(Moses ben Nachman; also called Ramban by acronym of Rabbi Moses ben Nachman; 1194ca. 1270). Jewish scholar; b. Gerona (ancient Gerunda) NE Sp.; mystic; philologist; Talmudist; banished for blasphemy in a 1263 public disputation with a Christian; d. in Palestine. Works include a commentary on the Pentateuch.
(Kaspar; 162485). B. Halle, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; diaconus 1651, pastor 1655 Meeder, near Coburg; pastor Coburg 1671; hymnist. Hymns include Dies ist die Nacht, da mir erschienen; Kommst du nun, Jesu, vom Himmel herunter auf Erden; So gehst du nun, mein Jesu, hin.
(180984). Luth. theol.; b. Bahn (Stecklin?), Pomerania; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; revival preacher on Wolin Is.; opposed Prussian* Union; formed separate Luth. ch.; supt. of Old* Luths. in Breslau; taught divine right of ch. govt. (see also Huschke, Georg Philipp Eduard).
In 1530 Franciscans* were given permission to celebrate the Feast of the Name of Jesus January 14; 1721 it was made a gen. observance for the whole RC Ch. on the 2d Sunday after Epiphany*; Pius X (see Popes, 30) reset the date for the RC ch. on the Sunday bet. January 1 and 6, or, when there is no such Sunday, January 2. In the Luth. Ch. the Circumcision and the Name of Jesus are commemorated January 1.
(Nanino; ca. 15601623). Brother of G. M. Nanini*; b. Vallerano, Viterbo, It.; RC composer; maestro di cappella S. Luigi de' Francesci in Rome 1599, later at S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Works include motets, psalms, and a Venite, exultemus.
(Fr.: Napoléon Bonaparte; It.: Napoleone Buonaparte; 17691821). le Petit Caporal; the Corsican; b. Ajaccio, Corsica; Fr. Consul 1799, emp. 180409, 181014; assumed title of king of It. 1805; became practical master of the Continent; put relatives on Eur. thrones; defeated at Waterloo 1815; d. in exile on St. Helena. See also Concordat 5; France, 5.
(Narses; 399ca. 502/503). The Leper; b. 'Ain Dulbe, on the Tigris R., Persia; taught at Edessa* from ca. 437; deposed for his Nestorianism ca. 457; taught at Nisibis* ca. 457ca. 497. See also Barsumas, Thomas; Schools, Early Christian, 5.
(Noël, Alexandre; 16391724). Dominican ch. hist.; b. Rouen, Fr.; sympathetic to Jansenism*; opposed Unigenitus* 1714. Works include Selecta historiae ecclesiasticae capita; Theologia dogmatica et moralis secundum ordinem Catechismi Concilii Tridentini.
(September 14, 1866February 13, 1904). B. Bautzen, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig Miss. Sem.; miss. to India 1887; separated with F. E. Mohn* from Leipzig Miss. for reasons of conscience 1893; both joined the Mo. Syn., came to US via Ger., and were commissioned 1894 as the first Mo. Syn. missionaries to India; est. a miss. at Krishnagiri, Salem Dist., Madras Presidency, India; d. at Krishnagiri. See also India, 13; Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The, VI 8; Missions, 10.
Founded 1914 by Philip Wittich. See also International Pentecostal Assemblies.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (18681963; b. Great Barrington, Massachusetts, of mixed Fr., Dutch, and Afr. descent; educ. Fisk U., Nashville, Tennessee, and Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts; taught at Wilberforce [Ohio] U., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Atlanta [Georgia] U.; works include Black Reconstruction; Color and Democracy) and 28 other African-American professional men met 1905 at Niagara Falls, Ont., Can., to form a protest movement in behalf of Blacks. The Niagara Movement, as it came to be known, held further meetings 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909. Its mems. joined white liberals. The NAACP was inc. 1910. Goal: soc., pol., and economic equality for Blacks Organ: The Crisis.
F. L. Broderick, W. E. B. DuBois: Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis (Stanford, California, 1959); W. H. Burns, The Voices of Negro Protest in America (New York, 1963); L. Hughes, Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP (New York, 1962); NAACPAn American Organization (New York, 1960); W. D. St. James, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups (New York, 1958); International Library of Negro Life and History: W. S. Robinson, Historical Negro Biographies, 2d ed., rev. (New York, 1969) and C. H. Wesley, The Quest for Equality: From Civil War to Civil Rights (New York, 1968/69). EL
Formed 1955 by merger of Am. Assoc. of Group Workers, Am. Assoc. of Med. Soc. Workers, Am. Assoc. of Psychiatric Soc. Workers, Am. Assoc. of Soc. Workers, Assoc. for the Study of Community Organization, Nat. Assoc. of School Soc. Workers, Soc. Work Research Group. Purposes include: strengthening and unifying the soc. work profession in gen.; developing soc. work practices in particular. Pub. Social Work Year Book; quarterly Social Work. HQ NYC.
See Baptist Churches, 31.
Organization opposed to secret socs.; organized 1868 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Nat. Assoc. of Christians Opposed to Secret Societies by representatives of 17 denominations; inc. 1874 as The Nat. Christian Association. Pub. Christian Cynosure. HQ Chicago, Illinois See also Blanchard, Charles Albert.
Formed 1950, Cleveland, Ohio, by merger of:
Others joining later include:
Organized 1932 Kansas City, Missouri, as David Spiritual Temple of Christ Ch.; larger organization effected 1936; held that wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, divers kinds of tongues, and interpretation of tongues are spiritual gifts; claimed to be the true and universal ch. of Christ and not simply another denomination. See also Holiness Churches, 2.
Coordinating agency of religious bodies holding the Wesleyan-Arminian view; organized 1867; name changed in early 1970s to Christian Holiness Association.
1. Organized 1918 as a common agency for The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA, the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am., the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States, the Augustana* Ev. Luth. Ch., The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 13, 15), the Lutheran* Free Ch., and The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3). The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S joined soon thereafter.
Cooperative efforts to promote and publicize the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the Reformation in 1917 gave original incentive to its organization. The Nat. Luth. Commission for Soldiers' and Sailors' Welfare was organized October 1917 to give spiritual ministration to men in the armed forces. The Luth. Bureau was est. November 1917 to issue publicity.
2. On initiative of the Ex. Com. of the Nat. Luth. Commission for Soldiers' and Sailors' Welfare, 15 representatives of various Luth. bodies met in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, July 17, 1918, and elected a planning committee of 8, which met in Pittsburgh August 1, 1918. The NLC was organized at Chicago, Illinois, September 6, 1918.
3. No formal constitution was adopted, but stated purposes included: providing statistical information; publicity; pub. relations; coordinating Luth. activities and agencies; fostering Christian loyalty and a righteous relation bet. ch. and state.
7. Scope and activity of the NLC were enlarged as a result of WW II. The Const. and Bylaws adopted 1945 recognized that the participating bodies accepted the Bible as the Word of God and the only source, norm, and guide of Christian faith and life, and the UAC and M. Luther's Catechism as the true exposition and presentation of the doctrine of the Bible.
8. Purposes and objectives stated in the 1945 Const. and later amendments:
b. To bring to the attention of the participating bodies matters which in its judgment may require utterance or action on their part.
(1) Nat. and state govts.
g. To undertake and carry on such work as may be authorized by the participating bodies in fields where coordination or joint activity may be desirable and feasible, e.g., publicity, statistics, welfare work, missions, educ., student work.
h. To take the necessary steps to meet emergencies requiring common action, each participating body to determine the extent of its cooperation in emergency work.
i. To undertake additional work with the specific consent of the participating bodies.
9. Representation was on the basis of 1 for every 100,000 confirmed mems., or one-third fraction thereof, provided, however, that each participating body be entitled to at least 1 representative. Mem. bodies helped form The United* Luth. Ch. in America, the American* Luth. Ch., and the Lutheran* Ch. in Am.
(18541924). B. Düsseldorf, Ger.; educ. Berlin, Bonn, Strasbourg; prof. Marburg; neo-Kantian philos.; composer, mainly of piano pieces and songs. Philos. works include Platos Ideenlehre; Allgemeine Psychologie; Sozialidealismus; Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi.
Term used, with natura naturata, by Averroes (see Arabic Philosophy), F. G. Bruno,* Nicholas* of Cusa, and B. Spinoza.* Natura naturans designated the creative force, or God as the active power of nature; natura naturata designated the created substance.
Branch of knowledge or inquiry involving study, description, and classification of natural objects of Bible times (e.g., animals, plants, minerals).
(Lat. lex naturalis). 1. Term used in various senses and more or less synonymous with natural justice (ius [jus] naturae, ius [jus] naturale), the law of nations (ius [jus] gentium), and natural rights.
2. The concept of natural law was first developed by early Stoics, but the term was coined by later (Roman) Stoics (see Stoicism). Over against those who held that all laws of men are but the product of utility and convention, the Stoics, following Socrates* and Aristotle,* asserted that behind all changing laws of man is the changeless law of nature. They believed that nature has a rational basis and that human reason is a reflection of this rationality. They concluded that, by thinking rationally, man can know not only what is but also what ought to be. The content of natural law, they believed, is deducible from those rules of conduct that are similar among widely separated peoples. This concept of natural law was further developed by Roman jurists and embodied in the Institutes of Justinian* I (supplements to the Code of Theodosius* II). Roman jurists considered natural law the basis of civil law but rarely put it into practice. They called on it to supplement civil law but never invoked it to invalidate laws in conflict with natural law (e.g., those governing property rights and slavery).
3. Ch. fathers, esp. Lat., some of whom were deeply influenced by Roman law, shared this concept of natural law but identified it with the primitive natural revelation of God in man's heart, the innate knowledge of right and wrong, and regarded it as evidence of the truth of Ro 2:1415.
4. This concept was further developed, but not fundamentally modified, by medieval thinkers. Thomas* Aquinas divided all law into 4 classes: (1) eternal law (exists only in the mind of God); (2) divine law (part of eternal law and directly revealed to men); (3) natural law (discernible by human reason and the knowledge of which has been moving from the imperfect to the perfect); (4) human law (implementation of natural law within the changing situations of life). But such thinking remained essentially speculative and had little or no practical effect on the development of law and govt.
5. Not till modern times was the concept of natural law implemented by pol. action. In fact, this concept more than any other supplied philos. justification for the great revolutionary movements that have marked Western civilization since the 17th c. The Prot. Reformation gen. accepted the patristic view of natural law. M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon* followed Augustine* of Hippo in regarding the decalog as the directly revealed codification of natural law. But the Renaissance, esp. in its humanistic aspects, deemphasized the divine and overemphasized the purely rational character of natural law. As a result, in the age of reason (see Age of Reason, 2) the concept of natural law was pressed into service as the ideological basis of natural rights, the social contract (see Government), constitutional govt. based on the consent of the governed, and the right of revolution. In one form or another this is the view of T. Hobbes,* J. Locke,* T. Jefferson (see Deism, III, 1; V), T. Paine,* and J. J. Rousseau.* The most typical and pol. effective expressions of this view are the Am. Declaration of Independence and the Fr. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (see France, 11). Early 19th-c. individualistic, liberal, democratic thought and action were largely the fruits of this concept.
6. The concept of natural law has been under increasing attack, esp. from 2 quarters: (1) the hist. school of jurisprudence regards law as nothing more than a product of hist. development; (2) positive soc. scientists regard law as nothing more than a result of personal and soc. relationships. Writers who profess to have rediscovered the spiritual and teleological character of the universe support the concept of natural law.
7. In Luth. theol., natural law is a remnant of the knowledge with which man was created. Because man's awareness of natural law was obscured by sin, God gave man the decalog and elaborated on it in the Bible. Acc. to the principle of sola* scriptura, the law from within (subjective morality) must be interpreted in light of the law from without (objective morality). WB
G. W. Paton, A Text-Book of Jurisprudence, 2d ed. (Oxford, 1951); R. W. Carlyle and A. J. Carlyle, A History of Medieval Political Theory in the West, 6 vols. (New York, 190336); K. G. Stöckhardt, Commentar über den Brief Pauli an die Römer (St. Louis, 1907).
Term with various meanings corresponding to the different senses in which nature and natural may be used.
In theol. and philos.: the teaching that religions truth is derived from nature (see also Natural Theology), that there is no reality except matter, that all, even psychical, phenomena may be explained through natural sciences, esp. chemistry and physics, and that their ultimate basis is matter and motion. Such a view leads to materialism* and atheism* and hardly differs from positivism.*
In ethics: the doctrine that nature and natural impulses are the highest guide of man in moral conduct; variously developed in Stoicism* and by J. J. Rousseau,* L. N. Tolstoi,* and F. W. Nietzsche*; may lead to elevation of every personal desire to a moral law, contempt of marriage, glorification of the nude.
In art: tendency to avoid all idealization and portray only reality.
In literature: tendency to picture men and circumstances true to reality, often emphasizing the immoral.
See also Secularism.
(Henry; September 21, 1881May 17, 1956). B. Beltershausen, Marburg, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. to India 190514; hosp. chaplain Chemnitz, Ger., 191418; vacancy pastor Berlin 191819; prof. Luther Coll., New Orleans, Louisiana (see Luther College, 4), 192125; pres. Immanuel* Luth. Coll., Greensboro, North Carolina, 192550; helped make miss. survey of Nigeria 1935 (see also Africa, C 14; miss. in Calabar Province, Nigeria, Afr., 193637; explored Muslim miss. opportunities in Iran and India 1949; miss. to Muslim in India 195154. Ed. The Minaret 194551; other works include Prolegomena zu Pattanattu Pillaiyars Padal: Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der hohen philosophischen Fakultät der Preussischen Vereinigten Friedrichs-Universität, Halle-Wittenberg (hist. of Tamil literature); Vanji Bhumi: Einiges uber Travancore and seine Bewohner; We Move into Africa. See also Society for the Promotion of Mohammedan Missions.
(182788). Luth. composer, musicologist; b. Berlin, Ger.; pupil of J. L. F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy.* Works include Illustrierte Musikgeschichte (tr. F. Praeger, Ed. F. A. G. Ouseley, The History of Music); Christus der Friedensbote (oratorio); Psalms for the ch. yr.
(March 14, 1865February 5, 1917). B. Dresden, Ger.; attended Lat. school in Niederplanitz conducted by K. G. Stöckhardt*; to Am. 1878; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor in that part of Dakota Territory which became S. Dak. 1889; pastor Gibbon, Minnesota, 1895, simultaneously joining the Minnesota* Syn.; pastor Wood Lake, Minnesota, ca. 1904, and of the parish in and near Goodhue, Minnesota, 1913; moved to St. Paul 1915; pres. Minnesota Syn. 191217.
(August 30, 1901March 30, 1972). B. Glenwood City, near Menomonie, Saint Croix Co., Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Saxony pastor at Chemnitz, Schoenfeld, Annaberg, and Hamburg, Ger.; pastor Altamont, Illinois, 1941; prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1948; participant in Bad* Boll conferences; originated Conc. Sem. Bible Lands Seminars 1965.
Diet (convention; assembly; Fürstentag) at Naumburg, Ger., 1561, at which Luth. princes and theols, reaffirmed the AC, 1531 ed. Dissension among Luths. after P. Melanchthon's* death and the scheduled reopening of the Council of Trent* had made reunification of Luths. desirable. But some did not sign the statement drawn up at Naumburg on grounds that certain heresies were not mentioned and condemned and that disputed arts. had not been directly dealt with. The diet declined an invitation to participate in the Council of Trent (because the invitation addressed the princes as sons of the pope) and expressed desire for a nat. Ger. diet with vote as well as voice for the Ger. princes. See also Lutheran Confessions, C 1.
In W Pacific Ocean, just S of Equator. Area: ca. 8 sq. mi. Contacted 1798 by Brit.; part of Ger. Empire 1886; League of Nations mandate administered by Australia after WW I; occupied by Jap. in WW II; UN trust territory administered by Australia 1947; indep. 1968. Ethnic groups: Nauruans 57%, Pacific islanders 26%, Chinese 18%, European 8%, Official language: Nauruan; other: English. Religion: mostly Christian.
(Grau; Blancicampianus; ca. 1480 [1490?]1552). RC theol.; b. Waischenfeld, Upper Franconia, Bav., Ger.; accompanied L. Campeggio* to Ger. 1524 with the assignment to lure P. Melanchthon* back to the RC Ch.; pastor Frankfurt am Main 1526 but forced to flee by the pro-Luth, cong.; preacher cathedral ch., Mainz; court preacher Vienna 1534; took part in Hagenau* Colloquy and Colloquy of Worms*; participated in Council of Trent* beginning 1551; favored Communion under both kinds and marriage of clergy.
1. Judaizing Christian sect that united belief in the Messiahship of Jesus with observance of the Mosaic Ceremonial Law but without rejecting the authority of Paul and the validity of Gentile Christianity.
2. Sect also known as Württemberg Pietists; founded by Johann Jakob Wirz (17781858; b. Basel, Switz.; silk-weaver), who claimed to have been made a priest by Jesus 1826; awaits the coming of the 3d period, that of the Holy Spirit, in the 3 dispensations of God.
3. Assoc. of Ger. painters founded 1809 Vienna by J. F. Overbeck* et al.; moved to Rome 180911; others assoc. with the group in course of time included P. J. v. Cornelius,* J. Schnorr* v. Carolsfeld, F. W. v. Schadow-Godenhaus,* J. v. Führich,* and E. J. v. Steinle.* Called Nazarenes because of their long hair; also called Lukasbund (Guild of St. Luke) and Lukas-brüderschaft (Brotherhood of St. Luke).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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