(original name Marcus Annius Verus; after 139 Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus; 121180). Roman emp. 161180; Stoic philos.; b. Rome; adopted by Antoninus Pius; emp. with Lucius Aurelius Verus (original name Aelius Aurelius Commodus; son of Lucius Ceionius Commodus [d. 138]; 130169; b. Rome; adopted by Hadrian and by Antoninus Pius) 161169; sole emp. 169; probably supported the persecutions of Christians that occurred in his reign. Works include Meditations. See also Ethics, 3; Persecution of Christians, 3.
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