In the 19th c. and 1st part of the 20th c. this term played an important role in Lutheranism in America. Attempts at definition affected relations bet. the Iowa Syn. and the Missouri Synod. In an 1867 colloquy bet. the 2 syns. it was agreed to regard the term as equivalent to theol. problems in this sense, that the Bible does not solve them; e.g., on which creation day were the angels created? See also Brief Statement; Fundamental Doctrines, 4; Toledo Theses (Ohio and Iowa), IV.
(Lat. works paid in addition). The RC Ch. teaches that by works of penance and charity saints gained more merit than was needed to meet the obligations of duty and the requirements of the Law for salvation; this excess of merit, with Christ's merit, is in the keeping and at the disposal of the ch. and can be applied by it to the needs of those who have not enough merit of their own to keep them out of purgatory. From this treasury of the ch. the RC Ch. claims to impart in granting indulgences.*
(Obizo; Opitz von Boberfeld; 15971639). Poet, metrical reformer, critic; b. Bunzlau, on the Bob(e)r R., Ger.; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Heidelberg; prof. Weissenburg; held various pol. and diplomatic offices. Hymns include Brich auk und werde lichte.
Term used to express RC doctrine that the 7 RC sacraments* confer grace by the act in itself, apart from faith. Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Sess. VII, Canons on the Sacraments in General, Canon 8: If anyone says that by the sacraments of the New Law grace is not conferred ex opere operato, but that faith alone in the divine promise is sufficient to obtain grace, let him be anathema. Ap XIII 18: We condemn the whole crowd of scholastic doctors who teach that unless there is some obstacle, the sacraments confer grace ex opere operato, without a good disposition in the one using them. Cf. Ap IV 63; XII 12. Not to be confused with ex* opere operantis. See also Grace, Means of, I, 8.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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