Christian Cyclopedia

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Occasional Ceremonies.

Ceremonies or offices serving certain special occasions; in the Angl. and E Orthodox Ch. they include, e.g., Baptism, Marriage, Burial.

Occasionalism.

View developed esp. by A. Geulincx* and N. de Malebranche*; denied possibility of mind-matter interaction; assumed that on occasion of each soul process God produces corresponding motion or sense-perception in the body.

Occom, Samson

(Ockum; Occum; 1723–92). Mahican Presb. cleric; b. Mohegan, New London Co., Connecticut; converted ca. 1740 in Great* Awakening; studied privately 1743–47; teacher and minister to Montauk Indians on Long Is. 1749–59, preaching for Congregationalists; ordained Presb. 1759; miss. to Oneida Indians 1761–63; solicited funds in Eng. for Indian charity school, inc. 1769 as Dartmouth Coll.; itinerant preacher in New Eng. 1768–89; pastor among Oneida in New York during last yrs. of his life; hymnist. Issued A Choice Collection (or Selection) of Hymns and Spiritual Songs.

Occultism

(from Lat. occultus, “hidden; concealed”). Belief in hidden or mysterious powers and the possibility of controlling them. See also Theosophy; Spiritism.

Ochino, Bernardino

(1487–1564). B. dist. dell' Oca, Siena, It.; Observant Franciscan ca. 1504; Capuchin 1534; Prot. ca. 1541; fled to Geneva, Switz., 1542 to escape the Inquisition*; in Augsburg 1545–47, London 1547–53; pastor Zurich 1553–63; banished; made his way via Basel, Mulhouse in Alsace, and Nürnberg to Poland and finally to Moravia. Works include a catechism issued while he was in Zurich. See also Acontius, James; Socinianism, 1.

Ochs, Carl Ernst Christoph

(February 10, 1812–November 16, 1863). B. Greglineng, Württemberg, Ger.; miss. of the Dresden Ev. Luth. Miss. (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission) to India 1842; engaged in indep. work 1859; joined Danish* Miss. Soc. 1863.

Ochsenford, Solomon Erb

(November 8, 1855–June 19, 1932). B. near New Hanover, Douglass Twp., Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained 1879 Pennsylvania Ministerium; pastor in Pennsylvania and New York; prof. Muhlenberg Coll. 1899–1909. Ed. Lutheran Church Almanac 1883–1904; other works include Documentary History of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America.

Ockham, William of

(Occam; ca. 1280? [some say ca. 1300]–ca. 1349). “Doctor invincibilis; Princeps nominalium; singular## ## venerabilis inceptor”; scholestic philos.; b. probably Ockham, Surrey, near London, Eng.; Franciscan; educ. Oxford; pupil, later rival, of J. Duns* Scotus; defended evangelical poverty against John XXII (see Popes, 13); imprisoned at Avignon, Fr.; escaped; excommunicated 1328; probably spent remainder of life at Munich, Ger. Advocated independence of civil rule. Nominalist; held that the real is always individual, universals are abstractions (a view also called terminism or Ockhamism). Works include Quaestiones et decisiones in quattuor libros sententiarum; Desacramento altaris et de corpore Christi. See also Christian Faith and the Intellectual, 3; Franciscans; Nominalism; Philosophy; Via moderna.

Octave.

Originally the 8th day after a ch. feast or festival, beginning the count with the day of the feast or festival itself; later the term came to denote all 8 days.

Octoechos

(from Gk. oktoechos [sc. biblos], “book of 8 tones”). Liturgical book of the E Orthodox Ch.; contains variable parts of the services from the 1st Sunday after Pent. to the 10th Sunday before Easter.


Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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Concordia Publishing House
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Content Reproduced with Permission

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