., J. S. Bach's St. Matthew and St. John) are usually presented on a concert stage. Other 18th c. composers of Passion music include K. P. E. Bach,* F. J. Haydn,* J. Kuhnau,* G. Pergolesi,* and K. H. Graun* (the popularity of whose Der Tod Jesu helped keep the Passions of J. S. Bach obscure for a c.). 19th c. composers include L. v. Beethoven,* L. Spohr,* and J. Stainer.* 20th c. composers include H. A. Distler* and Kurt Thomas (b. 1904 Tönning, Ger.; works include Passionsmusik nach dem Evangelisten Markus).
O. Kade, Die ältere Passionskomposition his zum Jahre 1631 (Gütersloh, 1893); H. Kretzschmar, Führer durch den Koncertsaal, II (Leipzig, 1899).
RC order founded in It. 1720 by Paul* of the Cross; official name: Cong. of the Discalced Clerics of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ; 1st US house est. 1852 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania The order is marked by prayer, penance, and solitude; besides the 3 usual vows* its mems. vow to promote devotion to the Passion of Christ; active in missions and retreats. See also Barefooted Monks.
(18541928). RC hist.; b. Aachen, Ger.; prof. Innsbruck 1886; dir. Austrian Hist. Institute, Rome, 1901; Austrian representative at the Vatican 1920. Works include Geschichte der Püpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters.
Theology,* or the doctrine of the knowledge of God and of divine things, applied by a pastor to the spiritual needs of his flock. C. F. W. Walther,* Americanisch-Lutherische Pastoraltheologie, par. 1, defines it as a God-given practical aptitude of the soul, acquired by means of certain aids whereby a pastor is enabled validly and legitimately, for the glory of God and his own and his hearers' salvation, to perform all functions incumbent on him by virtue of his office. It has also been defined as the art of applying the truth.
C. F. W. Walther, Americanisch-Lutherische Pastoraltheologie (St. Louis, 1872) and The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, reproduced from the Ger. ed. of 1897 by W. H. T. Dau (Saint Louis, 1929); J. H. C. Fritz, Pastoral Theology, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1945); J. Schaller, Pastorale Praxis in der Ev.-Luth. Freikirche Amerikas (Milwaukee, 1913); T. C. Graebner, The Borderland of Right and Wrong, rev. (St. Louis, 1956) and Pastor and People (St. Louis, 1932); The Abiding Word, III, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 194647), III (St. Louis, 1960); C. M. Zorn, Questions on Christian Topics, tr. J. A. Rimbach, 3d ed. (Milwaukee, 1931); A. W. Blackwood, Pastoral Work (Philadelphia, 1945); A. Vinet, Pastoral Theology (Edinburgh, 1855); R. F. Weidner, Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology, 2 vols. (Chicago, 18981910); F. Schulze, A Manual of Pastoral Theology, 3d ed. (St. Louis, 1923); J. M. Wilson, Six Lectures on Pastoral Theology (New York, 1903).
1. A pastor's main work is to give helpful guidance and support to disturbed and perplexed souls; this work is called cure of souls, soul care, pastoral care, or poimenics. Basically it is soul-winning, soul-reclaiming, and soul-keeping. His field is his flock and the unchurched; mems. of other Christian chs. are usually referred to their pastors. His goals are mainly spiritual, but by his ministration he also brings relief in physical, mental, and emotional ills. Pastoral counseling is eschatological; its goal: to prepare men to meet their God.
2. Pastoral counseling is receiving more specialized and intensive recognition and attention than ever before. Psychology and psychiatry often come to be involved, but the true basis of proper pastoral counseling remains the Word, which is able to save souls (Ja. 1:21). Exceptional cases may be referred to a Christian psychiatrist, though the ministries are distinct from each other. A psychiatrist is concerned mainly with the mental and emotional restoration of a client; a pastor is concerned mainly with spiritual welfare. Spiritual ministration often exerts a psychosomatic influence. In every case it is God who heals (Ex 15:26; Mt 4:4).
4. Effective pastoral counseling requires Christian faith, familiarity with the Bible, perseverance in prayer, and the ability to apply the Word of God properly (2 Ti 2:15); it also requires consecration, loyalty to the Bible, love for people, and confidence of success (Is 55:1011; Ro 1:16). Depending on circumstances, laymen may assist in counseling.
5. A pastoral counselor should draw on the experiences of others and have respect to the times. He should be familiar with problems connected, e.g., with sickness and suffering, marriage, divorce, alcoholism,* drug addiction.
6. Pastoral counseling began with Christ and the apostles (Mt 10:515; Jn 20:2123; 21:1517; Acts 20:20, 31; Ro 12; 1 Co 12 and 14; Ja 5:1320). The apostles took steps for training other pastors (2 Ti 2:2) and apostolic fathers continued the work.
7. Doctrinal and practical aberrations soon became disturbing problems for many. Some said that postbaptismal sins require special works of penance; fasting and almsgiving were stressed as necessary for salvation, and some added the keeping of the commandments. Some ruled out all chance for repentance after Baptism; some allowed I chance, but not in cases of idolatry, unchastity, or homicide. As a result, many postponed Baptism till late in life. In course of time asceticism* began to flourish. Martyrdom came to be regarded as a guarantee of salvation and became life's highest hope for many. But fanatical seeking after martyrdom was condemned.
12. In the 2d half of the 20th c., lay participation in counseling has increased considerably. OES
J. T. McNeill, A History of the Cure of Souls (New York, 1951); J. H. C. Fritz, Pastoral Theology (St. Louis, 1932); S. Hiltner, Religion and Health (New York, 1943) and Pastoral Counseling (New York, 1949); J. C. Heuch, Pastoral Care of the Sick (Minneapolis, 1949); J. S. Bonnell, Psychology for Pastor and People: A Book on Spiritual Counseling, rev. ed. (New York, 1960); G. Bergsten, Pastoral Psychology: A Study in the Care of Souls (New York, 1951); W. E. Hulme, Counseling and Theology (Philadelphia, 1956) and The Pastoral Care of Families: Its Theology and Practice (New York, 1962); A. W. Blackwood, The Growing Minister: His Opportunities and Obstacles (New York, 1960); F. Greeves, Theology and the Cure of Souls (London, 1960); E. Thurneysen, A Theology of Pastoral Care, basic tr. J. A. Worthington and T. Wieser (Richmond, Virginia, 1962); D. R. Belgum, The Church and Its Ministry (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1963); T. Bovet, That They May Have Life: A Handbook on Pastoral Care for the Use of Christian Ministers and Laymen, tr. J. A. Baker (London, 1964), printed in US under the title The Road to Salvation: A Handbook on the Christian Care of Persons (New York, 1964).
Calm, unruffled temper in facing the evils of life; ability to meet duties and conflicts with fortitude; manifested in humble submission to God's ruling providence; synonyms include long-suffering, long-sufferance, longanimity, forbearance, resignation; cf. 2 Sm 16:1013; Lk 8:15; Ro 5:34; 12:12; Cl 3:1213; 1 Th 5:14; 2 Th 1:4; 2 Ti 2:10; 3:1011; Ja 5:11; 1 Ptr 2:20; Rv 1:9. Patience is also a quality of God (Ex 34:6; Ro 2:4; 15:5; 1 Ptr 3:20). JMW
(18241907). Presb. miss.; b. Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire, Scot.; educ. Glasgow; city miss. Glasgow 184757; miss. to New* Hebrides 1858. Tr. parts of the Bible into the language of natives of the is. of Aniwa.
(18861943). Presb. minister; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford and Cambridge; Miss. Secy. of Student Christian Movement 1911; Gen. Secy. Nat. Christian Council of India, Burma, and Ceylon 192227; Secy. Internat. Miss. Council 192743. Ed. The International Review of Missions. Other works include The Faiths of Mankind; The Message of the World-Wide Church; The Church and the New Order.
Highest dignitary in the ecclesiastical hierarchy as it developed from the 4th c. on. E patriarchates: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem. RCm did not perpetuate the term in this sense but only as an honorary title without special jurisdiction (CIC 271; e.g., the bp. of Goa is patriarch of the East Indies). The title is also used of the spiritual head of various other E chs., e.g., the Russ. Orthodox Ch. and the Syrian and Coptic chs., as well as of the head of the Sanhedrin in Palestine, sometimes of the head of the Jewish Coll. at Babylon, and of certain functionaries in the Mormon ch.
(Sucat; Patricius; perhaps ca. 385/389ca. 461). Apostle and patron saint of Ireland; possibly b. Bannavem (Bannauenta? Banwen?), perhaps near the Severn, in Roman Britain (or near Kilpatrick, Scot.?); kidnaped at ca. 16 and taken as a slave to Ireland: herded swine; escaped at ca. 22; trained on the Continent to be a miss.; returned to Ireland. See also Celtic Church, 5; England, A 2.
(Symon; 1625[1626?]1707). B. Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; ordained Presb. 1648, Angl. 1654; bp. Chichester 1689[1688?], Ely 1691. Works include The Parable of the Pilgrim; paraphrases of Gn to SS.; controversial writings against RCs and nonconformists.*
(from Lat. pater, father, and passus, having suffered). A form of Monarchianism; the view (died out ca. the 5th c.) that in the work of redemption God the Father became incarnate and suffered. See also Monarchianism, B; Noetus; Praxeas; Sabellius; Theopaschitism.
1. Branch of theol. knowledge that deals with the lives and writings of the ch. fathers. The term patrology is often applied to the hist. side; patristics is then the formal side. The patristic era is often divided into ante-Nicene on the one hand and Nicene and post-Nicene on the other, with subdivisions of each.
2. Much patristic literature, esp. of the first 3 cents., is fragmentary. Eusebius* of Caesarea's Historia ecclesiastica contains important quotations and biographical facts. Photius's* Bibliotheca summarizes 280 works of classical writers. Patristic quotations are found also in heretical writings.
3. Earliest writers and writings are called Apostolic* Fathers (subapostolic teachers, some of whom had personal contact with the apostles).
6. Golden age of patristic literature: 4th5th cents. Change in the status of the ch. under Constantine* I gave Christian writers greater liberty. Questions concerning the Trin. and Christological* controversies led to many works. See also Donatist Schism, The; Manichaeism; Pelagian Controversy. Writers included Ambrose,* Aphraates,* Athanasius,* Augustine* of Hippo, the Cappadocian* Theologians, J. Cassianus,* J. Chrysostom,* Diodorus* of Tarsus, Ephraem,* Eusebius* of Caesarea, Eustathius* of Antioch, Hilary* of Poitiers, Jerome,* and Ulfilas.*
7. Patristic literature declined beginning in the 5th c. Interest in polemics waned. Barbarian invasions in the W spread ruin. Centralization of power in the ch. stifled indep. investigation. There followed the age of the catena* and florilegium.*
8. Sometimes the patristic era is regarded as extending to the 14th c. Sometimes all respected theologians of the past are spoken of as fathers.
F. W. Farrar, Lives of the Fathers (Edinburgh, 1889); The Fathers of the Church (New York, 1947 ); Patrologiae cursus completus, ed. J. P. Migne: Lat., 221 vols. in 223 (Paris, 184455), Gk., 161 vols. in 167 (Paris, 185766); Patrologia orientalis, ed. R. Griffin and F. Nau (Paris, 1903 ); Corpus Christianorum, series Latina (Turnhout, Belg., 1953 ); The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson (Edinburgh, 188597; reprinted with supplements, New York 189099); A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 1st series, 14 vols., ed. P. Schaff (New York, 188689), 2d series, 14 vols., ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace (New York, 18901925); G. Krüger, History of Early Christian Literature in the First Three Centuries, tr. C. R. Gillett (New York, 1897); E. J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature (Chicago, 1942); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); F. L. Cross, The Early Christian Fathers (London, 1960); J. Quasten, Patrology, 3 vols. (Westminster, Maryland, 195060).
Right of presentation to an ecclesiastical benefice. In the early ch. a bp. had the right to place a priest in a parish. Later, when landowners built chs., the right of patronage was gradually yielded to them. Beginning toward the end of the 12th c. the RC Ch. tried to regain the right of patronage; Eng. took the lead in resisting this move. The system has been repeatedly modified.
In RCm, heavenly protector (saint or angel) of individuals, institutions, or activities. The example of a patron saint's life is proposed to those under his care. Chs. are often named after patron saints. Many countries, trades, professions, cities, towns, and illnesses also have patron saints. Celebration of patronal feasts of chs. was revived in the Angl. Ch. ca. the middle of the 19th c.
(April 1[2?], 1827September 20, 1871). Miss. bp.; b. London, Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford; to New Zealand with G. A. Selwyn* 1855; bp. Melanesia 1861; cruised among the islands in the Southern Cross. Tr. Bible; reduced native languages to writing. Probably slain by natives on a visit to Nukapu (Nikapu) in the Santa Cruz islands.
(January 22, 1843November 25, 1932). Presb. cleric and educ.; b. Warwick, Bermuda; educ. Toronto, Can., and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; pastor NYC and at Nyack and Brooklyn, New York; prof. Theol. Sem. of the NW (name changed 1886 to McCormick Theol. Sem.), Chicago, Illinois, 187281; also pastor Jefferson Park Ch., Chicago, 187481; prof. Princeton Theol. Sem. 188188; prof. Princeton U. 18861913, pres. 18881902; pres. Princeton Theol. Sem. 190213. Works include The Inspiration of the Scriptures; A Summary of Christian Doctrine; Fundamental Christianity.
Books on the life of the apostle Paul have been grouped as conservative and critical to middling. Prominent conservative works include those of W. J. Conybeare* and J. S. Howson,* F. W. Farrar,* A. T. Robertson,* C. F. W. Dallmann.* Of critical works (e.g., of W. Wrede*) some say Paul derived his message not from Christ but from Judaism, esp. so-called Jewish apocalyptic writings like the Book of Enoch. Others say Paul derived his distinctive religious teachings from mystery religions. Some say he was strongly influenced by Stoicism. Some try to destroy the divine character of his conversion by holding that lightning struck near him when he approached Damascus or that he suffered a sunstroke. Some say he had an epileptic seizure with hallucinations. Some (e.g., F. C. Baur*) say his conversion must be explained psychologically.
(347404). Roman lady; followed Jerome to Palestine 385; est. a convent for nuns and one for monks in Bethlehem.
MPL, 22, 878906.
Gnostic-Marcionite (and possibly Manichaean) sect traced to mid-7th c. Armenia, where they stayed, despite persecution, till their removal to Thrace ca. 970. In the 11th c. some returned to the ch., others joined various sects. Held a dualism in which a demiurge made the material world and man's body and a good god made heaven and man's soul; Christ saves humanity from the former for the latter. See also Gnosticism.
(Alessandro Farnese; 14681549). B. cen. It.; cardinal 1493; pope 153449; approved Society* of Jesus 1540; reorganized Inquisition* with HQ at Rome 1542; convened Council of Trent* 1545; patron of Michelangelo.* See also Roman Catholic Confessions, A 1.
(Lat. privilegium Paulinum; privilegium fidei, privilege of the faith). Derives its name from Paul's statement 1 Co 7:1215. Acc. to RC interpretation and conditions (CIC 112027) a legitimate marriage bet. unbaptized persons, even after consummation, may be dissolved in favor of RCm if 1 of the parties to the marriage becomes RC
MPL, 99, 9684.
MPL, 14, 2746.
(ca. 353431). B. Bordeaux, Fr.; son of wealthy parents; bap. 390; gave his wealth to the ch. and the poor; priest 394; settled with wife at Nola, It.; bp. 409; friend of Augustine* of Hippo, Martin of Tours (see Celtic Church, 2), Ambrose.* Works include letters and poetic writings.
(d. 644 AD). Sent to Eng. by Greggory I (see Popes, 4); worked with Augustine* of Canterbury in Kent; bp. York 625, Rochester 633. Influenced King Edwin of Northumbria and his chiefs to accept Christianity. See also James the Deacon.
(Giovanni Pietro Caraffa; 14761559). B. near Benevento, It.; mem. of commission appointed to deal with the affair of M. Luther* 1520; cofounder of Theatines* 1524; cardinal 1536; pope 155559; opposed Protestantism esp. in It. See also Counter Reformation, 4, 5, 9.
(Samosatenus; 3d c. AD). Bp. Antioch 260272; dynamic monarchian; followers called Paulianists, Samosatenes, and Samosatenians. See also Adoptionism; Antioch, Synods of; Arianism, 1; Dionysius of Alexandria; Exegesis, 4; Gregory Thaumaturgus; Monarchianism, A 4.
MPL, 23, 1730.
(18471916). B. Witzhave, Holstein, Ger.; educ. Kiel, Tübingen, and Berlin; private tutor Kropp, Holstein, 1870; founded institutions at Kropp, including a deaconess house, normal school, orphanage, hosp., printshop, and sem. See also General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in (North) America, 5; Hoffman, Emil; Kropp Seminary.
(Levita; Warnefridi; Diaconus; ca. 720ca. 800). Benedictine; to Monte Cassino; visited Charlemagne 782ca. 787. Works include De ordine episcoporum Metensium; Gesta episcoporum Metensium; De gestis Longobardorum; Historia Romana; liturgical writings; homilies; life of Gregory the Great et al. See also Preaching, History of, 7.
MPL, 95, 4131710.
(17611851). Ger. orientalist and theol.; prof. Jena, Würzburg, Heidelberg. Rationalist; influenced by J. S. Semler* and J. D. Michaelis; opposed F. W. J. v. Schelling.* Tried to harmonize acceptance of the Gospel narrative as accurate with rejection of miracles. Works include Das Leben Jesu als Grundlage einer reinen Geschichte des Urchristentums; Exegetisches Handbuch über edi drei ersten Evangelien. See also Rationalismus vulgaris.
Syns. were held 850, 855, 866, 876, 878, 889, 997, 998, 1018 (1022?), 1046, 1049, 1076, 1081, 1114, 1128, 1160, and 1423 at Pavia (near Milan), Lombardy, N It. The 1018 (1022?) syn., convoked by Benedict* VIII, adopted severe resolutions against clerical marriage. The 1423 syn., convened by Martin* V, opened April 23 and moved in June to Siena (ancient Saena Julia), Tuscany, cen. It., because of the pest, was ineffective in attempts at reform because of national controversies and attempts to limit the papacy. See also Celibacy.
(Pax board; Pax; Osculatorium). Plate, or board, with projecting handle on back, used, e.g., by Dominicans* and Carthusians* to convey the kiss* of peace esp. to laity and mems. of the choir at mass.*
(15701637). B. Nagyvárad (Oradea, or Oradea Mare; Ger.: Grosswardein), Rumania, of Ref. parents; RC at 13; Jesuit 1587/88; priest 1596; prof. Graz 1597; abp. Esztergom (Ger.: Gran), Hung., 1616; cardinal 1629. Opposed Prots. in sermons and writings; won the 30 leading noble families for RCm; leader of the Counter* Reformation in Hung..
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