Black basalt stele discovered 1868 at Dhiban (Biblical Dibon; Nm 21:30), E of the Dead Sea; 34-line inscription on it, Heb., tells of wars of Mesha (king of Moab) with Omri (king of Israel) and his successors, and with the Edomites.
Name applied to theologians in the Ch. of Scot. who favored patronage, held that civil courts were supreme in ecclesiastical matters, and defended a moderate orthodoxy; became prominent in the 2d half of the 18th c.; began to decline in the 1st part of the 19th c.
In Protestantism in gen., the officer presiding over assemblies or ch. meetings; in Presbyterianism, a presbyter appointed to preside over courts, presbyteries, syns., or gen. assemblies. See also Polity, Ecclesiastical, 7.
Angl. soc. founded 1898 as Churchmen's Union for the Advancement of Liberal Religious Thought (name changed 1928). Advocated liberal theol., restatement of doctrine, and alteration of liturgical forms. Included such men as E. W. Barnes,* W. R. Inge,* K. Lake,* H. Rashdall.*
1. Designation applied to the liberal movement that arose in some quarters of the RC Ch. toward the end of the 19th c. Under leadership of G. Tyrrell,* A. F. Loisy,* A. Houtin,* et al. modernism made considerable progress. In 1907 it was curbed by Pius X (see Popes, 30), who condemned it as the résumé of all the heresies. His 1910 motu* proprio Sacrorum antistitum required of clerics an oath for traditional RC belief and against modernism. See also Roman Catholic Church, The, A 8.
2. Modernism in Protestantism has roots in the early 19th c. Its premise is that there is no revealed and absolute truth and that man is constantly in search of religious truth. It is a theol. method rather than a system of beliefs; it follows principles of Ger. schools of liberal theol. F. D. E. Schleiermacher* claimed to find the source of truth in a pious feeling of dependence on God; A. B. Ritschl* emphasized the kingdom of God and ethics; E. P. W. Troeltsch* sought truth in the comparative study of all religions. Modern presuppositions in philos., science, sociol., and psychol. are considered basic to discovery of religious truth. Modernism claimed that the basic religious truths are: the fatherhood of God, the immanence of God, the brotherhood of man, the perfectibility of man.
3. Liberal theol. held that the function of the ch. was to est. the kingdom of God as an ethical and moral community. Since such a kingdom could not be est. until the soc. ideals of Jesus had permeated all human soc., liberal theol. invented the social* gospel. Modernism may, therefore, be summarized as follows: (a) The religious experiences of the past and the present are the criterion and standard of truth. The Bible is viewed as a record of religious experiences of OT and NT times. All religious concepts (e.g., sin, grace, redemption, heaven) must be reinterpreted in light of current religious experience. (b) It assumes that man's moral growth toward a unified personality is possible if man follows the biological and psychol. laws of the universe. Man must also have faith in his own inherent capability for his development for a good life. (c) The message of modernism is the soc. gospel. FEM
See also Fosdick, Harry Emerson.
J. G. Machen, Christianity and Liberalism (New York, 1923); S. Mathews, The Faith of Modernism (New York, 1924); C. J. Södergren, Fundamentalists and Modernists (Rock Island, Illinois, 1925); L. Berkhof, Recent Trends in Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1944); N. F. Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy, 19181931 (New Haven, Connecticut, 1954); Controversy in the Twenties: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Evolution, ed. W. B. Gatewood, Jr. (Nashville, Tennessee, 1969).
(Ch. Modes; Ch. Tones; Kirchentöne; Kirchentonarten). Medieval parent scales of our major and minor scales were used for all Gregorian and polyphonic ch. music till ca. 1600, to a lesser degree thereafter. The octave range of the individual modes may be related to any major scale; they are most commonly related to C major. One can easily determine the character of the individual modes by using only the white keys in playing the following octaves as so-called authentic modes: lonian (C-C), Dorian (D-D), Phrygian (E-E), Lydian (F-F; helped pave the way for F major by often using B flat instead of B natural to avoid the use of the tritone [an interval of 3 whole steps, or augmented 4th; here from F to B]), Mixolydian (G-G), Aeolian (A-A; same as a pure minor scale). The Hyperaeolian mode, beginning on the 7th degree, or leading tone, of the scale, was rejected, since this tone leans too heavily on the 1st degree. In relating to other major keys, one must use their key signature. Plagal (from Gk. plagios, oblique) modes began half an octave lower (Gk. hypo) than the authentic modes and had their keynote on the 4th scale step; e.g., with Dorian beginning on D, Hypodorian begins on A. Many 16th and 17th c. chorales are modal hymns. Many are in the Dorian and Phrygian modes, the soft Lydian mode being gen. avoided M. Luther's* chorale version of the Creed (TLH 251, 2d tune) is in the Dorian mode; From Depths of Woe I Cry to Thee (TLH 329) is in the Phrygian mode: A Mighty Fortress (TLH 262) is in the Ionian mode. Ecclesiastical modes, also called Gregorian modes or tones, are the 8 groups of chants corresponding to the 8 modes to which the Psalms are sung in the Gregorian system: Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, Lydian, Hypolydian, Mixolydian, Hypomixolydian. See also Gregorian Music; Psalm Tones. Sometimes, improperly, all modes are called ecclesiastical modes. WEB
(May 6, 1891November 21, 1950). B. Barnes, Kansas; educ. Conc. sem., Saint Louis, Missouri; pastor Champion 191416, Ainsworth 191621, Walton 192127, Grand Island 192738, all in Nebraska. Pres. S. Nebraska Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 193638, St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 193850.
(November 9, 1867May 9, 1933). B. Westphalia, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, Missouri Pastor Cairo, Illinois, 188992; Springfield, Massachusetts, 189299; New Britain, Connecticut, 18991905. Prof. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 190533. Works include The Festivals and Sacrifices of Israel; Word-Pictures of Bible Events.
(December 21, 1795August 9, 1883). B. Ormiston, W East Lothian, Scot.; LMS miss. 1816/17 to Bushmen, Hottentots, and Bechuanas in Afr.; won Afrikaner* for Christianity; organized a school for native helpers in Kuruman; on furlough to Eng. he met D. Livingstone* 1839 and influenced him for Afr. missions; tr. the Bible into Bechuana 1857; returned to Eng. 1870. See also Africa, A 6; B 3, 5, 10.
(18701944). B. Glasgow, Scot.; educ. Glasgow Academy, Glasgow U., Glasgow Coll. of the Free Ch. of Scot.; ordained Free Ch. 1896; pastor United Free Ch. 190711. Prof. Mansfield Coll., Oxford, Eng., 191115; Glasgow Coll. 191527; Union Theol. Sem., NYC 192744. Works include An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament; The First Five Centuries of the Church; The Thrill of Tradition; Bible tr.; commentaries. See also Bible Versions, L 13.
(Petr; Petrus; Piotr Simeonovitch; Moghila; Mohyla; ca. 1596- ca. 1647). Influential theol. of the E Orthodox Ch.; b. Moldavia, of a noble Wallachian family; metropolitan Kiev. Works include Orthodox Confession of the Faith of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church; a catechism; liturgical writings. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 1; Russia, 3.
(17961838). RC theol.; b. Igersheim, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Ellwangen; priest 1819; taught at RC sem. and U. of Tübingen; prof. Louis-Maximilian U., Munich, 1835; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher* and F. W. J. v. Schelling.* Opposed theory of papal infallibility; worked for Christian unity; taught invisibility of the ch. Works include Die Einheit in der Kirche; Athanasius der Grosse und die Kirche seiner Zeit, besonders im Kampfe mit dem Arianismus; Symbolik; Neue Untersuchungen der Lehrgegensütze zwischen den Katholiken und Protestanten.
(Theodor[e]? Edmund? Edmond? November 4, 1867June 18, 1925). B. Weisstropp [Weistoop?], near Dresden, Ger.; educ. Leipzig Miss. Sem.; miss. Negapatam, near Madras, India, 188994; commissioned by Mo. Syn. 1894: miss. Ambur, India, 18961913. Pastor Waubay, South Dakota, 191417; near Decatur, Indiana, 191722. See also India, 13; Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, VI, 8; Missions, 10.
(Gerhard; Walther; Wolter; van der Muelen; 16331722). Luth. theol.; b. Hameln, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt; prof. math 1659, theol. 1664 Rinteln; dir. Hannover consistory 1674; 1677 abbott Loccum (founded 1163 as a Cistercian monastery; reformed in the early 1590s); hymnist. Hymns include Ich trete frisch zu Gottes Tisch (Thy Table I Approach).
(Eduard; August 10, 1836-June 25, 1904). B. Insterburg, East Prussia; educ. Halle; amanuensis of F. A. Tholuck*; rector Eckersberg; teacher Elk (Ger.: Lyck, or Lück); ordained Königsberg July 1861; to Am. 1861 to be traveling miss. of the Wis. Syn.; 1st prof. Wis. Syn. coll. and sem. at Watertown, Wisconsin, 186366; returned to Ger.; pastor Johannisburg 1866; returnedto Am. 1869; pastor NYC; mem. of the New York Ministerium in the Gen. Council. Ed. Evangelisch-Lutherisches Gemeinde-Blatt.
(Moldenhauer? ca. 1753 to 1823). B. Königsberg, Germany. Prof. theol. and oriental and classical philol. Kiel 1777; ch. hist. and dogmatics Copenhagen, Den., 1784; advocated nationalistic supranaturalism.
(15351600). B. Cuenca, New Castile, Sp.; educ. Salamanca and Alcalá de Henares, Sp., and Coimbra, Port.; Jesuit 1553; prof. philos. Coimbra 156367; prof. theol. Évora, Port., 156883; prof. moral theol. Madrid, Sp., 1600. His teachings (Molinism) were widely accepted by Jesuits but disputed by Dominicans. Works include Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione, et reprobatione.
(Michael; 1628 [some say ca. 1640]ca. 1696). Quietist; b. Muniesa, near Saragossa, Sp.; educ. Valencia, Sp.; to Rome 1663; friend of many prelates, including future Innocent* XI. Held that perfection consisted in union with and transformation into God; in this state external observances are a hindrance and means of grace unnecessary. Wrote Guida spirituale (tr. into Lat. by A. H. Francke,* into Ger. by G. Arnold*). See also Quietism.
(15471606). B. Kropstädt, near Wittenberg, Ger.; educ. Görlitz; cantor 1568, diaconus 1569 Löwenberg; pastor Kesselsdorf 1572, Sprottau 1575, Görlitz 1600; used his initials as a reminder of the warning memento mori (Lat. remember that you must die); hymnist. Hymns include Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott.
(Molua; ca. 525/530592). Irish Pict; trained at Comgall's center at Bangor, Northern Ireland (see Celtic Church, 8); sent by Comgall to Pictland (now Scot.) 562; also worked in the Hebrides; est. several training centers (including one at Rosemarkie [now Fortrose], on the SE coast of the Black Isle peninsula, which juts into the North Sea, and one on the island of Lismore, in the entrance of Loch Linnhe, Argyll Co., W Scot.).
(18171903). Ger. hist. of Rome; jurist; b. Garding, Schleswig; educ. Kiel; prof. Leipzig 1848, Zurich 1852, Breslau 1854, Berlin 1858. Works include Römische Geschichte; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.
A. Dynamic Monarchianism. Christ is a mere man (though conceived by the Holy Spirit and born in a wonderful way of the Virgin Mary) whom God endowed with His power (Gk. dynamis). See also Adoptionism.
2. Theodotians. Followers of Theodotus* the Fuller; 2 of his followers, a certain Asclepiodotus (apparently a Gk.) and Theodotus* the Money Changer, tried unsuccessfully to found their own ch. at Rome.
4. Paul* of Samosata. Held that Jesus was from hence, and that the Logos worked in Him from above.
B. Modalistic Monarchianism. View that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not 3 persons but 3 modes or forms of God's activity; God revealed Himself as Father in the work of creation, as Son in the work of redemption (Patripassianism*), and as the Holy Spirit in the work of sanctification.
6. Sabellius.* Modalistic Monarchianism as developed under him is known as Sabellianism: God, the absolute monad, reveals Himself successively in 3 prosopa (Gk. faces), each representing the entire monad (Father: Creator and Lawgiver; Son: Redeemer; Holy Spirit: Lifegiver). Opposed by Dionysius* of Alexandria.
See also Unitarianism.
K. G. A. v. Harnack, History of Dogma, tr. N. Buchanan et al. (London, 189499); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 2d ed. (New York, 1960); F. Loofs, Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte, 4th rev. ed. (Halle, 1906); R. Seeberg, Text-book of the History of Doctrines, tr. C. E. Hay (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1952).
1. The term monasticism covers a variety of phenomena and institutions that grow from the common root of asceticism.* Underlying the formations of monasticism is the consciousness of sin and the desire for reconciliation with God. The monastic seeks this reconciliation by renunciation, e.g., of (a) the everyday world; (b) family; (c) property; (d) pleasure and comfort; (e) will; by acts of self-mortification and by frequent repetition of set prayers, acts of devotion, and religious meditation. Fundamental vows* of the monastic are vows of poverty, celibacy, and obedience.
2. Monasticism in its essential features was highly developed in India* and other parts of Asia before the Christian era. Christian monasticism originated in Egypt. Its first exponents (perhaps refugees from the persecution of Decius [see Persecution of Christians, 4]; perhaps others, who tried to attain moral perfection and everlasting happiness by escape from the sinful world) lived as hermits.*
3. Ca. 305 Anthony* began gathering hermits into colonies. Pachomius (ca. 290346 [348?]; b. at or near Esneh [Esna; Isna], ca. 25/30 mi. S of Thebes [Luxor], Upper Egypt; Christian monk ca. 314; see also Origenistic Controversy) founded the 1st cenobitic monastery.* Thereafter the hermitic type of ascetic life rapidly yielded to the cenobitic type. Basil the Great (see Cappadocian Theologians) gave monasticism standing and drew up regulations for its guidance (see also Basilians, 1). Through Athanasius,* Jerome,* et al. the monastic idea found acceptance in the W Many monasteries were founded under various rules. The rule of Benedict* of Nursia regulated monasticism in the W for many cents. (see Benedictines).
4. Boniface* and Ansgar* were Benedictines. Celtic* monks also played a significant role in miss. work. When growing wealth of monasteries and abbeys led to relaxation of the rule of Benedict, efforts at reform were made. In the 10th and 11th cents. Cluniacs (see Cluniac Reform) tried to reform monasticism. The beginning of the 12th c. saw a new effort at reform (see Cistercians). With the Crusades* arose military* religious orders. Mount Athos, Greece, came into prominence as a monastic center.
5. More radical than earlier reforms was the est. of the Franciscans* and Dominicans.* Other orders founded 11th14th c. include Carthusians,* Camaldolese,* Vallumbrosans,* Celestines.* Monasticism exerts a great liturgical influence on contemporary RCm.
6. The Luth. Reformation* repudiated the excesses and errors of monasticism (see Asceticism). RC orders active in the Counter* Reformation include Barnabites,* Capuchins,* Clerks Regular of Somascha,* Oratorians,* Society* of Jesus, Theatines,* Ursulines.* Other RC orders include Brothers* Hospitallers of St. John of God, Congregation* of the Brothers of Charity, Lazarists,* Maurists,* Oblate* Fathers, Trappists. Monasticism is practiced also in Islam,* Buddhism,* Jainism,* and other religions, but not in Judaism. Though Christian monasticism in the W is fostered primarily among RCs, there are also some Prot. communities. See also Abstinence.
7. The Luth. Confessions concede that virginity is a higher gift than marriage (Ap XXIII 19, 38, 69; LC I 211). They hold, however, that it is un-Christian to require monastic vows of those who do not have the gift of continence (Ap XXVII 51). They advocate that associations and monasteries be restored to the useful purposes for which they had been founded (SA II III 1). Abuses in monastic life are frequently censured. See also Asceticism.
W. Bousset, Apophthegmata: Studien zur Geschichte des ältesten Mönchtums, ed. T. Hermann and G. Krüger (Tübingen, 1923); The Library of Christian Classics, XII: Western Asceticism, ed. O. Chadwick (Philadelphia, 1958); D. Bonhoeffer, Life Together, tr. J. W. Doberstein (New York, 1954); J. O. Hannay, The Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (London, 1903).
(17961871). RC hist. and liturgical scholar; b. Mingolsheim, near Bruchsal, Baden, Ger. Prof. Heidelberg 181927, 183135; Louvain, Belg., 1827ca. 1830/31. Dir. Baden Archives 183568. Works include Lateinische und griechische Messen aus dem zweiten bis sechsten Jahrhundert.
(Mongolian People's Rep.). In E cen. Asia. Area: ca. 604,250 sq. mi. Formerly under China; indep. 1911; communist 1921. Ethnic groups: Khalkha Mongols 76%, other Mongols 8%, Kazakhs 5%; other Turks, Russ., Chinese. Official language: Khalkha Mongolian; others: Turkic, Russ., Chinese. Religion: Lama Buddhism, formerly prevalent, has been curbed. Probably had contact with Nestorians (see Nestorianism) by ca. the 10th c., but without great or lasting effect. RC miss. endeavors among Mongols began in the 13th c., Eng. and Scand. in the 19th c. No for. missionaries have been able to enter the Soviet Mongolian rep. est. in the 20th c. See also Russia, 2.
Metaphysical theory that reduces all phenomena to 1 material or spiritual principle. It considers God and world, matter and spirit, body and soul to be modifications of 1 principle. Manifestations of monism include pantheism,* which identifies God and the world; materialism,* which regards matter as basic reality; and spiritualism or idealism,* which regards spiritual beings or ideas as the only basis of reality.
Metaphysical monism is opposed to Christianity. The Bible asserts essential difference bet. Creator and creation.
(182389). B. London, Eng.; organist, composer. Prof. Nat. Training School for Music, London, 1876; Bedford Coll., London, 1878. Helped ed. Hymns Ancient and Modern; hymn tunes include Coronae, Energy (also called St. Ethelwald), and Eventide.
Family of Fr. Ref. theologians. (1) Frédéric Joel Jean Gérard (17941863). Brother of 2 and 3; father of 4, 5, and 6; b. near Morges, Vaud, Switz.; educ. Geneva; pastor Paris, Fr.; helped found Union des Eglises évangéliques libres de France 1849. (2) Guillaumé (180096). Brother of 1 and 3; b. Copenhagen, Den.; educ. Geneva, Switz.; held various pastorates; succeeded 3 in Paris 1856; founded free cong. 1874; fell victim to messianic delusions. (3) Adolphe Louis Frédéric Théodore (180256). Brother of 1 and 2; b. Copenhagen, Den.; educ. Geneva, Switz.; pastor Naples, It., 1825(1826?), Lyons, Fr., 1827; dismissed 1832; est. a free ch. at Lyons 1832; prof. Montauban 1836; pastor Paris 1847; regarded as one of the greatest preachers of the Ref. ch. in Fr. (4) Jean Paul Frédéric (18221907). Son of 1, brother of 5 and 6; b. Paris, Fr.; preacher Marseille 1848, then at Nimes; prof. dogmatics Montauban 186494. (5) Théodore (18361921). Son of 1, brother of 4 and 6, father of 7; b. Paris 1864; joined nat. ch. 1874; agent of the inner miss. in Fr. 1875; pastor Paris 1878. (6) Léopold (18441922). Son of 1, brother of 4 and 5; pastor Free Ch. Lyons 18691909. (7) Wilfred (18671943). Son of 5; b. Paris; prof. theol. free Prot. faculty Paris 1909; revived principles of gnosticism* and Manichaeism.*
(from Gk. monos, alone, and latreia, worship). Worship of 1 god.
As a result of the controversy, some orthodox bps. were deposed. Much of Palestine was carried away by the movement. In Egypt, Dioscurus (d. 454) wielded powerful influence; his party elected a patriarch with Eutychian tendencies 457, who was in turn expelled but returned with even greater prestige until 460, when he was banished. Antioch and Jerusalem were occupied by Monophysite bps. The Henoticon* failed to settle the controversy, which resulted in enduring schism. The Coptic* Ch., Syrian Jacobite Ch. (see Jacobites, 1), and Armenian* Chs. (see also Armenia) hold Monophysite views. See also Acacian Schism; Nonchalcedonian Churches.
(from Gk. monos, single, and physis, nature). The view that there is only 1 nature in Christ, namely the divine, or 1 compounded nature. Opposed to dyophysitism (see Dyophysites). See also Eutychianism; Monophysite Controversy.
(Monotheletism; Monothelism; from Gk. monos, single, and thelema, will). Belief that in Jesus Christ there was only 1 mode of activity (1 divine human energy; 1 volitional activity), or, as it came to be expressed, that Christ had only 1 divine human will. Opposed to Dyothelitism.*
In discussions aimed at healing the Monophysite* controversy, the terms 1 energy and 1 will or at least 1 state of will first came into prominence in Alexandria, Egypt, as descriptive of Monophysitism.* Honorius I sanctioned use of 1 will. Sophronius (ca. 560638; b. Damascus; patriarch Jerusalem ca. 634) took exception to 1 nature. The 6th ecumenical council on September 16, 681, sanctioned 2 natural wills and natural energies in Christ, holding that the wills are not opposed, but that the human will follows and is subordinate to the divine will. The Quinisext* Syn. homologated the condemnation of Monothelitism. Cf. Christ's human will, e.g., Mt 27:34; Jn 1:43; 17:24; 19:28; divine will Lk 13:24; Jn 5:21. See also Ecthesis; Christological Controversies; Constantinople, Councils of, 3.
(181175). Angl. cleric, hymnist; b. St. Columb's, Londonderry, Ireland; educ. Trin. Coll., Dublin. Hymns include Fight the Good Fight with All Thy Might; Lord of the Living Harvest; O'er the Distant Mountains Breaking.
(153392). B. Montaigne, near Bordeaux, Fr.; essayist; skeptical philos.; moralist; humanist; satirized the RC Ch. but did not leave it. Tr. Raymond* of Sabunde's Theologia naturalis; other works include Essais.
(Charles Forbes René de; 181070). Fr. RC hist.; b. London, Eng.; assoc. with H. F. R. de Lamennais* and J. B. H. Lacordaire*; worked for freedom of conscience, for separation of ch. and state, and for freedom of the press, assem., and instruction; submitted under papal condemnation for liberalism and became an outspoken exponent of RC principles in the Chamber of Deputies.
(d. after 1534). B. Gernsbach, near Speyer, Ger.; educ. Deventer, Neth.; joined Brethren* of the Common Life in Münster, Ger.; carried on friendly correspondence with P. Melanchthon* and M. Luther.* Works include textbooks, hymns, and songs.
In early NT times the immediate return of Christ was expected (2 Th 2:2). Fanciful hopes connected with that expected return led to chiliastic speculations, esp. among followers of Montanus.* Inveighing against increasing laxity and worldliness in the ch., he declared himself the instrument of the Paraclete promised by Christ (cf. Jn 14:16) and with 2 prophetesses (Prisca [or Priscilla] and Maximilla) announced the speedy est. of the millennium centered at Pepuza in Phrygia (hence Montanists have also been called Pepuzians and Cataphrygians). Adherents of the movement practiced asceticism. The movement spread through Asia Minor, Gaul, Sp., Rome, and N Afr.
(Moempelgard; Mömpelgard; Muempelgard; Mümpelgart). Held 1586 to compose differences bet. Luths. and Calvinists. J. Andreä* and T. Beza* discussed the Lord's Supper, person of Christ, images and ceremonies, Baptism, and election. Some agreement was reached, but deep differences remained. Those present included also L. Osiander* the Elder.
Monastery on site of ancient Casinum in cen. It.; est. ca. 529 by Benedict* of Nursia; cradle of Benedictine Order (see Benedictines); destroyed and rebuilt several times, most recently in and after WW II.
(18581938). B. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; exponent of liberal Judaism*; emphasized importance of rabbinic writing for understanding NT Works include Outlines of Liberal Judaism; The Synoptic Gospels.
(from Lat. mons, large mass, and pietas, piety and by transfer kindness). Medieval charitable institutions, or organizations, that lent money to the needy without interest or at comparatively low rates.
(16891755). Jurist, pol. theorist and philos., philos. hist.; b. Labrède, near Bordeaux, Fr.; educ. Bordeaux; championed freedom, moderation, toleration, and constitutional govt.; advocated division of govt. power into executive, legislative, and judicial branches; deist; moralist; believed in free will and natural law. Works include De l'Esprit des Loix; Lettres Persanes.
(18701952). B. Chiaravalle, near Ancona, It.; received med. degree from U. of Rome; influenced by J. Locke,* J. R. Pereire,* Edouard Seguin (181280; b. Clamecy, Fr.; physician; specialist in mental disease), et al. Devised methods for educ. feebleminded, later applied to younger, normal children; gave special attention to the child, learning materials, and prepared environment. Works include II metodo della pedagogia scientifica (Eng. tr. by A. E. George: The Montessori Method).
(15671643). Composer; b. probably Cremona, It.; master of both the old conservative style and of the new style of the Baroque* period; music dir. St. Mark's, Venice, 1613; priest ca. 1632; assoc. with early development of opera; popularized arias da capo (used by J. S. Bach* et al.); helped make accompanied music in chs. common. Works include masses, madrigals, and cantatas.
(17711854). Brit. poet, hymnist, ed., journalist; b. Irvine, Ayrshire, Scot., son of John Montgomery, an Irish Moravian minister; educ. at Moravian school at Fulneck, near Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng., to prepare for the ministry; parents sent to W Indies as missionaries 1783 and soon d. there; Montgomery then worked in Mirfield (near Wakefield), Wath (near Rotherham), and Sheffield; engaged in religious and philanthropic work. Ed. Sheffield Iris (formerly called Sheffield Register); wrote ca. 400 hymns, including Angels from the Realms of Glory; Go to Dark Gethsemane; Forever with the Lord.
(183799). Indep. evangelist; b. Northfield, Massachusetts; received grade school educ.; shoe salesman Boston, Massachusetts, 1854; originally Unitarian, became Cong. 1855; to Chicago, Illinois, 1856; opened a S S 1858; organized a nondenominational ch. 1863; pres. Chicago YMCA; conducted preaching tours in Eng. and Am. with I. D. Sankey*; founded the Bible school later called Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, and other institutions. See also Revivals, 2.
(18511931). Presb. Semitic scholar; b. West Chester, Pennsylvania; educ. Yale Coll. (New Haven, Connecticut) and Union Theol. Sem. (NYC); pastor Zanesville, Ohio, 187883; prof. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. 18831902; prof. Harvard 190228. Works include A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges; The Literature of the Old Testament; Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era.
(pseudonyms Thomas Little and Thomas Brown the younger; 17791852). Poet; b. Dublin, Eire; educ. Trin. Coll., Dublin, and Middle Temple, London, Eng.; Admiralty registrar Bermuda 1803; traveled through US, Can., in Eng., and on the Continent. Tr. Odes of Anacreon. Other works include Odes and Epistles; lyrics in Irish Melodies; hymns include Come, Ye Disconsolate.
Founded 1888 at Louisville, Kentucky (1st lodge organized Cincinnati, Ohio), as a secret fraternal and benevolent order. Institutions include Mooseheart (child city), near Aurora, Illinois, and Moosehaven, Orange Park, Florida (serves dependent old people). Profession of belief in a Supreme Being is required for membership. Religious features are deistic (see Deism). PHL
(1) Ability to distinguish bet. right and wrong; believed by such 18th-c. Brit. philosophers in the mind as a result of the assoc. of ideas; pleasure is felt when right is approved, displeasure when wrong is disapproved; (2) in common usage the term often implies some aspect of conscience*; (3) See Exegesis, 3, 5.
(Olimpia; father's name originally Pellegrini, then Moretto or Morato [also called Peregrino Fulvio Morata]; 152655). Scholar and devotee of humanistic culture; b. Ferrara, It.; at court of the duchess of Ferrara; inclined to Lutheranism; married Andrew Gruntler (Gründler; Grünthler; Grunthler), a Ger. student of philos. and medicine; with him to Schweinfurt and Heidelberg, Ger.; became Prot. at Schweinfurt. Works include Lat. treatises; religious poetry (esp. Gk.); Prolegomena in Ciceronis Paradoxa.
Derives its name from the Morava R. (Ger.: March), a left-bank tributary of the Danube; crown-land of Austria 1849; province of Czechoslovakia 1918; united with Silesia as 1 administrative unit 1927; suffered under the impact of WW II; came under Communist control after 1948; with abolition of historic provinces, Moravia was split up into the Brno and Gottwaldov administrative regions and other parts. Home of the Moravian* Ch.
1. The Moravian Ch. may be traced to the Bohemian* Brethren. At the beginning of the Luth. Reformation* the Brethren had ca. 400 chs. and ca. 200,000 mems. Relations were est. with Luths. and Ref. See also Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in.
2. In polity the Brethren were episc. Administration of the congs. was in the hands of elders. Communities were supervised and counseled by masters and matrons. One group in the community, regarded as the perfected, renounced private property, performed pastoral functions, and earned their living largely by the work of their hands; they were called priests, but there was no specially appointed priesthood till 1467, when a Waldensian apparently conferred on 3 of them orders which they regarded as being in the proper hist. succession. The name Brethren, already in unofficial use, was adopted. As a whole they called themselves Jednota Bratrska (Brüdergemeinschaft; later tr. Unitas fratrum, Lat. Unity of the Brethren). They became active esp. in educ. and literature; their Czech Bible tr. (called Bible of Kralice [Ger. Kralitz] from the place of pub.) was completed 1593 and contains J. Blahoslav's* NT.
In 1722 two Hussite Bohemian families from Moravia found refuge on the estate of N L. v. Zinzendorf* in Saxony; in course of yrs. they were joined by hundreds of others from Moravia, Bohemia, and elsewhere. The settlement, founded on the slope of Mount Hut, was called Herrnhut. An assoc. was formed on basis of common religious ground; order and discipline were est. A Communion service August 13, 1727, helped unify the group; some regard it as the beginning of the Moravian Ch., See also Nitschmann, David.
4. The 1st Moravian miss. came to Pennsylvania 1734. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was settled 174041 by Moravians. Nearby Nazareth was bought by Moravians from G. Whitefield* 1740. At Bethlehem, Nazareth, and affiliated settlements there gradually arose, and prevailed ca. 174462, a system of life called Economy, Spartan in rigor and formed esp. to support miss. work, which included outreach to Indians. In 1749 the Brit. parliament recognized the Brethren as an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church. Lititz, Pennsylvania (named after an estate on which the Boh. Brethren found their 1st home 1456), was settled ca. 1740, laid out 1757, inc. 1759. Moravians came to North Carolina 1753 and founded Salem (now part of Winston-Salem) 1766. The exclusive community system was abandoned ca. the middle of the 19th c.
5. Doctrines of the Moravian Ch. are stated, e.g., in A. G. Spangenberg,* Idea fidei fratrum, oder kurzer Begrif der Christlichen Lehre in den evangelischen Brüdergemeinen. This statement was authorized, but not received as a pub. confession. In Luth. countries, Moravian doctrines were influenced by Lutheran* Confessions; in Eng. and Am., Ref. influence prevailed. Because Luth. and Ref. elements largely existed side by side, a strong and enduring tendency toward union developed. At first the Moravian Ch. was not free from fanaticism. The Trin. was thought of in a grossly offending way; the 1st person of the Godhead was called Papa, Grandfather, or Father-in-law; the 3d person was called Mama and the eternal Spouse of God the Father. Elimination of such things is largely due to Spangenberg. In gen. the doctrine of the Moravan Ch. represents Calvinistic Protestantism. The Bible is accepted as an adequate rule of faith and practice. The Apostles' Creed is regarded as formulating the prime arts. of faith found in the Bible. Foot washing was discontinued 1818. Infant Baptism is practiced. Adult bap. mems. are confirmed on application after receiving instruction. Nonbaptized applicants are received as mems. through Baptism, usually by sprinkling. Communion is open to communicant mems. of other chs.
6. Moravian ch. govt. is presb. Each cong. has its own council but gen. supervision rests with the provincial syn. comprised of an equal no. of lay and cleric representatives. The syn. deals with all matters of faith and practice. Moravians recognize 3 orders of ministry: deacons, presbyters, and bps. Only bps. may ordain. Moravians have an elaborate liturgy.
7. Moravians are very active in miss. work, holding that Moravian colonies should be as leaven. Early Moravians did not try to gain mems. for their group but often advised converts to join other Protestants. Miss. fields include W Indies, Greenland, Surinam, S. Afr., N. Am., Labrador, Nicaragua, Australia, Tanzania.
8. In the 1960s the Moravian Ch. had 5 provinces, each responsible for an area of miss. work: Eur. (HQ Herrnhut and Bad Boll), Czechoslovakia (HQ Prague), Brit. (HQ London), Am. N. (HQ Bethlehem, Pennsylvania), Am. S. (HQ Winston-Salem, North Carolina).
9. In the US the Moravian Ch. is represented by the Moravian Ch. in Am. (Unitas Fratrum) with 2 provincial syns. The Unity of the Brethren (known as Ev. Unity of the Czech-Moravian Brethren in N. Am. till 1959) is mostly in Tex.
(17451833). Philanthropist, writer; b. Stapleton, near Bristol, Eng.; worked for moral reform, care for poor, abolition of slavery. Works include Sacred Dramas; Coelebs in Search of a Wife; Practical Piety; Christian Morals. See also Religious Tracts.
(18641937). Philos., literary critic; b. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Washington U. (St. Louis) and Harvard U. (Cambridge, Massachusetts); taught at Harvard and Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) Coll.; lectured at Princeton (New Jersey) U.; tried to defend Christianity on basis of Gk. dualism. Ed. The Nation 190914; other works include The Greek Traditions; The Religion of Plato.
(14781535). Statesman, humanist; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford and London; lived ca. 4 yrs. under discipline of Carthusian monks; opposed M. Luther* 1523; in controversy with W. Tyndale* 1528; lord chancellor of Eng. 152932; beheaded on charge of high treason. Works include Utopia. See also Stapleton, Thomas.
(February 4, 1867June 1, 1936). B. Pulaski Co., Virginia; educ. Roanoke Coll. (Salem, Virginia), Luth. Theol. Sem. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), and Berlin and Leipzig univs.; pastor Virginia 189298; prof. and head Luth. Theol. S Sem., Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, 18981903; pres. Roanoke Coll. 190319; pres. 2d LWC Copenhagen, Den., 1929.
(18521936). Brit. psychol. and zoologist; b. London; prof., principal, and vice-chancellor U. of Bristol; sometimes called founder of comparative psychology.* Works include Emergent Evolution; The Emergence of Novelty. See also Emergence.
(16801743). Eng. deist of Welsh descent; pastor of a Presb. ch. Marlborough, Wiltshire, 1716; became Arian; dismissed; practiced med. in Bristol; took up literary work in London; rejected Judaism as nat. religion; held that Christianity must be purged of all Jewish elements. Works include The Moral Philosopher.
(174998). B. Aberdeenshire, Scot.; educ. U. Aberdeen; pastor Canisbay, Caithness, 178098; mem. committee to rev. 1745 Translations and Paraphrases; hymnist. Hymns include The People That in Darkness Sat.
(151471). Older brother of M. Mörlin*; b. Wittenberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; deacon Wittenberg and M. Luther's* chaplain 1539; supt. Arnstadt 154043; deposed 1543/44; supt. Göttingen 154450; opposed Interim*; dismissed; pastor and inspector Königsberg 155053; involved in Osiandrian* controversy; resigned; supt. Brunswick 1553/541567; bp. Samland at Königsberg 1567. See also Chemnitz, Martin.
(151684). Younger brother of J. Mörlin*; b. Wittenberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; court preacher Coburg 1544; with N v. Amsdorf* opposed J. Menius* when the latter defended G. Major*; first agreed with M. Flacius* Illyricus, later helped depose him; deposed 1569 as a result of change of regents; restored 1573 under new regent; supported FC.
(du Plessis-Marley; Duplessis-Mornay; 15491623). Huguenot pope; Fr. Huguenot; adviser of Henry* IV (of Navarre) till the latter renounced Protestantism; withdrew from court; engaged in extensive writing. See also Saumur Academy; Sidney, Philip.
(150980). B. Milan, It.; bp. Modena 1529; nuncio to Ger. 1536; present at Hagenau* Colloquy 1540, Regensburg* Conf. 1541; sympathetic to Reformers; cardinal 1542; imprisoned 1557 for supposed heresy; released by Pius* IV; active in final sessions of the Council of Trent.*
(November 14, 1803October 10, 1895). Luth. theol.; b. York, Pennsylvania; educ. Dickinson Coll., Carlisle, Pennsylvania (a Presb. school), Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem., and Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor Baltimore, Maryland, 182760; librarian Peabody Institute, Baltimore, 186065; pastor Baltimore 186473; pres. Gen. Syn. 1843, 1883; attended 1st conv. Evangelical* Alliance, London, Eng., 1846. Works include Bibliotheca Lutherana; Life of John Arndt; Fifty Years in the Lutheran Ministry.
(18741966). B. Harrison, Ohio; educ. Drake U., Des Moines, Iowa; ordained Disciples of Christ minister 1892; lecturer. Ed. The Christian Century, The Christian Century Pulpit (later called The Pulpit), Christendom, and The American Pulpit; other works include The Meaning of Baptism; The Outlawry of War; The Social Gospel and the Christian Cultus; What Is Christianity?
(Moschos; Eucratas; Eukratas; ca. 550ca. 619). Entered monastery of St. Theodosius, near Jerusalem, perhaps ca. 575; later visited monastic centers in Egypt, Antioch, Cyprus, Rome, and at Mt. Sinai. Works include an account of monastic life and beliefs. MPG, 87, 28513112.
(perhaps 5th c. AD; has been dated as late as the 9th c.) Acc. to tradition a native of Chorene, or Khoren, or Khorni, in Taron, a dist. of the Armenian province of Turuberan, and a disciple, perhaps a nephew, of Mesrob.* Authenticity of the hist. of Armenia that is assoc. with him is disputed. See also Bible Versions, G.
(Lorentz; ca. 16941755). Father of modern ch. hist. Luth. theol. and scholar; B. Lübeck, Ger.; educ. Kiel; prof. theol. Helmstedt 1723; prof. and chancellor U. at Göttingen, which he helped found, 1747. Works include Institutiones historiae ecclesiasticate; De rebus Christianorum ante Constantinum Magnum commentarii.
(Mosheim Institute). Male and female academy founded ca. 1870 at Mosheim, Greene Co., Tennessee Assoc. with Holston Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 10, 29) till ca. 1897; existed till ca. 1903/04; last pres. was mem. of the SW Virginia Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16, 29).
(from Arab, masjid, temple). Place of prostration or pub. prayer in Islam*; in the middle of the open, rectangular court, which is surrounded by covered porticoes, is a fountain for ablutions; in a wall of the hall on the side facing Mecca is a niche called mihrab, which indicates the direction of Mecca and usually contains a copy of the Koran*; to its right is the minbar (mimbar), or pulpit; call to prayer is sounded from minarets attached to outside wall of bldg.
A type of sacred polyphonic choral music written esp. ca. 1250ca. 1750 usually unaccompanied and based on a Lat. sacred text; similar music in the Angl. Ch., set to Eng. words and usually accompanied, came to be called anthem*; Luth. composers of motets include J. S. Bach,* D. Buxtehude,* J. Pachelbel,* J. A. Reinken,* H. Schütz,* T. Selle.*
(18651955). Meth. leader; b. Livingston Manor, New York; student secy. Internat. Committee YMCA 18881915; chm. ex. com. Student Volunteer Movement 18881920; gen. secy. World's Student Christian Fed. 18951920, chm. 192028; chm. Continuation Committee, World Miss. Conf., Edinburgh, Scot., 191020; chm. Internat. Miss. Council 1921; honorary pres. World* Council of Chs. 1948. Works include The Present Day Summons to the World Mission of Christianity. See also Ecumenical Movement, 5, 6; Missionary Conferences.
(18631917). Meth. theol.; b. Richmond, Surrey, Eng.; Tutor wesleyan Coll., Didsbury, Manchester, Lancashire; prof. Hellenistic Gk. and Indo-Eur. philol. Manchester U. 1908. Works include A Grammar of New Testament Greek; with G. Milligan,*The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament. See also Lexicons, B.
(18841965). B. Kjerringöy, Salten, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo), Copenhagen, Marburg, Giessen; prof. Christiania. Works include Psalmenstudien; Erwägungen zur Pentateuch Quellenfrage; Han som kommer (Eng. tr. He That Cometh); Offersang og sangoffer (Eng. tr. The Psalms as Israel's Worship); Det Gamle Testament sore Guds Ord (Eng. tr. The Old Testament as Word of God).
(Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus; 175691). RC musician, composer; b. Salzburg, Austria; educ. by his father, who was a violinist and composer; as a child prodigy, gave concerts in Munich, Vienna, Brussels, Paris, London, and in Holland, Belg., Switz., and It.; involvement in Freemasonry, beginning 1784, is reflected in some of his music. Works include Mass in C Minor; Requiem. See also Bach, Johann Christian. WEB
(181378). Brother of T. Mozley*; b. Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; fellow Magdalen Coll., Oxford, 1840; canon Worcester 1869; prof. divinity Oxford 1871; adherent of Tractarianism.* Works include Essays Historical and Theological. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
(180693). Brother of J. B. Mozley*; b. Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; pupil of J. H. Newman*; ordained 1831; supported Tractarianism.* Works include Reminiscences, Chiefly of Oriel College and the Oxford Movement.
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