William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (18681963; b. Great Barrington, Massachusetts, of mixed Fr., Dutch, and Afr. descent; educ. Fisk U., Nashville, Tennessee, and Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; taught at Wilberforce [Ohio] U., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Atlanta [Georgia] U.; works include Black Reconstruction; Color and Democracy) and 28 other African-American professional men met 1905 at Niagara Falls, Ont., Can., to form a protest movement in behalf of Blacks. The Niagara Movement, as it came to be known, held further meetings 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909. Its mems. joined white liberals. The NAACP was inc. 1910. Goal: soc., pol., and economic equality for Blacks Organ: The Crisis.
F. L. Broderick, W. E. B. DuBois: Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis (Stanford, California, 1959); W. H. Burns, The Voices of Negro Protest in America (New York, 1963); L. Hughes, Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP (New York, 1962); NAACPAn American Organization (New York, 1960); W. D. St. James, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups (New York, 1958); International Library of Negro Life and History: W. S. Robinson, Historical Negro Biographies, 2d ed., rev. (New York, 1969) and C. H. Wesley, The Quest for Equality: From Civil War to Civil Rights (New York, 1968/69). EL
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