(18651946). B. Hoya, Ger.; soc. worker; defended women's rights; tried to achieve for women a place in the ch. in harmony with the NT; helped est. Christian-social female sem. in Hannover 1905; demanded the right to vote in ch. for women 1918; mem. Reichstag 192032.
(April 5, 1885April 15, 1967). B. Town Freedom, Waseca Co., Minnesota; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Instructor Luther Coll., New Orleans, Louisiana, 190711; Wittenberg* Academy, Wittenberg, Wisconsin, 191113; Pastor Hubbell, Michigan, 191317; Ottawa and Marseilles, Illinois, 191720. Prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192064. Ed. Missionstaube; other works include My Church and Others; Faith of Our Fathers; Faith Unshaken; The Church at Corinth; Luther's Large Catechism; Christian Dogmatics; Problem Sermons for Young People.
(16531704). B. Mégève, Alsace; Ger. composer; organist Strasbourg, Salzburg, Passau. Works include Armonico tributo cioé Sonate di camera commodissime a pocchi ò a molti stromenti; Apparatus musico-organisticus.
Sect founded ca. 1652 by L. Muggleton* and his cousin John Reeve (160858), who claimed to be the 2 witnesses of Rv 11:36; rejected the Trin.; held that Elijah ruled in heaven while God lived as Jesus on earth; became extinct ca. 1868.
(Mahomet; Mahomed; Moham[m]ed; 570632). Founder of Islam*; b. Mecca, Arab.; acc. to tradition, a caravan conductor; m. a rich widow merchant 595; engaged in religious contemplation; moved by alleged divine call, began reform movement in Mecca ca. 610; first taught openly ca. 613; opposed by Meccan leaders; fled 622 to Yathrib, later called Medina (the City, i. e., of the prophet); this flight, called Hegira (from Arab. hijrah, flight), came to be regarded as the beginning of the Muhammadan era; Muhammad organized a military force; gained control of Mecca 628630, which became the religious capital of Islam, with Medina the pol. capital. See also abu-Bakr; World Community of Al-Islam, The.
W. M. Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Stateaman (London, 1961).
1. Henry Melchior Mühlenberg (September 6, 1711October 7, 1787). B. Einbeck, Ger.; educ. Göttingen; teacher at Halle; ordained 1739; diaconus and inspector of an orphans' home at Grosshennersdorf, Upper Lusatia (Silesia) 173941; to Pennsylvania 1742 as pastor of Luth. congs. at Philadelphia, New Providence (also called Providence; now called Trappe), and New Hanover (Falckner's Swamp, Montgomery Co.).
2. In course of time he extended his services to guide, advise, and organize other congs., esp. in New York, New Jersey, and Georgia; helped organize the Pennsylvania Ministerium 1748 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); semi-retired 1776.
3. His staunch Lutheranism was tinged with Pietism.*
5. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746October 1, 1807). B. Trappe, Pennsylvania; educ. Halle, Ger.; returned to Pennsylvania 1767; ordained by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1768; pastor Bedminster (Somerset Co.) and New Germantown (Hunterdon Co.), New Jersey, 176971; ordained Angl. priest London, Eng., 1772, to meet requirements for serving in Virginia; pastor Woodstock, Va., till 1776; officer in the Continental Army 177683; political offices included mem. Supreme Ex. Council of Pennsylvania 1784, vice-pres. Pennsylvania 178587, mem. Pennsylvania Const. Conv. 1790, repeatedly mem. US Congress 17891801, Pennsylvania revenue officer 180107.
6. Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (January 1, 1750June 4, 1801). Grandfather of W. A. Muhlenberg (see par. 11); b. Trappe, Pennsylvania; educ. Halle, Ger.; returned to Pennsylvania 1770; ordained by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1770; pastor Pennsylvania and New York 177079; entered politics; mem. Continental Congress from Pennsylvania 177980; mem. Pennsylvania House of Representatives 178083; mem. US House of Representatives from Pennsylvania 178997; 1st speaker of US House of Representatives and speaker in 3d Congress. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
7. Gotthilf Henry Ern(e)st Mühlenberg (November 17, 1753May 23, 1815). B. Trappe, Pennsylvania; educ. Halle, Ger.; returned to Pennsylvania 1770; ordained by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1770; pastor Philadelphia 177479, New Hanover 177980, Lancaster 17801815; 1st pres. Franklin Coll., Lancaster, 1787; botanist.
8. Eve Elisabeth Muhlenberg (Eva; Betsy; January 29, 17481808). Married Christopher Emanuel Schultze (January 25, 1740March 9, 1809; b. Saxony, Ger.; educ. Halle; ordained 1765 at Wernigerode; to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1765; pastor Philadelphia) 1766.
9. Margaret(ta) Henrietta Muhlenberg (Peggy; September 17, 1751October 23, 1831). Married J. C. Kunze.*
10. Maria Salome Muhlenberg (Mary; Sally; July 13, 1766March 13, 1827). Married Matthias Richards (Reichard; February 26, 1758August 4, 1830; b. near Pottstown, Pennsylvania; in Berks Co. [Pennsylvania] Militia 177778; mem. US House of Representatives from Pennsylvania 180711) 1782; their son J. W. Richards* was prominent in the Pennsylvania Ministerium.
11. William Augustus Muhlenberg (September 16, 1796April 8, 1877). Son of Henry Muhlenberg, who was a son of F. A. C. Muhlenberg (see par. 6); b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. U. Pennsylvania; ordained Episc. deacon 1817, priest 1820; in NYC 1852 he founded the Sisterhood of the Church of the Holy Communion, the 1st Am. order of Prot. Episc. deaconesses; hymnist. Hymns include I Would Not Live Alway; Savior, Who Thy Flock Art Feeding. See also Protestant Episcopal Church, 4 b.
12. Henry Augustus P'hilip Muhlenberg (May 13, 1782August 11, 1844). Son of G. H. E. Mühlenberg (see par. 7), father of H. H. Muhlenberg (see par. 13); b. Lancaster, Pennsylvania; m. Mary Hiester 1805, Rebecca Hiester 1808; licensed to preach 1802, ordained 1804; pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., Reading, Pennsylvania, 180328; mem. US House of Representatives from Pennsylvania 182938; minister to Austria 183840.
13. Hiester Henry Muhlenberg (January 15, 1812May 5, 1886). Son of H. A. P. Muhlenberg (see par. 12); b. Reading, Pennsylvania; trained for med. profession but abandoned that course 1842; cashier Farmers' Bank, Reading, 184286; 1st treas. General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.;
15. Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Jr. (August 25, 1818March 21, 1901). Luth. cleric; son of F. A. Muhlenberg Sr. (see par. 14); b. Lancaster, Pennsylvania; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; ordained 1854. Prof. Franklin Coll., Lancaster; Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania First pres. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 186776. Prof. U. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 187688; pres. Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, 189193.
See also Kunze, John Christopher.
The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, tr. T. G. Tappert and J. W. Doberstein, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 194258); Hallesche Nachrichten; W. J. Mann, Life and Times of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1911); M. L. Stoever, Memoir of the Life and Times of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, D. D., Patriarch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Philadelphia, 1856); W. Germann, Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg, Patriarch der Lutherischen Kirche Nordamerika's: Selbstbiographie, 17111743 (Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1881); W. K. Frick, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, Patriarch of the Lutheran Church in America (Philadelphia, 1902); H. A. Muhlenberg, The Life of Major General Peter Muhlenberg of the Revolutionary Army (Philadelphia, 1849); P. A. W. Wallace, The Muhlenbergs of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1950). RFM
(John Muehlhaeuser; August 9, 1804September 15, 1868). Father of the Wis. Syn.; b. Notzingen, Württemberg, Ger.; joined Christian young men's soc. Basel, Switz.; enlisted by C. F. Spittler* for a miss. trip to Austria, Hung., and Boh. 182932; imprisoned MarchOctober 1832 on charge of proselytizing and organizing secret socs.; released; returned to Notzingen; entered Rhenish* miss. house Barmen 1835; sent to Am. 1837 as teacher NYC; unsuccessful; ordained by New York Ministerium; pastor Rochester, New York, 183848; to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, June 1848 as colporteur; founded Grace Luth. Ch., Milwaukee, 1849, of which he was pastor to his death; 1st pres. (184960) of what was later called Wisconsin* Syn.; elected Senior 1860, an office created for him.
(Mülmann; Mulmannus; 1573 to 1613). Luth. hymnist; b. Pegau, near Leipzig, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Jena; held various clerical positions in Leipzig, Naumburg, and Laucha; prof. Leipzig 1607. Hymns include Dank [or Lob] sei Gott in der Höhe (While Yet the Morn is Breaking).
(17791829). Pol. economist and soc. philos.; b. Berlin, Ger.; united traditional, romantic, and Christian thought: the Absolute, God, is the unitive factor in organic development; by his birth in time, Christ is the bearer of hist. life; he becomes the restaurator generis humani and consequently the ch. becomes the symbol for unity and the goal of hist. Works include Die Elemente der Staatskunst in Vorlesungen.
(18281915). B. Sighisoara (Schässburg), Romania; bp. of the ev. ch. of Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) 18931906; tried to develop the inner potential of the ch. through soc. and philanthropic organizations.
(18841969). B. Langenthal, Transylvania, Romania; educ. Leipzig, Klausenburg, Vienna, Berlin; mem. educ. council Brasov (Kronstadt; renamed Stalin 1950), Romania, 1911; dir. of an ev. school for training lady teachers at Sighisoara (Schässburg), Romania, 1917; mem. Romanian school council 1922; pastor Sibiu (Hermannstadt) 1928; bp. Ev. Ch. of the AC in Romania 1945. Works include Völkerentwicklung und Christentum; Geschichtswirksamkeit des Evangeliums in seinem lutherischen Verständnis.
(18231900). Anglo-Ger. orientalist and philol.; b. Dessau, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Berlin; prof. Oxford 185468; researched mythology and comparative religion; held existence of only 2 kinds of religion: religion of salvation by works (all pagan religions) and religion of salvation by faith in Christ. Ed. Sacred Books of the East; other works include Science of Language; Chips from a German Workshop.
(180598). B. Kroppenstedt (Croppenstedt), near Halberstadt, Ger.; educ. Halle; began to preach 1826; to London 1829; joined Plymouth Brethren*; pastor Teignmouth 1830, Bristol 1832; est. The Scriptural Knowledge Institution for Home and Abroad 1834, orphanage at Bristol 1836, building his work on faith and prayer; engaged in a preaching mission in Eur., Am., India, Australia, and China beginning 1875. Works include A Narrative of Some of the Lord's Dealings with G. Müller. See also Primitive Religion.
(163175). Renowned Luth. devotional writer; b. Lübeck, Ger.; educ. Greifswald; archdeacon St. Mary's 1652, prof. Gk. 1659, theol. 1662, pastor St. Mary's 1662, supt. 1671, all in Rostock; exponent of orthodoxy; an example of living piety; popular preacher; hymnist. Works include Himmlischer Liebeskuss; Geistliche Erquickstunden.
(17411806). B. Sibiu (Hermannstadt), Transylvania (Siebenbürgen), Romania; educ. Jena; bp. of ev. Saxons in Transylvania 17921806; mildly rationalistic; Freemason. Works include Die Siebenbürger Sachsen.
(October 29, 1825December 26, 1900). B. Planena, near Halle, Ger.; to Am. with the 1839 Saxon immigration (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, II); 1st grad. of the sem. at Altenburg, Missouri Pastor Manchester, Missouri, 1847; Chicago, Illinois, 1856; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1863; several congs. in Somerset Co., Pennsylvania, 1870; Chester, Illinois, 1875. Vice-pres. E. Dist. 186773, Illinois Dist. 18851900, both of the Mo. Syn.
(18641949). B. Riesa, Saxony, Ger.; studied theol. under F. Delitzsch (see Delitzsch, 1) and F. H. R. v. Frank*; worked briefly in miss. to Jews; then initiated a miss. to the unchurched educated; est. a house for free development of personal life, with H. Lhotzky* as co-worker for a short time; moved the venture 1916 to Elmau castle, bet. Garmisch and Mittenwald. Held that man must be true to his essence; emphasized Sermon on the Mount; felt that national rebirth was at hand 1933, but admitted his error 1948.
(18541946). Theol. of Unitas fratrum (see Moravian Church, 3); hymnist; b. Niesky, Ger.; educ. at Moravian sem. Gnadenfeld. Ed. Zeitschrift für Brüdergeschichte; tr. Acta unitatis fratrum; other works include Zinzendorf als Erneurer der alten Brüderkirche.
(180178). Mediating theol.; b. Brieg (Brzeg), Silesia, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Breslau, and Berlin; defended the purpose of the Prussian* Union but refused to use the union ritual; prof. Göttingen, Marburg, and Halle. Works include Die christliche Lehre von der Sünde.
(18521940). Ch. hist.; b. Langenburg, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Göttingen; prof. Halle, Giessen, Breslau, and Tübingen; held that ch. hist. is only a part of hist. in gen. and must be written in connection with the latter without preconceived views.
(18601928). B. Franklin Co., Miss.; educ. S Bap. Theol. Sem., Louisville, Kentucky, and Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, Maryland; Bap. pastor Kentucky, Maryland, and Massachusetts; pres. S Bap. Theol. Sem. 1899, S Bap. Conv. 192124, Bap. World Alliance 192328. Works include The Axioms of Religion; Why is Christianity True?
(180782). Luth. theol.; b. Barskamp, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, and at the preachers' sem. in Hanover; pastor Lamspringe, near Hildesheim, 1840; supt. Catlenburg (Katlenburg-Duhm), near Northeim, 1851; supt. and consistorial councillor Buer (now part of Gelsenkirchen) and mem. Osnabrück consistory 1855; advocated complete separation of ch. and state; with L. A. Petri* and R. Steinmetz* founded Gotteskasten.*
(18301910). Cong. cleric; b. Bainbridge, New York; educ. Yale Coll. and Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut; pastor Massachusetts, California, and Connecticut; tried to relate New* Eng. Theol. to literature and educ. Works include On the Threshold; The Freedom of Faith; Lamps and Paths; Essays for the Day; Horace Bushnell, Preacher and Theologian.
(18981944). B. Maribo, Den.; original family name: Petersen; adopted at age 6 by the Munk family after his parents died; educ. Copenhagen; ordained 1924; pastor Vederso, W. Jutland, Den.; poet, dramatist; killed for opposing Nazism (see Socialism, 3). Works include En Idealist (Eng. tr. Herod the King); Cant (on the rise and fall of Anne Boleyn); Han sidder red Smeltedligen (Eng. tr. He Sits at the Melting Pot; portrays Hitler's Germany). See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 12.
(Michael Lieb; 18441900). Hung. hist. and genre painter; b. Munkács, Ruthenia (Hung.; now Mukachevo, Ukraine); studied in Vienna, Munich, and Düsseldorf. Works include Christ Before Pilate; Golgotha.
(March 23, 1804June 28, 1834). B. New Sharon, Maine; educ. Bowdoin Coll., Brunswick, Maine, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Indian Archipelago with H. Lyman.* See also Bataks; Indonesia, 4.
(14891552). B. Ingelheim, Ger.; Franciscan; supported the Luth. Reformation; became a pupil of J. Reuchlin*; taught Heb. in Heidelberg and Basel; made a rather literal tr. of the OT into Lat.; studied math, astronomy, geography; cosmographer.
Group of intellectuals, chiefly RC, est. in Münster, Ger., in the latter part of the 18th c. to discuss philos., pedagogy, and Christian perfection. See also Gallitzin, Adelheid Amalia; Hamann, Johann Georg; Stolberg, Friedrich Leopold von.
(or Tragedy). Jan Matthys (many variant spellings; d. 1534), a baker of Haarlem, Neth., and disciple of M. Hofmann,* announced 1533 that he was the Enoch foretold by Hofmann and gained a following in Münster, Westphalia, Ger. Aided by Bernhard Rothmann (Bernard; Bernd; Bernt; Rottmann; ca. 1495ca. 1535; cleric educ. at Deventer, Neth., in the school of the Brethren of the Common Life), B. Knipperdolling,* and John* of Leiden, Matthys tried to make Münster the New Jerusalem. Control of the city was taken by force. Knipperdolling became mayor 1534. Opponents of Anabaps. were driven out. Communism and polygamy were est. After Matthys' death, John of Leiden became leader and king. Bp. Franz von Waldeck (ca. 14921553) and others led the forces that captured Münster 1535. Many Anabaps. were massacred; their leaders were executed with savage torture. See also Millennium, 5.
(17611830). B. Gotha, Ger.; acquainted with J. W. v. Goethe,* F. G. Klopstock,* and F. L. v. Stolberg*; interested in poetry and archaeol.; led by C. W. F. Walch* and L. T. Spittler* to take up hist.; prof. Copenhagen, Den., 1788; bp. Sjaelland (Zealand; Seeland) 1808.
(Müntzer; ca. 1489/911525). Ger. enthusiast; b. Stolberg, Saxony; educ. Leipzig and Frankfurt an der Oder; preacher Zwickau 1520; tried to surpass M. Luther as reformer; fanatical ascetic and Anabap.; built religion on direct revelation; claimed enlightenment by inner light through visions, dreams, etc.; leader in Peasants'* War; defeated at Frankenhausen; beheaded.
(16721750). Hist. and RC theol.; b. Vignola, It.; priest 1695; librarian and archivist at Modena; discovered Muratorian* fragment. Comp. and ed. collections of theol. and hist. sources, including Rerum italicarum scriptores.
(Canon Muratori). 85-line fragment of a Lat. treatise (probably tr. from Gk.) on the Bible canon*; includes a list of NT books accepted as canonical in It. at the end of the 2d c.; does not mention Heb, Ja, 1-2 Ptr, and 1 of the epistles of Jn; mentions Apocalypse of Peter and Wis.; writings rejected include Shepherd of Hermas. Discovered 1740 by L. A. Muratori* in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. Author unknown.
(14751537). B. Oberehnheim (Obernai), Alsace; Franciscan; priest 1497; made poet laureate by Maximilian I; in Eng. 1523, supporting Henry VIII in conflict with M. Luther; returned to Ger. but was driven out by revolting peasants 1525; pastor Lucerne, Switz., 1526; driven out by Zwinglians. Satirist. Opposed Luth. Reformation.
(18281917). B. Graaff-Reinet, Union of S Afr.; educ. Aberdeen, Scot., and Utrecht, Netherlands. Dutch-Ref. pastor Bloemfontein, Union of S Afr., 1848; Worcester, Cape Province, Union of S Afr., 186064; Cape Town 186471. Pastor of a Huguenot community at Wellington, Cape Province, 1871. Founded a Huguenot sem. and miss. training school at Wellington.
(17411815). Father of Am. Universalism; b. Alton, Hampshire, Eng.; moved to Cork, Ireland, ca. 1752; joined Methodists ca. 1760; won for Universalism by James Relly* (see Universalists); excommunicated from the Meth. Ch.; to Am. 1770; itinerant preacher from New Eng. to Virginia; chaplain in Am. Revolution. Pastor Gloucester, Massachusetts, 177993; Boston 17931809. See also Ballou, Hosea.
(Wesch; West; ca. 14851547). B. Wiehe, near the Unstrut R. and Naumburg, Ger.; pastor Erfurt 1521, Jena 1527; inspector E. Thuringia 152829; pastor and supt. Rochlitz 1537; reformer of Rochlitz and Merseburg.
(161381). Great-grandson of S. Musäus*; brother of P. Musäus*; b. Langewiesen, near Arnstadt, Ger.; prof. Jena 1643; defended Lutheranism against RCs, Reformed, sectarians, deists, pantheists; charged with syncretism; signed a statement condemning all syncretism. Works include Introductio in theologiam. See also Erbermann, Veit. Synergistic Controversy.
(Latinized form of Meusel; 151481). B. Schneeberg, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; prof. Frankfurt an der Oder; polemic against the Interim,* A. Osiander* the Elder, F. Stancarus,* P. Melanchthon,* J. Calvin*; gen. supt. Brandenburg after J. Agricola* d. 1566; present at Torgau 1576, Bergen 1577 (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2). Works include Thesaurus (compilation of excerpts from writings of M. Luther*). See also Antinomian Controversy.
(Meusel; Meusslin; Mäusslin; Mösel; Mosel; Müsslin; 14971563). B. Dieuze, Lorraine; Benedictine till 1527, then ev. pastor; 153147 in Augsburg; signed Wittenberg* Concord; inclined to Confessio Tetrapolitana (see Reformed Confessions, D 1); attended Colloquy of Worms* and Regensburg* Conf. 154041; driven out of Augsburg by the Interim*; prof. Bern, Switz.; hymnist. Hymns include Christe, der du bist Tag und Licht (tr. of Lat. Christe qui lux es et dies).
Christ, His disciples, and Paul and Silas used music in worship (Mt 26:30; Acts 16:25). Pliny* the Younger wrote to Trajan (see Persecution of Christians, 3) that the Christians sing a hymn to Christ as God. Ch. fathers speak of Christian song. Ambrose* helped develop ch. music. Gregorian* music became standard.
A. M. T. S. Boethius* regarded music as part of mathematics and an instrument of philos. with ethical influence. Polyphony developed throughout the Gothic Period (ca. 1200ca. 1450). The Renaissance rejected some things in Boethius and F. M. A. Cassiodorus* but continued to stress the scientific aspects of music. As music flourished at courts it suffered in chs.
Under leadership of M. Luther good music flourished among his followers. In line with the doctrine of the universal priesthood of believers he encouraged singing of hymns by the cong. as well as the choir (see Luther, Hymns of). Luth. students of theol, were required to study liturgics, ch. music, and hymnology. Luther rated music next to theol. and made knowledge and appreciation of good music an important requirement for pastors and teachers. He regarded it as an aid to worship that helps present the Word and express reactions of the worshiper. In course of time the Luth. Ch. came to be known as the singing ch. with a rich musical heritage. See also Chant; Chorale; Chorale Prelude; Hymnody, Christian, 56; Luther, Liturgies of; cf. WA 35; WA-Br 5, 639; WA-T 3, 636, No. 3815.
Other 16th-c. Luth. leaders (e.g., P. Melanchthon,* J. Bugenhagen,* N. Selnecker,* J. Walther,* G. Rhau*) also adopted attitudes toward ch. music that allowed for progress and helped prevent obsolescence.
The Luth. heritage of hymns includes versions of parts of the liturgy (e.g., Agnus Dei: O Christ, Thou Lamb of God; Gloria in excelsis: All Glory be to God on High; Nunc dimittis: In Peace and Joy I Now Depart; Sanctus: Isaiah, Mighty Seer, in Days of Old).
Distinctions bet. ch., concert, secular, and folk music were rarely, if ever, made until the 16th c., when Reformed groups and the Council of Trent* raised points of difference. For hymn texts the Reformed (including Puritans and Pietists) required Bible texts (sometimes versified, e.g., by T. Beza* and C. Marot*). The E Orthodox Ch. and Angl. Ch. also have important schools of music.
Legislation of the Council of Trent was directed against the nonliturgical character of some ch. music, curtailment and unintelligibility of liturgical texts, and use of nonchurchly vernacular songs in ch. The 1903 motu proprio of Pins X (see Popes, 30) est. norms of holiness, true art, and universality for liturgical music and recommended Gregorian chant, classical polyphony, and approved modern compositions but disapproved the use of instruments, except the organ, in ch. In RCm choirs are a lower clergy; in the Luth. Ch., choirs are a part of the cong. Vatican II's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, ch. 6, contains a short code of sacred music.
Composers of Luth. ch. music include H. L. (v.) Hassler,* H. Schutz,* J. S. Bach,* J. L. F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy,* H. A. Distler,* Ernst Pepping (b. Duisburg, Ger., 1901; works include Spandauer Chorbuch; Choralbuch). WEB
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