(Ev. Luth. Syn. of Miami). Named after the valley of the Great and Little Miami Rivers. Organized October 16, 1844, at Xenia, Ohio, under leadership of E. Keller*; joined Gen. Syn. 1845 (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The), ULC 1918; merged November 1920 with the Dist. Syn. of Ohio (formerly of the Gen. Council [see General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in (North) America]), the East Ohio Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch., and the Wittenberg* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Ohio (of the Gen. Syn.) into the Syn. of Ohio of the ULC See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 8, 19.
(16801764). Nephew of J. H. Michaelis*; father of J. D. Michaelis*; b. Ellrich, near Nordhausen, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Halle; assoc. prof. Halle 171314; prof. philos. 171431, theol. 173138, Gk. and Oriental languages 173864 Halle. Contributed to J. H. Michaelis' ed. of the Heb. OT; issued Heb. OT with Gk. apocrypha and NT.
(171791). Son of C. B. Michaelis*; b. Halle, Ger.; educ. Halle; prof. philos. 174650, Oriental languages 175091 Göttingen; regarded as a founder of Syriac philol. Works include Abhandlung von der Syrischen Sprache und ihrem Gebrauch. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 8; Marsh, Herbert.
(16681738). Uncle of C. B. Michaelis*; b. Klettenberg, near Nordhausen, Saxony, Ger.; prof. Oriental languages 1699, theol. 1709 Halle; senior and inspector of the Halle theol. sem. 1732; exponent of Pietism. Issued partial Heb. OT.
(18661953). Ev. theol.; b. Frankfurt an der Oder, Ger.; pastor Bielefeld 1892 and leader in awakening there; inspector Miss. Soc. for Ger. E,; Afr. 1901; returned to Bielefeld 1908. Works include Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen arts fünfzigjährem Dienst am Evangelium.
(probably ca. 1270/801342). B. Cesena, It.; Franciscan minister gen. 1316; when John XXII (see Popes, 13), beginning 1322, condemned the Franciscan ideal of poverty, Michael of Cesena led opposition to papal claims and supported Louis* IV.
(Michelagniolo di Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarroto Simoni; Michael Angelo; Michelangelo [or Michelangiolo] Buonarroti; 1475ca. 1564). Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet; b. Caprese, Arezzo province, Tuscany, It.; pupil of D. Ghirlandajo*; assoc. with Lorenzo di Medici (see Medici, 2); influenced by RC reform movement. Sculptures include David; Moses; Pieta (1 in St. Peter's, 1 in the Rondanini Palace, Rome). Paintings include Holy Family; in Sistine Chapel: ceiling decorations, and The Last Judgment on the altar wall. Architectural works include plans for completion of St. Peter's. Poetry includes religious and philos. poems. See also Vignola, Giacomo da.
(October 27, 1889September 30, 1951). Luth. cleric; b. New Washington, Ohio; educ. coll. and sem. of Capital U., Columbus, Ohio. Pastor Willard, Ohio, 191421; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 192126; Toledo, Ohio, 193145. Supt. Luth. Inner Miss. Soc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 192631; Luth. representative of Am. section of LWC at WCC, Geneva, Switz., 194546; prominent in formation of LWF.
Theses on (1) Church, (2) Ministry, (3) Symbols, (4) Open Questions, (5) Chiliasm and Antichrist, (6) Predestination and Conversion. Agreed on July 1893 Michigan City, Indiana, by representatives of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States and the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States. See also Toledo Theses (Ohio and Iowa, 1907).
F. W. Meuser, The Formation of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, Ohio, 1958); Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966); C. S. Fritschel, Die Thesen des Colloquiums von Michigan City, Kirchliche Zeitschrift, XVII (1893), 161170; XVIII (1894), 3348; F. P[ieper], Das Colloquium der Synoden von Ohio und Iowa, L. u. W., XXXIX (1893), 257264.
Est. 1936 at Detroit, Michigan, as The National Academy of Science and Human Relations, Inc., given to Luths. of the LCMS Mich. Dist. 1962 and dedicated as Michigan Luth. Coll. 1966; taken over by Shaw Coll. at Detroit 1970.
1. Swabian immigrants settled 1830 in Washtenaw Co., Michigan They asked the Basel* Miss. Soc. for a pastor. F. Schmid(t)* was sent to them 1833. He est. ca. 20 congs. and helped found the 1st Luth. syn. in Michigan (called Missionary Syn. of the West, to indicate its interest in missions) 1840. It sent 3 miss. to Ojibwa at Sebewaing, Michigan, in the mid-1840s. J. K. W. Löhe* put his Indian missions under supervision of the syn. on Schmid(t)'s pledge that confessional Lutheranism would prevail. Löhe men G. W. C. Hattstädt,* P. J. Trautmann,* F. J. C. Lochner,* and F. A. Crämer* joined the syn. They soon realized that Schmid(t)'s pledge was a paper promise and left the syn. 1846. The syn. disbanded. Schmid(t) joined the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, but soon became indep., served congs, in S Michigan, trained some men himself, received some from Basel, and by 1860 was ready for a 2d venture in organizing a syn.
2. S. Klingmann* and C. L. Eberhardt* came to Michigan from Basel 1860 and the 2d Michigan Syn. (Ev. Luth. Synode von Michigan und andern Staaten) was organized Detroit December 1860 with 8 pastors and 3 delegates. Schmid(t) was its pres. Klingmann and Eberhardt were leaders in successfully insisting that the confessional statement of the syn. be soundly Luth.; but practice in syn. began to diverge as miss. fields and manpower grew. Many pastors (some volunteers, some from Basel) were unionists; some withdrew with their congs. Those who remained in the syn. often lent financial support to the Basel Miss. Soc., to the eventual detriment of the Michigan Syn.
3. The Michigan Syn. joined the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am. 1867 but persistently protested the Four* Points. The syn., represented by Klingmann, was put off from one meeting to the next, yet remained hopeful. When the Gen. Council met 1884 in Monroe, Michigan, 2 Eng. pastors of the Gen. Council preached in a Presb. Church. A protest by the Michigan Syn. delegates was tabled and evaded; protests in 1885 and 1886 were also discounted. The Michigan Syn. sent no delegates to the 1887 Gen. Council conv. and withdrew from the Gen. Council 1888.
4. The Michigan Syn. had drawn pastors from various sources (e.g., Basel, St. Chrischona,* Hermannsburg* Mississippi, Kropp* Sem.). A theol. sem. was est. 1885 at Manchester with 6 students, moved to Saginaw 1887 (see also Hoyer, Otto Daniel August), discontinued 1907, reopened 1909/10, when it was est. as a high school (Progymnasium) by the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States (see Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod); called Michigan Luth. Sem.
The Michigan Syn. joined the Synodical* Conf. and united with the Wisconsin* Syn. and the Minnesota* Syn. to form the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States 1892. The agreement with the other syns. required that the sem. be discontinued, but in 1895 the Michigan Dist. Syn. resolved to continue the sem. for those already enrolled. A minority lodged a successful protest against this resolution with the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States. This minority (10 pastors) was excluded by the Michigan Dist. 1896, organized the Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Michigan, and remained part of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States and of the Syn. Conf.; the majority, on the other hand, withdrew 1896 from the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States and from the Syn. Conf., joined the Augsburg* Syn. 1897 on a doctrinally shaky basis in a joint-syn., 2 dist. arrangement which dissolved 1900.
5. New leaders arose. Conferences with the Mo. Syn. (1904) and the Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Michigan (1906) led to reconciliation. In 1909 the Michigan Syn. reunited with the Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Michigan and rejoined the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States.
6. Official organ: Evangelisch-Lutherischer Synodal-Freund.
3. Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Synode von Michigan u. a. St. (Saginaw, Michigan, [1910?]).
(Martinus Micronius; Marten de Cleyne; 152359). Ref. theol.; b. probably Gent, Belg.; pastor Neth. refugee cong. London 1550; fled to Den. and Ger. 1553; debated with Menno Simons (see Mennonite Churches, 1) in Wismar, J. Westphal* in Hamburg.
Islands of W Pacific, E of Philippines. Area: ca. 1,335 sq. mi.; inhabitants of Melanesian, Polynesian, and Malaysian stock. Includes the Caroline,* Gilbert,* Mariana,* Marshall,* and Palau (formerly Pelew) Is.
(Lat. medium aevum). Term first used by late 15th c. humanists for Eur. hist. from ca. 500 (the W Roman* Empire ended 476) to ca. 1500; now often used for 11th15th cents. See also Dark Age(s); Western Christianity 5001500.
For current informationsee CIA World Factbook A. 1. Area not exactly defined; gen. includes lands bet. Medit. basin and Indus R.; sometimes includes Balkan States and NE Afr.; often called Near East. Christianity, Judaism,* and Islam* began in the Middle E. Inhabitants include Turks, Armenians, Greeks, Kurds, Arabs, Assyrians, Jews, Persians.
2. Decline of Brit. influence, rise of nationalism, creation of the state of Israel 1948, formation of the United Arab Rep. 1958, Fed. of S. Arabia 1963, and Fed. of Arab Reps. 1971, and other more recent developments profoundly influenced the Middle E.
3. Islam claims 9099% of the inhabitants of most of Middle E. countries. Most Middle E. countries signed the 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which granted freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; but in practice the community combination of family, clan, religion (often legally recognized) does not allow change of religion. Freedom of religion means that non-Muslim can minister to their own groups within their own precincts; it does not allow miss. work. In many areas the millet is the non-Muslim religious community organized as a legal entity in the state, with its own community court and community laws, with the provision to refrain from pol. agitation. Non-Muslim religious groups not in a millet have no rights. Islam identifies the statues and icons of Christian chs. with idolatry. It opposes the doctrine of the Trin. and associates Christians with imperialism and colonialism.
4. Christians in the Middle E. are mostly mems. of RC and E Cath. chs. These chs. strive to keep their community intact, fear change in their working arrangement with Muslim, are prejudiced against Muslim, and distrust Prots.
5. Brit. influence in Malta* since 1799 furthered miss. work there. The LMS, BFBS, ABCFM, CMS, SPCK, SPG, and the London Soc. for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews (Ch. Missions to Jews) were at work in the Middle E. early in the 19th c.
6. Since immediate effective contact with Muslim was impossible, Prot. missions tried to est. a working relationship with Cath. chs. (Roman and E.). Caths. who favored Prot. efforts were excluded by Cath. chs. and became the nucleus of nationalized Prot. chs. Their work was done through hosps., schools, clinics, orphanages, etc. By the late 1960s the Syrian Orthodox Ch. was a mem. of the Near* E. Council of Chs.; other Orthodox chs. sat on some committees and participated in some projects.
B. Rep. of Turkey.Area: ca. 301,000 sq. mi. Ca. 98% Muslim. Modern pol. hist. dates from 1923, when Mustafa Kemal became 1st pres. of Rep. of Turkey. The teaching of Islam in jr. high schools throughout the country became compulsory 1956; a faculty of theol. was est. in state-controlled U. of Ankara. Evangelistic activity is sharply curtailed by law.
In 1820 Pliny Fisk(e) (17921825; Cong. miss.; b. Shelburne, Massachusetts; educ. Middlebury [Vermont] Coll. and Andover [Massachusetts] Theol. Sem.; preacher Wilmington, Vermont; miss. to Middle E.; works include Eng.-Arab. dictionary) and Levi Parsons (17921822; b. Goshen, Massachusetts; educ. Middlebury [Vermont] Coll. and Andover [Massachusetts] Theol. Sem.; worked under Vermont Miss. Soc.; miss. to Middle E.) explored the possibilities of miss. work in Asia Minor for the ABCFM William Goodell (17921867; Cong. miss.; b. Templeton, Massachusetts; educ. Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, and Andover [Massachusetts] Theol. Sem.; studied medicine; miss. to Middle E.) began permanent work June 1831 with HQ at Constantinople; worked ca. 5 yrs. in Beirut (182328); tr. Bible into Armeno-Turkish. Most of his converts were from the Armenian Ch. Excommunicated by the Armenian Ch., they organized the 1st ev. ch. in the Middle E. in Constantinople 1846; it was officially recognized 1850. ABCFM missionaries est. Robert Coll. at Bebek 1863 (moved to Constantinople ca. 1871) and Am. Coll. for Girls, Constantinople (Istanbul). The Basel Miss. Soc. began work in the 1820s. The CMS began in Smyrna in the 1830s. Others included SPG, Am. Baps., Disciples of Christ, Ch. of the Brethren, Eng. Quakers, London Jews' Soc., Seventhday Adventists. Nearly all withdrew in course of time, leaving the ABCFM as almost the only representative of Protestantism. The ABS est. a depository in Istanbul.
C. Syria (Syrian Arab Rep.). Area: ca. 71,500 sq. mi. ca. 90% Arab (others include Kurd, Armenian, Turkish, Fr.); ca. 87% Sunni Muslim. Ca. 830,000 Christians: mostly RC, E Orthodox, and Nonchalcedonian; Prots. (ca. 17,000). Paul preached at Damascus (Acts 9:20). Antioch (now Antakya, or Antakiya) was an early Christian center. Since the Arab conquest 636, Islam* has been the prevailing religion. Fr. mandate 1920; indep. in the mid-1940s; joined Egypt 1958 to form United Arab Rep., withdrew 1961; joined Egypt and Libya 1971 to form Fed. (or Confederation) of Arab Republics, but by August 1974 the fed. was no longer operative.
Joseph Wolff (17951862; b. Weilersbach, near Bamberg, Ger.; Jew; converted 1812) of London Jews' Soc. (see also H and I) made exploratory visits to Syria 182223. L. Parsons and P. Fisk(e) (see B) arrived Smyrna 1819. In 1870 the field was transferred to Am. Presbs., who operate Aleppo College. Elizabeth Maria Thompson (nee Lloyd; d. November 14, 1869) founded the work which became the Lebanon* Ev. Miss. By 1912 there were 38 Prot. groups in Syria; decreased to ca. 20 by withdrawal and combinations. Well-known Prot. hosps. in Syria: Deir-Ez-Zor Hosp.; Victoria Hosp. in Damascus (Edinburgh Med. Miss.); Luth. Hosp. at En Nebk (Dan. Orient Miss.). Larger Prot. groups: Nat. Ev. Syn. of Syria and Lebanon; Angl. Ch., Diocese of Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Smaller groups: Ch. of God; Ch. of the Nazarene; Assemblies of God; Seventh-day Adventist. Syria and Lebanon are often worked together.
D Rep. of Lebanon. Area: ca. 3,950 sq. mi. Mostly Arab. Govt. structure adopted 1943 was based on official religious census Christians were in the majority, making the pres. Maronite (see Maronites), the premier Sunni Muslim. By the 1970s Moslems were in the majority and demanded a larger role, contributing to strife that continued into the 1980s. 1983 est.: Christians ca. 40%. P. Fisk(e) (see B and C) began work in Beirut 1823. Am. Presbs. began 1835, took over much of the Middle E. work of the ABCFM 1870; they operate 2 boys' schools (Tripoli, Sidon), 4 girls' schools (Tripoli, Sidon, Beirut, En [or El] Nabatiye [or Al-Nabatiyah]), and 2 colleges in Lebanon (Beirut Coll. for Women; Near E. Coll. of Theol. in Beirut). Kennedy Mem. Hosp. (Tripoli) and Hamlin Mem. Sanatorium (near Beirut) are outstanding med. institutions. Syrian Prot. Coll., founded 1866 under Christian miss. sponsorship, became Am. U. of Beirut 1920. St. Joseph U. was founded 1846 at Ghazir by Jesuits as a sem.; moved to Beirut 1875; other faculties added to form U.
Other miss. include Lebanon* Ev. Miss.; Ch. of God (Anderson, Indiana); The Ev. Alliance Miss.; S. Baps.; Disciples of Christ; Home of Onesiphorus; Ref. Presb. Ch. of Scot.; Seventh-day Adventists; Dan. Ch.
Carl Leonard Folke Agerstrand (b. August 14, 1900) of LCMS began a radio miss. on the state-operated radio station in Beirut in the early 1950s. It was extended to station ELWA, Monrovia, Liberia, 1957, and Radio Voice of the Gospel, Addis Ababa, 1963. This miss. also operates Bible correspondence courses since 1952 and has chapels in Beirut.
Beirut is a center of Christian missions to the Middle East. The Near* E. Council of Chs. has its headquarters there. The Am. Press, Arabic Christian Publishers (formerly Nile Mission Press), Tower Library, ABS, the Middle E. HQ of BFBS, and Union of Armenian Ev. Chs. in the Near E. are in Beirut. Miss. schools in Beirut include Near E. Coll. of Theol.
E Rep. of Cyprus. Is. ca. 60 mi. W of Syria. Are 3,572 sq. mi. Visited by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13). Most Gks. (ca. 7880% of pop.) are E Orthodox; most Turks (ca. 18% of pop.) are Muslim. Angls., other Prots., and RCs are a small minority. Active socs. and chs. include Christian Missions in Many Lands; Jerusalem and the East Miss.; Ch. of God; Ref. Presb. Ch. of N. Am.
F. State of Israel. Area: 8,219 sq. mi. perhaps ca. 8588% Jews; ca. 7% Muslim; most Christians are RC and E Orthodox; several thousand Prots. The Balfour Declaration 1917 helped pave the way for Jews to est. a nat. homeland in Palestine. The Jewish Nat. Council proclaimed the Jewish state of Israel May 14, 1948; the Golan Heights annexed 1981. Official language: Heb. Religious courts are autonomous in the several religious communities. The League to Combat Apostasy obstructs miss. work. The OT is a standard textbook in schools. Christian shrines are preserved.
Prot. miss. work in Israel is confined almost exclusively to Jerusalem, Jaffa, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Lydda, Nazareth, and Tiberias. The London Jews' Soc. (Angl.) started in Jerusalem 1820, opened Jerusalem Hosp. 1848. Christ Ch. began 1833. An Angl. bishopric was est. 1840. The CMS started in Jerusalem 1851, built hosps. at Jaffa and Lydda, an orphanage at Nazareth. The Edinburgh Med. Miss. Soc. has a hosp. at Nazareth. Other socs. and chs. working in Israel include Jerusalem and the E. Miss.; Mildmay Miss. to Jews; United Free Ch. of Scot.; Christian and Miss. Alliance; Christian Missions in Many Lands, Ltd.; Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc.; Seventh-day Adventists; Assemblies of God; Mennonites; Ch. of the Nazarene; S. Baps. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War extensively damaged Christian missions.
The Fin. Miss. Soc. has a children's home and school in Jerusalem. The Swed. Israel Miss. has a theol. research institute there. The Dan. Israel Miss. has workers in Carmel and Tel Aviv, and the Norw. Israel Miss. has workers in Haifa and Jaffa (part of Tel Aviv).
G. Jordan (called Transjordan [Trans-Jordan; Transjordania] till 1949; const. name since 1949 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan). Area: ca. 37,000 sq. mi. Ca. 94% Arabs. Jordan was Brit. mandate 192346, indep. kingdom since 1946. Religion ca. 94% Muslim, ca. 6% Christian. Severe restrictions are placed on miss. work among Muslim.
The RC and E Orthodox chs. came to Jordan at an early date. Petra was the seat of a metropolitan bp. in the 4th c. Angls. were among earliest Prots. in Jordan. The CMS has a girls' school in Amman and relief work in Zerka and Salt. The Jerusalem and the East Miss. has the Bishop's School for Boys in Amman and St. George's School in Jerusalem. The Christian and Miss. Alliance has worked in Jerusalem and Hebron since the 1890s. Others at work in Jordan include S. Baps.; Seventh-day Adventists; Indep. Bd. for Presb. For. Miss.; Am. Friends; Ch. of the Nazarene; Assemblies of God.
Luths. have worked in Jerusalem since mid-19th c. Kaiserswerth deaconesses came to Jerusalem 1851 and est. the Talitha Kumi orphanage and a hosp. The Ger. Jerusalemsverein was est. 1852. J. L. Schneller* est. his Syrian orphanage; his work was continued by his son and grandson, and the Schneller schools were est. William II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 18591941; emp. of Ger. and king of Prussia 18881918) built the Ch. of the Redeemer and the Augusta Victoria Institute (the latter on the Mount of Olives). After WW II the LWF carried on an extensive relief program and subsidized the cong. and educ. work of the Ger. missions (Palästinawerk). The Ev. Luth. Ch. in Jordan was organized in 1959.
H. Rep. of Iraq (formerly Mesopotania). Area: ca. 169,000 sq. mi. 95% Arab Muslim, ca. 3.5% Christians, ca. 1.5% others (e.g., Yezedees [Yezidis] and Jews). Iraq freed from Turks in WW I; const. monarchy est. by Gt. Brit. 1921; sovereign state 1932. There is tension and strife bet. Kurds and Iraqis. Since the revolution of 1958 missions have been curtailed.
In the 1820s J. Wolff (see C and I) contacted Jewish colonies in Iraq. The Basel Miss. Soc. founded a school for Armenians in Baghdad 1830. Henry Aaron Stern (182085; b. Unterreichenbach, Hessen-Kassel, Ger.; Jew; converted 1840) made contacts with Jews at Baghdad and elsewhere in Mesopotamia beginning 1844. ABCFM est. a station at Mosul in the 1850s. CMS entered Iraq 1882; its missions were later given to the Jerusalem and the East Mission. The United Miss. in Iraq was formed in 1924 by Am. chs. of Ref. background; it has a school for girls in Baghdad. Others include Arabian Miss.; Ev. Alliance Miss.; Seventh-day Adventists; Assemblies of God. The Luth. Orient Miss. Soc. (Kurdistan Miss.), est. ca. 1910, works among Kurds.
I. Islamic Rep. of Iran (called Persia till 1935). Area: ca. 636,400 sq. mi. Aryans descended of ancient Persians who speak Farsi (Persian); ca. 95% Shi'a Muslim. Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity are officially recognized. The govt. is a const. monarchy. The ev. chs. have complete freedom to conduct services; conversions from Islam are more numerous than in any other Middle E. country. See also Fossum, Ludvig Olsen.
H. Martyn* was the 1st modern miss. to Iran 1811; tr. NT into Persian. Ten yrs. later J. Wolff (see C and H) contacted Jews in Iran. The Basel Miss., Soc. began at Tabriz 1831. Justin Perkins (180569; b. West Springfield, Massachusetts; miss. to Nestorian Christians in NW Persia) of the ABCFM began 1834, opened an important station at Urmia (now Rizaiyeh) 1835; this miss. was given to the Am. Presb. Bd. 1870. The Ev. Presb. Ch. emphasizes educ. and med. work, with hosps. in Tehran, Tabriz, Hamadan, Resht, Kermanshah, and Meshed; its schools were nationalized 1940; it operates a community school in Tehran for children of for. diplomats; its miss. numbers ca. 3,000 communicants. The CMS began 1869 and cencentrated on evangelization of Muslim and Jews, and strengthening the older chs.; it has stations at Isfahan, Shiraz, and Abadan. Others include Iran Interior Miss. (work later taken over by Internat. Missions, Inc.); Assemblies of God; Seventh-day Adventists; BFBS; Ch. Miss. to Jews.
J. Dem. Rep. of Afghanistan. Area: ca. 252,000 sq. mi. Perhaps ca. 95% Sunni Muslim; some Hindus, Sikhs, and Jews. Began 1747 as the indep. Durani Empire; became const. monarchy with Islam* as the state religion 1932. In 1973 the monarchy was overthrown and a rep. proclaimed. Miss work forbidden. CMS in Pakistan and the Presbs. USA in Iran have stations near the border. See also Loewenthal, Isidor.
K. Pakistan. See Asia, B 2.
L. Arabia. Peninsula SW Asia ca. 1,400 mi. long, ca. 1,250 mi. wide; pop. by Arab Muslim. Saudi Arabia and Yemen did not sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see also A 3). Slavery is legalized.
Acc. to tradition, Bartholomew preached the Gospel in Arabia. Paul visited Arabia (Gl 1:1718). When Persian Christians were persecuted by Shapur II (Lat. Sapor; reigned 309379), many fled to Arabia. A Christian settlement was founded 380 AD in Hirah. Acc. to tradition, Abd-Kelal, Hamyarite (or Himyarite) king ca. 275 AD, was a Christian. Dzu-Nowas (Dunowas; king 490525) embraced Judaism and persecuted the Christians. Arabia is the birthplace of Islam.*
I. G. N. Keith-Falconer* began modern Prot. missions in Arabia at Aden 1886. After his death, students of the Dutch Ref. Ch. in Am. continued the work and est. the Arabian Miss. 1888/89; its most famous miss. was S. M. Zwemer*; The Ref. Ch. in Am. lent support to this miss. beginning 1894. Other miss. include the Dan. Ch. Miss.; Ch. of Scot. Miss.; Indep. Bd. for Presb. For. Miss.; S. Baps.; and Sudan Interior Miss.
2. Aden. Settlement on coast of SW Arabis; captured by Turks 1538; ruled by Sultan of San'a since 17th c.; held by Brit. and governed as part of India 18391937; Brit. colony since 1937; part of Fed. of S. Arabia 1963; helped form People's Rep. of Southern Yemen 1967 (name changed 1970 to People's Dem. Rep. of Yemen), the latter with an area of ca. 130,540 sq. mi. united May 1990 with the Yemen Arab Rep. to form the Rep. of Yemen. CMS began work in mid-1880s, after Keith-Falconer (see above), but turned it over to the Ch. of Scot. a few yrs. later; Dan. Luth. Ch. entered 1904; Sudan Interior Miss. also did some work in Aden.
4. Yemen Arab Rep. (from Arab. al Yemen, the right hand; here refers to the direction of the land as one stands before the Kaaba*). Also known as North Yemen. Area: 77,200 sq. mi. Chiefly Muslim. The monarchy of the Mutawakelite (or Mutawakilite; derived from the Arab. phrase, al Muta Wakil ala Allah: he who relies on God, a title of its Imams) Kingdom of Yemen was founded ca. 897 AD; overthrown 1962 by rebels who proclaimed the Arab Rep. of Yemen; but continued (with Saudi Arab. support) by loyalists, also called royalists, till April 1970, when an agreement bet. the Yemen Arab Rep. and Saudi Arabia introduced royalists into the Y. A. R. govt., ending the kingdom; united May 1990 with the People's Dem. Rep. of Yemen to for the Rep. of Yemen.
6. State of Kuwait (Kuweit; Koweit). Area: 6,532 sq. mi. Ca. 95% Muslim. Former sheikdom under Brit. protection, indep. emirate 1961. The Arab. Miss. (see 5) entered 1903 and est. a hosp. and med. miss. RCs est. bishopric 1954.
9. United Arab Emirates. Formed December 2, 1971, by 6 of the Trucial States (also called Trucial Oman, or Trucial Coast; Trucial refers to truces with Gt. Brit. in the 1800s): Dubai (Debai; Dibai), Abu Dhabi, Fujairah, Sharjah, Umm al Qaiwain, and Ajman; Ras al Khaima joined February 1972. Mostly Muslim.
(16831750). Angl. theol.; b. York, or Richmond, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; rector Coveney, on the Isle of Ely; librarian Cambridge U.; prof. Cambridge 173134; opposed some features of deism.*
Fremont, Nebraska Founded 1887 at Atchison, Kansas, by The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; moved to Fremont, Nebraska, 1919. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 14; Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B 1 d and VIII C 1.
1. Jewish exegesis that tries to penetrate deeply into the Biblical text and find meaning in addition to the literal one. 2. Early Jewish exposition of Scripture; most flourishing period: ca. 100 BC to 200 AD 3. In the widest sense, all noncanonical Jewish literature, including the Talmud,* to the 13th c.
(January 12, 1826March 1, 1916). B. Reichenbach, Silesia; educ. for miss. work at Dresden and Leipzig; to US 1851 as miss. to Chippewa at Station Bethany, St. Louis, ca. 30 mi. W of Saginaw, Michigan; worked with E. R. Baierlein*; succeeded him 1853; mission was almost lost 1860 in govt. transfer of Indians to Isabella Co., Michigan; Miessler served them there till 1869; teacher Saginaw 186971; accepted temporary supply position at Saginaw; left ministry 1871 to study and practice medicine (187499) in Chicago, Illinois.
(180075). B. Saint-Flour, near Orléans, Fr.; RC priest Puiseaux, in the diocese of Orléans, 182433; to Paris 1833; founded pub. house; began ed. large collection of religious texts and encyclopedias; esp. significant: MPL, Lat. ecclesiastical writings up to 1216 (217 vols. text; 4 vols. indexes); MPG, Gk. ecclesiastical writings to ca. 1438 (161 vols. Gk. text with Lat. tr., and 81 vols. of the Lat. text only of Gk. fathers). Supplement vols. to MPL began to appear 1958, ed. A. Hamman. lndexes to MPG have appeared, ed. D. Scolarios (1879), F. Cavallera (1912), T. Hopfner (1928, 1936).
(d. 1532). Dan. theol.; b. Malm&ö (then under Dan. rule), Swed.; mayor Malmö; secy. of Christian* II; helped tr. NT into Flensburg-Dan. 1523/24 (Gospels and Acts from D. Erasmus'* Lat., remainder from M. Luther's* Ger.).
Agreement gen. regarded as issued 313 AD by Constantine* I and Licinius* after meeting at Milan; recognized Christianity. After many persecutions failed their purpose, Constantine and Licinius resolved to grant both to the Christians and to all men freedom to follow the religion which they choose and that liberty is to be denied to no one, to choose and to follow the religious observances of the Christians. (Eusebius, HE, X, v, 45). Another form of the document is in Lactantius* Firmianus, De mortibus persecutorum, xlviii. Some hold that Constantine had already granted religious freedom and that, after the two emps. met at Milan, Licinius alone issued the edict (or rescript), which was thus intended only for the eastern parts of the empire where Licinius was in control.
Confs. on miss. enterprise were begun by William Pennefather (181673; b. Merrion Square, Dublin, Eire; educ. Dublin) at Barnet, Hertfordshire, Eng., in the middle 1850s; after he moved to Mildmay Park, London, 1864, the confs. were continued there on a much larger scale; the conf. hall became the center of many permanent miss. organizations. See also World Dominion Movement.
(Milíc of Kremsier; Milicz; Militsch; Johann[es]; John; ca. 132574). Forerunner of Boh. Reformation; b. Kremsier, Moravia, Czechoslovakia; active in imperial chancery 135862; resigned benefices 1363; lived in poverty; preached repentance in vernacular at Prague; awaited end of world and coming of Antichrist 136567; to Rome 1367; imprisoned by Inquisition*; when released submitted document to pope listing faults of the ch. and pointing out the need for a gen. council and popular preaching; returned to Prague to preach repentance and oppose clerical abuses. Works include Libellus de Antichristo (or Prophetia et revelatio de Antichristo).
Assocs. formed before and during Crusades*; combined military and monastic principles; originally est. to protect and aid pilgrims to the Holy Land; took part in Crusades and later struggles; included:
a. knights of Malta (Knights Hospitallers [of Saint John of Jerusalem]; Knights of St. John; Sovereign Military Order of the Hosp. of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta). Began in Jerusalem before the 1st Crusade in a hospice-infirmary; received papal approval 1113; built a network of domus hospitales (guest houses) for pilgrims; driven from Jerusalem to Rhodes, then to Malta and Tripoli; survived as a religious community of chaplains and lay brothers dedicated to sanctification of its mems., service of the faith and of the papal see, and welfare work.
b. Templars (Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon; Knights Templars). Est. ca. 1119; originally devoted to protect and guide pilgrims; rule approved 1128 was a variation of the Benedictine. With strongholds throughout the E and W, mems. of the order became internat. bankers. Desiring their wealth, Philip IV (see France, 3) persuaded Clement* V to pressure the Council of Vienne* into supplying the order 1312.
c. Teutonic Knights (Ger. Knights; Knights of the Cross; Knights of St. Mary's Hosp. at Jerusalem; Teutonic Order; Der deutsche Orden; Deutsche Ritter). Originated ca. 1190 in efforts by merchants of Lübeck and Bremen to care for sick and poor Ger. pilgrims at Acre, Palestine; military order 1198. Under Hermann von Salza (ca. 11701239; grand master ca. 121039) the order conquered, and introd. Christianity into, large parts of the Baltic provinces and Russ.; declined from 15th c.; existence in Ger. dissolved by Napoleon 1809; revived 1840 in Austria as a semireligious knighthood; serves schools and hosps.; a Prot. branch of the order survived in the Neth. See also Albert of Prussia.
d. Hospitallers of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem (Lazarites). Order of knights and nurses following the rule of Augustine* of Hippo; founded ca. 1120 in Jerusalem to operate hosps. (esp. for lepers), spread the faith, care for pilgrims; activities transferred to Eur. in 13th c.; suppressed during Fr. revolution; revived in It. and Fr. in 19th c.; now an honorific soc.
H. G. Prutz, Die geistlichen Ritterorden (Berlin, 1908)
(180673). Eng. philos. and economist; precocious child; served with E. India Co. 182358; applied economic doctrine to soc. conditions; advocated women's suffrage. Works, which include A System of Logic, also treat utilitarianism* and methods of inductive logic.
(1792[1791?]1853). B. Cambridge, Eng.; Angl. cleric; 1st principal Bishop's Coll., Calcutta, India, 182038; helped pub. Christian works in Indian vernaculars; prof. Heb. Cambridge 1848; supported Tractarianism.*
(182996). B. Southampton, Eng.; painter; mem. Pre-Raphaelite* Brotherhood; distinguished in portraiture. Works include Christ in the House of His Parents (gen. called The Carpenter's Shop): The Return of the Dove to the Ark; Jephthah; Young Men of Benjamin Seizing Their Brides.
(from Lat. mille, 1,000, and annus, yr.). Belief in a 1,000-yr. rule of the ch. on earth, at the beginning (premillennialism) or end (post-millennialism) of which Christ will return. Also called millenarianism and chiliasm (from Gk. chilioi, 1,000). See also Dispensationalism; Millennium.
1. In theol., a period of 1,000 yrs. supposedly referred to Rv 20:17. See also Millennialism. Millenarians (or chiliasts) differ regarding the character of Christ's millennial kingdom; some view it as more, others as less spiritual in nature, extension, duration, and joys; they differ also in many other regards. But they agree in gen. on Christ's personal advent and a glorious period of peace and joy.
2. The OT does not mention a 1,000-yr. period; yet chiliasm may be regarded as rooted in a Jewish view of an earthly messianic kingdom (cf. 2 Esd 7:28: My son the Messiah shall appear with his companions and bring 400 yrs. of happiness to all who survive). When the 1,000 yrs. of Rv 20:17 (one of the most misunderstood passages of the Bible) were superimposed on this view, the basic elements of chiliasm were complete.
3. The millennial theory is variously found in the Epistle of Barnabas; in the writings of Cerinthus, Hermas, Papias, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian; and in apocryphal books of Jews and Jewish Christians (Book of Enoch; Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs; Sibylline Books). The crass form in which chiliasm entered into the heresy of Montanism* helped strengthen opposition to chiliasm. It was opposed by the School of Alexandria, esp. Origen* (see also Exegesis, 3). Ca. the middle of the 3d c., Nepos* of Arsinoe wrote Elengchos allegoriston (Refutation of Allegorists; now lost) in defense of chiliasm. This work was refuted by Dionysius* of Alexandria. Jerome* opposed chiliasm. Gradually chiliasm became obnoxious and proscribed largely because the conditions and prospects of the ch. were altered.
4. In the Middle Ages the idea prevailed that the judgment and the end of the world would soon occur, i. e., that the dies* irae was at hand. Apocalyptic parties (individuals or groups of enthusiasts) looked for the miraculous advent of Jesus as the indispensable means of purifying and extending the ch.
5. At the Luth. Reformation* the traditional allegorical interpretation of Rv was abandoned. M. Luther* and other leading reformers, some of whom regarded the pope as Antichrist and as a sign of the end, looked for the speedy coming of Christ and the end of the world. Chiliasm prevailed among enthusiasts and sects. It was espoused esp. by Ger. Anabaps. in Münster (see M&ünster Kingdom). Chiliasm was condemned in AC XVII and the 2d Helvetic Confession XI but gained free play in the 17th c. when Eur. convulsions, revolutions in Eng., religious wars in Ger., and maltreatment of Prots. in Fr. spread it far and wide. Toward the end of the 17th c. the Luth. Ch. was influenced in this direction by Pietists, esp. P. J. Spener* (proponent of a refined chiliasm), Joachim Lange,* and J. Lead(e).* Luth. theols. who defended chiliasm include J. A. Bengel.* Chiliasm was championed by the Plymouth Brethren (see Brethren, Plymouth) and the Catholic* Apostolic Ch.
6. In Am., chiliasm was widely endorsed among Adventist* bodies, the Amana* Soc., Christadelphians,* the Christian* Cath. Ch., some elements of Fundamentalism,* the Holiness* chs., the House* of David, Jehovah's* Witnesses, and Latter* Day Saints.
7. Millenarians may be divided into pre- and postmillenarians. Premillenarians hold that the millennium is a period of worldwide righteousness introd. by the sudden, unannounced visible advent of Christ; that before this coming, the Gospel will be proclaimed throughout the world as a witness to it; that the righteous will then rise and reign with Christ on earth; that the Lord and His saints will bring about a great tribulation, Rv 2:22; that Israel will acknowledge the crucified Savior as the Messiah, Zch 12:10; that through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit many sinners will be converted, while Satan will be bound and locked in the abyss; that Satan, after 1,000 yrs., will be loosed; that he will make a final vain effort to est. himself; that soon thereafter he, his angels, and all lost souls that have been raised from the dead will be judged and hurled into the lake of fire, there doomed to everlasting torment; that the earth will be renewed by fire and become the everlasting home of the redeemed. Postmillenarians have gen. defended the following views: that through Christian agencies the Gospel will gradually permeate the entire world; that this condition will continue 1,000 yrs.; that the Jews will be converted either at the beginning of or during this period; that after this period of universal Gospel-acceptance there will be a brief apostasy, followed by a dreadful conflict bet. Christian and evil forces; and that finally and simultaneously there will occur the advent of Christ, the gen. resurrection, and the judgment of all men, after which the world will be destroyed by fire and new heavens and a new earth will be revealed.
8. Chiliasts disagree as to time and place of the millennial reign. Some have tried, others have refused, to fix a definite date. Many regarded Jerusalem as the center of Christ's reign (see Jews, Conversion of). Millennial joys have been variously described, from intoxication of the senses to pure contemplation of Christ.
9. Chief proof text of chiliasts is Rv 20:17, which they interpret literally. Opponents hold that this passage does not treat of the final advent of Christ, and that, if the whole passage is interpreted literally, hopeless confusion and absurdities result.
(January 23, 1864July 30, 1959). Luth. educ.; educ. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, and U. of Chicago; teacher and principal Danbury, Connecticut, 18891906; prof. Eng. and chemistry Addison and River Forest, Illinois, 190647. Asst. ed. Lutheran School Journal; other works include The Modern Grammar; The Modern Speller; Lessons in English and Busy Work for the Lower Grades; Science for the Grades.
(March 7, 1864September 10, 1917). B. Sheperdstown, W Virginia Educ. Roanoke (Virginia) Coll.; Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Chicago (Illinois) Luth. Theol. Sem. Pastor Roanoke Coll. Ch. 188896; NYC 18961908; Charleston, South Carolina, 190812; Philadelphia 191217. Works include The Way of the Cross; The Perfect Prayer and Its Lessons.
(17821849). B. Pittsfield, Massachusetts; farmer poultney, Vermont, 180312, Hampton, New York, 1813 ; US Army capt. in War on 1812; licensed Bap. preacher 1833; followers called Adventists or Millerites. Wrote Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ, about the Year 1843, Exhibited in a Course of Lectures (1836). See also Adventist Bodies, 1, 2.
(18601934). B. Kilconquhar, Fife, Scot.; educ. Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Bonn; pastor Morningside (suburb of Edinburgh) 188394 and Caputh, Perth, 18941910; prof. Glasgow U. 191032. Works include The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament Illustrated from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources (parts 1 and 2 with J. H. Moulton*); The New Testament Documents; Here & There Among the Papyri. See also Lexicons, B.
(Mill; 16451707). Brit. NT textual scholar; fellow Queens Coll., Oxford; principal Saint Edmund Hall; formulated principles of NT textual* criticism; issued Gk. NT with variants of nearly 100 MSS 1707.
(17831818). B. Torringford, Connecticut Educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts; Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. Befriended H. Obookiah.* Made miss. tours through midwestern and southern states; ordained Cong. 1815; helped found United For. Miss. Soc. for Presb. and Ref. Chs. and the ABS; to W Afr. as agent of a colonization soc. Works include Report of a Missionary Tour Through That Part of the United States Which Lies West of the Allegany Mountains. See also Haystack Group.
(17911868). B. London, Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford; priest 1816; vicar Reading 181835; rector and canon Westminster 183549; dean St. Paul's, London, 184968; prof. poetry Oxford 182131. Ed. E. Gibbon's* The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Other works include The History of the Jews; The History of Christianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire; History of Latin Christianity. Hymns include Ride On, Ride On in Majesty.
(17851822). B. Kinnethmont, ca. 28 mi. NW of Aberdeen, Scot.; educ. at a miss. coll. of the LMS at Gosport, Eng.; miss. to China, arriving Macao 1813; to Malacca 1815, where he became chief founder of the Anglo-Chinese Coll. 1818, which was moved to Hong Kong 1843. Helped R. Morrison* tr. the Bible into Chinese; other works include a commentary on Eph. See also Asia, C 2; Malaysia, 2.
(2d c.). Christian rhetorician; wrote against Montanists, Valentinians, Hellenes, Jews; said to have addressed Apology to the rulers of the world, i. e., the emps.; works are lost; excerpts in Eusebius* of Caesarea's HE See also Apologists, 9.
(ca. 14901529). B. Rabenau, near Dresden, Ger.; curial diplomat; papal notary and titular chamberlain; emissary of Leo X (see Popes, 20) to confer with M. Luther* after Cajetan's* defeat. See also Luther, Martin, 1012.
(160874). B. London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; studied classics at home at Horton 1632 to 38; traveled in Fr. and It. 163839; assoc. with scholars including H. Grotius,* G. Galilei,* and Holste(nius)*; returned to Eng. 1639; supported civil and religious liberty; Lat. (or for.) secy. to O. Cromwell's* Council of State 1649; blind 1652; arrested, fined, and imprisoned several months at the Restoration 1660 (see also England, C 1); last yrs. spent in literary seclusion.
1st period (ca. 162637) works include On the Morning of Christ's Nativity; L'Allegro; Il Penseroso; Comus; Lycidas. 2d period (ca. 164160) Of Reformation Touching Church-Discipline in England; Of Prelatical Episcopacy; The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce; Of Education; The Tenure of Kings; Areopagitica: for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing; Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes; De doctrina Christiana. 3d period (ca. 166374) Paradise Lost; Paradise Regained; Samson Agonistes.
In De doctrine Christiana Milton spells out precisely the theol. operating in Paradise Lost. He insists on man's rational freedom and responsible power of choice; denied J. Calvin's* view of predestination; espouses Arminian and Arian theol.; asserts that God created the world out of His own substance, that the Trin. is not coequal but a descending order, and that the soul dies with the body until revived at the resurrection; favors polygamy. EEF
See also Masen, Jakob.
(181495). Universalist cleric; b. Lempster, New Hampshire; pastor Methuen 1839, Lowell 1842, Boston 184891, all in Massachusetts; pres. Tufts Coll., Medford, Massachusetts, 1862; lectured on slavery and temperance. Ed. Star of Bethlehem; other works include Bible Exercises and The Old Forts Taken.
Illumination (brightening, or illustration) of MSS is their artistic decoration with colors and/or gold (rarely silver); usually connected with ornamental letters, chap. openings, and page borders. Miniatures (from Lat. minium, red lead) originally referred to illumination of MSS.
The earliest surviving illuminated papyrus roll is the Ramesseum Papyrus from Egypt ca. 1900 BC Christian illumination arose in Constantinople ca. AD 500. E monasteries preserved the practice during the Iconoclastic* Controversy. Anglo-Saxon and Irish illumination flourished 7th8th c. Noted scriptoriums (see Scriptorium) were founded in the Carolingian renaissance.
The 1st schools of illumination in S Fr. were est. in the 11th c. The It. renaissance revived the classical style. With the invention of printing the number of MSS copied by hand decreased, and the art of illumination disappeared, though Ger. was slow to give it up.
In the 16th17th c. small portraits came to be called miniatures. JEG
(Ordo [Fratrum] Minimorum). Franciscan order founded 1435 by Francis* of Paola; its 1st rule, confirmed 1493, was based on that of Francis* of Assisi; its 2d, sanctioned 1501, was more indep. and entailed abstention not only from meat and fish but also from eggs, cheese, butter, and milk.
1. The office of the ministry is a divine institution. Scripture distinguishes bet. the office of the ministry and the royal priesthood*. All Christians are priests (1 Ptr 2:9; Rv 1:6), but only some hold the office of the ministry. The Bible speaks of the latter in various terms (e.g., overseers, ministers, pastors, teachers, deacons, elders), indicating the scope of the office (Acts 20:28; 1 Co 4:1; 12:29; Eph 4:1112; 1 Ti 3:12, 813; Tts 1:5). The office of a minister is not a continuation of the priesthood of the OT, nor does it consist in certain rights and powers vested in the Apostles which only they and their successors could and can confer on others, nor is it conferred indelibly on any individual by ordination (see Character indelebilis). Christ continues His prophetic office through the work of the ministry; those who are called by Christian congs. or groups of congs. are Christ's undershepherds, Christ Himself being the one Lord and Master (Mt 23:8; 1 Ptr 5:4). The means of grace (see Grace, Means of) were given by God to the ch. God calls certain men through his Church to administer them for the cong., thus making them ministrantes inter Christianos (those who minister among Christians). The ch. has the obligation to carry out the commission of Mt 28:1920 and may create whatever other offices are necessary.
2. Some distinguish bet. the ministerial office in abstracto (Predigtamt; ministry) and in concreto (Pfarramt; pastorate). Some Lutherans influenced by the 17th century fathers and the pietism of Philipp Jacob Spener* maintain that AC V speaks of the ministry in abstracto: In order that we may obtain this faith, the ministry of teaching the Gospel and administering the sacraments was instituted. Our churches condemn the Anabaptists and others who think that the Holy Spirit comes to men without the external Word, through their own preparations and works. These same theologians maintain that AC XIV speaks of the ministerial office in concreto: It is taught among us that nobody should publicly teach or preach or administer the sacraments in the church without a regular call.
Luther, with Scripture, distinguishes between the priesthood of all the baptized (royal priesthood) and the ministers who, according to Matthew 28 and John 20, not seen as opposing Matthew 20, serve the Church in the Stead of Christ by His mandate for the blessing and benefit of God's people. If the ministers do not serve the Church by proclaiming the Word in purity and the Sacraments according to Christ's mandate they are to be deposed as antichrists and God's people, as priests, are given to call another minister.
4. God provided that His work be done through chs. (e.g., Acts 2:4142, 47; 20:28). The apostles were inspired; ministers are not; but the apostles made no distinction bet. themselves and pastors as far as the work of the ministry is concerned, but spoke of pastors as having the same duties (2 Ti 2:2; 1 Ptr 5:2), the same authority (Heb 13:17), performing the same service (1 Co 3:5); and regarded them fully as their fellow ministers (1 Co 3:22; 4:1; Cl 1:7; 1 Ptr 5:l).
5. Two elements have been distinguished in the call to the ministry. One is the inward conviction urging the individual to enter the ministry. The other is the call, the invitation from God through the ch. to specific pub. ministry in the ch. Ordination usually follows the 1st call received and accepted. JHCF
P. G. Lindemann, Ambassadors of Christ (St. Louis, 1935); G. H. Gerberding, The Lutheran Pastor, 4th ed. (Philadelphia, 1902); C. F. W. Walther, Die Stimme unserer Kirche in der Frage von Kirche und Amt, 4th ed. (Zwickau, Ger., 1894); C. C. Stoughton, Set Apart for the Gospel (Philadelphia, 1946); W. H. Greever, The Minister and the Ministry (Philadelphia, 1945); P. F. Koehneke, The Call into the Holy Ministry, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 366388; M. J. Steege, The Lutheran Pastor, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 389409; E. E. Foelber, The Office of the Public Ministry, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 474492; T. F. Gullixson, The Ministry, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 289306; R. R. Caemmerer and E. L. Lueker, Church and Ministry in Transition (St. Louis, 1964); The Ministry in Historical Perspectives, ed. H. R. Niebuhr and D. D. Williams (New York, 1956); E. L. Lueker, Change and the Church (St. Louis, 1969); M. Chemnitz, Enchiridion, tr. L. Poellot, Ministry, Word, and Sacraments (St. Louis, 1981); B. Lohse, Luthers Theologie (Göttingen, 1995).
Term in Am. Lutheranism originally referring to a body of ordained ministers charged with certain responsibilities, e.g., to examine, license, and ordain candidates for the ministry; lay* delegates were included in meetings of the New York Ministerium from its beginning, the Pennsylvania Ministerium from 1792. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 5, 15, 22.
I. Christ instructed His disciples before commissioning them to preach. Paul and other apostles trained colaborers by instruction. Facing gnostics and heathen philosophers demanded educ. leaders in the ch. In course of time, catechetical schools were est. for instruction in Christian doctrine preparatory to ch. membership; these schools came to prepare men for the ministry. See also Catechetics, 3; Exegesis, 3; Schools, Early Christian.
II. Standards declined in the Middle Ages. Students in urban areas were trained in monasteries and cathedral schools, those in rural areas were trained by local priests. In course of time, training became so deficient that even some who became bps. found it hard to preach a short sermon, and many priests had difficulty reading appointed Scripture lessons in pub. services. Charlemagne* gathered men of learning about him and encouraged better ministerial training (see also Alcuin).
III. The 13th c. brought great change. Theol. schools were united with univs.; those at Paris and Oxford became esp. famous. Peter* the Lombard's Sententiarum libri quatuor became the standard textbook. Both lecture and discussion methods were used. The Renaissance* left its mark on ministerial training.
IV. As the Luth. Reformation* conquered most of cen. Eur., it was hard to provide able ministers for the thousands of ev. congs. The average educ. of RC priests was minimal. In the preface to the SC M. Luther* says: Many pastors are quite unfit and incompetent to teach. Leaders of the Reformation were gathered into a faculty at Wittenberg to train future ministers. But it took time to effect widespread and lasting improvement. During the 1st 25 yrs. most men ordained by M. Luther, J. Bugenhagen,* and their assistants were without university or coll. educ. Before the middle of the c., men with full university training had become the rule, and the standard of examinations before ordination was consistently raised. Scholastic theol. gave way to exegesis (study of the Bible on basis of its original languages), systematic theol. (study of Bible doctrines), and practical theol. (emphasizing preaching and teaching). So the foundation was laid for the 4 depts. of present-day Luth. theol. sems.: Exegetic, Systematic, Historical, Practical.
The Council of Trent* (Sess. V, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. 1) ordered provision for theol. educ. in every cathedral ch.; later it made each diocese responsible for the theol. educ. of its clerics and gave govt. of the sems. to the resp. bps. (Sess. XXIII, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. 18).
V. The beneficial influence of the Reformation was brief. Within a c., university training became mainly intellectual and philos. In the 18th c., rationalism* gained control even in theol. faculties, with devastating effect on the ministry. In the 19th c., scientific and liberal thinking dominated Prot. Eur. theol. and spread to other countries. The Kropp* Sem. trained hundreds of pastors for Luths. in Am.
VI. In the US, ministers are trained without interference by the state. Each denomination establishes its plan of educ., confessional basis, and schools for its own communion. Most Prot. ministers who came with early settlers or emigrated to the colonies before ca. 1700 were educ. in Eur. With the growth of an Am. ch. came the need for Am. theol. educ.
A. Colleges, patterned after Eur. schools, were established. Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1636), William and Mary (Williamsburg, Virginia; 1693), Yale (New Haven, Connecticut; 1701), Princeton (Princeton, New Jersey; 1746) were founded with ministerial educ. as one primary objective. In the early days, the Am. coll. of liberal arts was a distinctively religious institution, and the educ. offered was centered in equipping men for the ministry. The Bible was taught on basis of its original languages, and all students were held to learn its doctrines and precepts. Chairs of divinity were est. (Hollis professorship of divinity at Harvard 1721; Yale professorship of divinity 1755). These schools were inaccessible to candidates for the ministry living far away. Such candidates sought private instruction from a neighboring minister. J. Bellamy trained scores of students in his home, N. Emmons perhaps nearly 100 (see also New England Theology, 4). H. M. Mühlenberg* also tutored students. Private tutoring was not always of high quality. Am. chs. began to consider est. schools exclusively for ministerial training. The Dutch Ref. Ch. est. what is usually regarded as the 1st separate Prot. sem. in Am. at Flatbush, Long Island, New York, 1784, under J. H. Livingston.* RC St. Mary's Sem., Baltimore, Maryland, was est. 1791. Congregationalists est. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. 1807/08. A divinity school was est. at Harvard 1819, Yale 1822. The Hartford (Connecticut) Theol. Sem. was founded 1833/34. Other similar schools were est. in course of time, some ch.-controlled, some indep. See also Higher Education, 10; Protestant Education in the United States.
B. At the beginning of the 19th c. the Prot. chs. felt that each denomination could best train its own ministry by founding as many sems. as it considered necessary under direct denominational control, setting its own educ. standards and doctrinal position. Many sems. received many students without coll. preparation. Problems incident to WW I led to a 1918 gathering of a group of theol. educators at Cambridge, Massachusetts As a result, a conf. of theol. sems. and colleges was formed. In 1936 this conf. became The Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools, which adopted standards for accreditation and placed theol. educ. at the graduate level, requiring an AB or its equivalent for admission to a 3-yr. course leading to the BD, and a faculty of at least 4 full-time profs., and setting standards for library, equipment, finances, etc. Schools which did not conform were not admitted. 1926 religious census figures for 17 of the largest white Prot. denominations in the US show that 2 in 5 of all ministers in these denominations were not grads. of a coll. or theol. sem.; only 1 in 3 was a grad. of both. The highest proportion of ministers who were both coll. and sem. grads. was in the Luth. Church.
C. Luths. in Am. also first looked to Eur. for ministers. Ca. the middle of the 18th c. it became evident that this source would be inadequate or cease entirely. A beginning of a native ministry was made by appointing certain men as theol. instructors authorized to prepare young men for the ministry. Candidates were then examined by the clergy in convention. Hartwick* Sem., the 1st Luth. school, was est. 1797, but was not an official ch. sem. The 1st official Luth. theol. sem. in Am. opened 1826 at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (see Gettysburg Seminary). The Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., begun 1830 at Canton, Ohio, by the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, moved 1831 to Columbus; connected with Capital U. till 1959. In 1839 Luth. immigrants from Saxony founded, in Perry Co., Missouri, the school that developed into Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri See also Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary.
VII. Pretheological Training.
A. General. The 1st colleges in the US were strictly religious institutions; all students were required to take theol. courses. But the attitude toward religion underwent a radical change. The old colleges became indep. and self-perpetuating. Increasing emphasis has been put on physical sciences. Rise of state univs. affected ministerial training. In these schools the demand for practical courses, designed to fit men for business or profession, has been crowding out the liberal arts coll. Credit courses in religion are offered in some state univs. The number of students of theol. sems. from state univs. and the old colleges is comparatively small.
B. These trends led to many ch.-related schools, listed in Yearbook of American Churches.
C. 1. When pub. schools became widespread ca. 1850, parish schools decreased in number. New impetus was given the parish schools by the Saxon Luth. immigrants and the Mo. Syn. (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V, 56; Parish Education; Teachers).
Conc. Coll., Ann Arbor, MI, founded 1963 as Conc. Luth. (Jr.) Coll.; became a 4-yr. coll. 1975; Luth. dropped from the name 1976; teacher training certified effective 1982 LCMS See also Concordia University System; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The VII 12.
Lenoir Rhyne Coll., Hickory, North Carolina, founded 1891; LCA See also Lutheran Church in America, V; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16.
Newberry Coll., Newberry, South Carolina, founded 1856; LCA See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27.
St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas, founded 1893; 4-yr. coll. authorized 1981; closed by the 1986 LCMS conv.; campus sold for $700,000 to the city of Winfield January 1, 1989. See also Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of.
Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, founded 1866; LCA See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 24.
1. Without high school academy:
Marion Coll., Marion, Virginia, founded 1873; LCA LCA recognition withdrawn at end of 1967; school closed. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 29.
2. With high school academy:
Camrose Luth. Coll., Camrose, Alberta, Can., founded 1911 by Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. and The United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.; ALC/ELCC 1960; affiliated with U. of Alberta 1959. See also Canada, B 20.
D. The syn. or group of syns. operating Luth. sems. writes the const. by which the respective sem. is governed. The syn. elects the Bd. of Control. In most cases the membership of the bd. is divided bet. clergy and laity.
Profs. at the sems. are selected either by the syn. in conv. or by the Bd. of Control or Bd. of Electors. Many syns. require an active parish ministry prior to sem. teaching. Regularly called Luth. teachers are pledged to Holy Scripture and the Lutheran* Confessions. Evidence that a teacher no longer holds the belief to which he is pledged makes him subject to discipline and possible dismissal.
D. Conc. Luth. Theol. Sem., St. Catharines, Ont., Can. Authorized by the 1975 LCMS conv. as a branch of Conc. Theol. Sem., Ft. Wayne, Indiana; opened in fall 1976; authorized as an indep. sem. by the 1979 LCMS convention. Est. as an LCC school by November 1981 resolution of the LCC.
Ownership, control, and supervision of the school, which moved to temporary quarters in St. Louis 1849 and to a more permanent location on S. Jefferson Ave. 1850, passed into the hands of the Mo. Syn. 1849/50. C. F. W. Walther* was its 1st prof. theol. (by syn. designation 1849) and its leading teacher and pres. (the latter from 1854) until his death 1887. It received a formal charter from the state of Missouri 1853. In 1861 the classical (preparatory) dept. (Gymnasium) moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the practical sem. moved from Fort Wayne to St. Louis; the practical sem. moved to Springfield, Illinois, 1875.
In 1882/83 a new bldg. replaced the one begun 1849. In 1907 an addition was built, increasing the capacity to ca. 300 resident students. In 1926 the sem. moved to a site (ca. 71 acres) at 801 De Mun Ave., Clayton (suburb of St. Louis), where an entirely new Tudor-Gothic plant had been erected for ca. $3,000,000. KFUO (see Radio Stations, Religious, 3) is on the W part of the campus. Later construction includes Sieck Hall, dormitories, Ludwig E. Fuerbringer Hall, and Luther Tower.
A pretheological yr. was part of the curriculum 193857 as bridge bet. jr. colleges and the sem. The BA was first awarded 1940 after the 2d yr. of study. In view of the est. of Concordia* Sr. Coll., Ft. Wayne, Indiana, entrance requirements were stated in terms of a BA In 1959 the first grads. of Conc. Sr. Coll. entered under the rev. curriculum. The BD was awarded after the 4th yr. The sem. was fully accredited by the Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools 1964. The BD nomenclature has been changed to MDiv (Master of Divinity), the current program of pastoral education.
The curriculum falls into the 4 traditional areas of exegetic, systematic, hist., and practical theol. Primary goals: to introd. each student to essential knowledge and skills in these 4 areas, to outline the course that future growth and use of the material can take, and to instill a desire to work with people in the application of the Gospel.
The sem. has an extensive field work program. Six students vicared 190304. The dept. of field work was officially est. 1945. In their first 2 yrs. students take part in local cong. and inst. field work. The 3d yr. is spent in a ministerial internship (or vicarage) under supervision of a LCMS pastor and is followed by 4th-yr. academic courses.
A Correspondence School was founded 1920. One-week summer sessions began 1929 but encountered difficulty as a result of the Depression. A solid program of summer work began 1951.
Graduate courses were introduced in the fall of 1922. The School for Graduate Studies began 1923 with six students; operations were suspended 19311937. Originally only courses for the STM degree were offered. In 1944 a director of graduate studies was appointed and a ThD program was inaugurated. The MAR program was established 1956. In 1989 the MAR program was established 1956. In 1989 the MAR program was changed to MA In 1998 the ThD program was changed to PhD and the School for Grad. Studies was renamed the Graduate School. The dir. of grad. studies became the Dean of the Grad. School. The Grad. School also offers a professional degree, the DMin.
Pres.: C. F. W. Walther* 185487, F. A. O. Pieper* 18871931, L. E. Fuerbringer* 193143, L. J. Sieck* 194352, Alfred O. Fuerbringer (19031997) 195369, John H. Tietjen (b. 1928) 196974 (removed from office), Ralph A. Bohlmann (b. 1932) 19741981, Karl L. Barth (b. 1924) 19821990, John F. Johnson (b. 1948) 1990
F. Conc. Theol. Sem., Ft. Wayne, IN, est. 1846 in Ft. Wayne, as a practical sem. (see Löhe, Johann Conrad Wilhelm): deeded to Mo. Syn. 1847; moved to St. Louis, Missouri 1861, where it functioned with the theoretical sem. (see X C) until 1875, when it moved to Springfield, IL on grounds of the former IL State U. In 1976, it moved to the campus of Conc. Sr. Coll. In addition to the MDiv, it now offers the M.A., STM, and D. Missiology degrees.
The policy of the sem. is to educate for the ministry men who have a BA The MDiv degree is offered. This degree was first conferred on graduates of the 197273 class. Field work and an internship year are integral elements of the curriculum. The sem. is a member Of the American Association of Theological Schools.
Pres.: W. Sihler* 184661, C. F. W. Walther* 186175, F. A. Crämer* 187591, R. Pieper* 18911914, R. D. Biedermann* 191421, H. A. Klein* 192235, H. B. Hemmeter* 19361945, G. C. Barth* 194552, W. A. Baepler* 195258, George J. Beto (b. 1916) 19591962, J. A. O. Preus (19201994) 196269, Richard J. Schultz (b. 1920) 197074, Robert D. Preus (19241995) 197489 (Suspended by Bd. of Regents), Norbert H. Mueller, interim pres. 198992, Robert D. Preus 199293 (Reinstated by Synodical Convention resolution) with Michael Stelmachowicz as C.E.O., David G. Schmiel 199395, Dean O. Wenthe 1996
See also Concordia Senior College, Luther Monuments.
H. Faith Ev. Luth. Sem., Tacoma, Washington, est. 1969 by Lutherans AlertNational (see World Confessional Lutheran Association); no syn. connection; recognized by the Evangelical* Luth. Fed. as its official school.
M. Lutheran School of Theol. at Chicago, Illinois, formed 1962 by completion of consolidation of Augustana* Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois (Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch.), Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem., Maywood, Illinois (est. 1891; ULC), Grand View Sem., Des Moines, Iowa (est. 1896; AELC), and Suomi Theol. Sem., Hancock, Michigan (est. 1904; Suomi Syn.); LCA Cen. Luth. Theol. Sem., Fremont, Nebraska (est. 1893; ULC/LCA) merged with the consolidated Chicago sem. 1966. Before to summer 1967 the Chicago sem. operated on campuses at Chicago, Rock Island, and Fremont. Full operations in Chicago began in fall 1967. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 9; Lutheran Church in America, V.
S. Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa. The school that became Wartburg Coll., Waverly, Iowa, and Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, began 1852 in Saginaw, Michigan, as a teacher training school (see Grossmann, Georg Martin); moved to Dubuque 1853; became a theol. sem. July 1854; to St. Sebald, Iowa, and called Wartburg 1857; to Mendota, Illinois, 1874; to Dubuque 1889; extension centers in Austin, Texas, and Denver, Colorado; The ALC Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska (est. 1884; UELC), united with Wartburg 1961. See also Anker, Kristian; Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 8.
T. Waterloo Luth. Sem., Waterloo, Ont., Can. See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 1.
XI. Foreign Seminaries Training Lutheran Ministers include:
Lutheran Training Institute, Monrovia, Liberia.
B. Asia and Australia.
Formation 1966 of the Luth. Ch. of Australia (see Australia, C 1) led to merger of Conc. Sem. (see Australia, B 2) and Immanuel Sem., both in Adelaide, on the site of Immanuel Sem., North Adelaide. The resultant school, Luther Sem., was dedicated March 3, 1968.
Universitas H. K. B. P. Nommensen, Pematangsiantar, Indonesia.
Faculdade de Teologia, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil.
D. England. Westfield* House, Cambridge. ELCE
E. Germany. Lutherische Theologische Hochschult, Oberursel (Taunus). SELK
Berkeley Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut (Episc.) 1854.
Church Divinity School of the Pacific, Berkeley, California (Episc.) 1893.
Colgate Rochester Divinity School/Bexley Hall, Rochester, New York (Interdenom.) 1817.
Goshen Biblical Sem., Elkhart, Indiana (Mennonite) 1894.
Hartford Seminary Foundation, The, Hartford, Connecticut (Interdenom.) 1834.
Harvard U. (Divinity School), Cambridge, Massachusetts (Nondenom.) 1636.
Howard U. (School of Religion), Washington, D. C. (Interdenom.) 1867.
Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wisconsin (Episc.) 1842.
Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California (Interdenom.) 1866.
U. of Chicago (Divinity School), Chicago, Illinois (Interdenom.) 1855.
Vanderbilt U. (Divinity School), Nashville, Tennessee (Interdenom.) 1875.
Yale U. (Divinity School), New Haven, Connecticut (Nondenom.) 1701.
XIII. RC Sems. The Council of Trent* (Sess. 23, Decree Concerning Reform, ch. 18) ordered that episc. sems. be est. to train priests. The Cong. of Sems. and Univs. administers theol. educ. in the RC Ch. except where rights of the Cong. for the Propagation of the Faith take precedence. Each diocese should have its own Sem. There are also sems. and houses of study of religious orders in Rome.
The Vatican II Decree on Priestly Formation (October 28, 1965), ch. 5, reads in part: Before beginning specifically ecclesiastical subjects seminarians should be equipped with that humanistic and scientific training which young men in their own countries are wont to have as a foundation for higher studies. It adds: The students are to be formed with particular care in the study of the Bible, which ought to be the soul of all theology.
XIV. The Future and Ministerial Educ. The upsurge of Biblical theology,* the ecumenical* movement, and the return to confessional sources have made an impact on contemporary theol. educ. Many sems. are strengthening their grad. schools to handle the onrush on post-BD students. New forms of training, e.g., the Urban Training Center in Chicago, Illinois, influence both the curriculum and institutional form of contemporary sems. Experimental methods of teaching have made inroads. Field work programs are expanding and entering new areas. Theol. sems will probably both mirror the life of the ch. and challenge the ch. with new forms of ministry.
R. L. Kelly, Theological Education in America: A Study of One Hundred Sixty-One Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (New York, 1924); O. A. Winfield, The Control of Lutheran Theological Education in America (Rock Island, Illinois, 1933); F. G. Gotwald, Theological Education in the Lutheran Church in the United States Prior to the Founding of Wittenberg College and Seminary in 1845, The Lutheran Quarterly, XLVI (1916), 82100; A. R. Wentz, History of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary (Philadelphia, ); C. F. Haussmann, Kunze's Seminarium (Philadelphia, 1917); T. C. Graebner, Concordia Seminary (St. Louis, ); C. V. Sheatsley, History of the First Lutheran Seminary of the West (Columbus, ); P. S. Vig, Trinitatis Seminarium (Blair, Nebraska, 1911); Zum jährigen Jubiläum des praktischen evang.-lutherischen Concordia-Seminars zu Springfield, Illinois, 184696 (St. Louis, 1896); T. Coates, The Making of a Minister (mimeographed; Portland, Oregon, ) and The European Background of the Missouri Synod Program of Ministerial Training, The American Lutheran, XXXIV, No. 11 (November 1951), 89, 18; C. S. Meyer, Log Cabin to Luther Tower (St. Louis, 1965); The Am. Assoc. of Theol. Schools, AATS Directory 1964 (Dayton, Ohio, 1964); R. H. Bainton, Yale and the Ministry (New York, 1957); K. R. Bridston and D. W. Culver, Pre-Seminary Education (Minneapolis, 1965); G. E. Arden, The School of the Prophets: The Background and History of Augustana Theological Seminary 18601960 (Rock Island, Illinois, 1960); J. E. Roscoe, A Short History of Theological Education (London, ); W. W. Sweet, Religion in the Development of American Culture 17651840 (New York, 1952), pp. 173183; G. H. Williams, The Harvard Divinity School (Boston, 1954); W. A. Brown et al., The Education of American Ministers, 4 vols. (New York, 1934); Y. Allen, A Seminary Survey (New York, 1960); S. Simpson, Early Ministerial Training in America, Papers of the American Society of Church History, ed. S. M. Jackson, 2d Series, vol. 2 (New York, 1910), 117129; H. R. Niebuhr et al., The Advancement of Theological Education (New York, 1957); Toward a More Excellent Ministry, ed. R. R. Caemmerer and A. O. Fuerbringer (St. Louis, 1964); M. Kruse, Preparation for the Ministry: The Training of Pastors in Germany, Lutheran World, XI, No. 4 (October 1964), 470477; Seminary Education in a Time of Change, ed. J. M. Lee and L. J. Putz (Notre Dame, Indiana 1965). LJS, AMA, AOF, JEG.
(1925). Theses adopted Minneapolis, Minnesota, November 18, 1925, by representatives of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States, the Buffalo* Syn., and The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 1314); they were adopted by the 4 bodies and were the doctrinal basis of the American* Luth. Ch. and of The American* Luth. Conf.
Minneapolis Theses. I. The Scriptures. The synods signatory to these Articles of Agreement accept without exception all the canonical books of the Old and the New Testaments as a whole, and in all their parts, as the divinely inspired, revealed, and inerrant Word of God, and submit to this as the only infallible authority in all matters of faith and life.
II. The Lutheran Symbols.
1. These synods also, without reservation, accept the symbolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, not insofar as, but because they are the presentation and explanation of the pure doctrine of the Word of God and a summary of the faith of the Lutheran Church, as this has found expression in response to the exigencies arising from time to time.
(The Norwegian Lutheran Church of America has officially accepted only the three Ecumenical Creeds, the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, and Luther's Small Catechism. This position does not imply that the Norwegian Lutheran Church rejects the remaining symbolical books of the Lutheran Church but since the other symbolical books are not known to her constituency generally, it has not been deemed necessary to require formal subscription to the entire Book of Concord.)
2. Adherence to our confessions pertains only to their doctrinal content, but to these without exception or limitation. All that pertains to the form of presentation (historical comments, questions purely exegetical, etc.) is not binding.
III. Church Fellowship.
1. presupposes unanimity in the pure doctrine of the Gospel and in the confession of the same in word and deed.
Where the establishment and maintenance of church fellowship ignores present doctrinal differences or declares them a matter of indifference, there is unionism, pretense of union which does not exist.
2. They agree that the rule, 'Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran pastors only, and Lutheran altars for Lutheran communicants only,' is not only in full accord with, but necessarily implied in, the teachings of the divine Word and the Confessions of the evangelical Lutheran Church. This rule, implying the rejection of all unionism and syncretism, must be observed as setting forth a principle elementary to sound and conservative Lutheranism.
IV. In points of doctrine (1. The Work of Christ 2. The Gospel; 3. Absolution; 4. Holy Baptism; 5, Justification; 6. Faith; 7. Conversion; 8. Election the Minneapolis Theses endorse the Chicago* Theses (1919).
V. The Lodge Question.
1. These synods agree that all organizations or societies, secret or open, as are either avowedly religious or practise the forms of religion without confessing as a matter of principle the Triune God or Jesus Christ as the Son of God, come into the flesh, and our Savior from sin, or teach instead of the Gospel, salvation by human works or morality, are anti-Christian and destructive of the best interests of the church and the individual soul, and that, therefore, the Church of Christ and its congregations can have no fellowship with them.
2. They agree that a Lutheran synod should not tolerate pastors who have affiliated themselves with any anti-Christian society. And they admonish their pastors and congregations to testify against the sin of lodgery and to put forth earnest efforts publicly and privately to enlighten and persuade persons who are members of anti-Christian societies, to sever their connection with such organizations. EL
Journal of Theology of The American Lutheran Conference, VI (1941), 1315; TM VII (1927), 112114; CTM I (1930), 688690; XV (1944), 194195; Doctrinal Declarations: A Collection of Official Statements on the Doctrinal Position of Various Lutheran Synods in America (St. Louis, Missouri, 1957), pp. 107108; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 340342.
(LWF). Theses adopted 1957 Minneapolis, Minnesota, by the 3d Assem. of the LWF; subjects: I. The Freedom We Have in Christ; II. The Unity of the Church in Christ; III. The Freedom to Reform the Church; IV. Free for Service in the World; V. Free and United in Hope.
1. Organized 1860 at St. Paul under leadership of J. C. F. Heyer* as Die [Deutsche] Evang.-Lutherische Synode von Minnesota und anderen Staaten, also known as the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Minnesota and Other States; est. a working relationship with the Wisconsin* Syn. 1864; joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1864.
2. The Minnesota Syn. left the Gen. Syn. and joined the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am. 1866/67; left the Gen. Council 1871 (see Four Points); joined the Synodical* Conf. 1872 under leadership of J. H. Sieker.* See also Synodical Conference, 1.
3. A coll. was est. at New Ulm 1883/84 (see Hoyer, Otto Daniel August; Luther College, 3). The Minnesota Syn. helped form the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States 1892 (see Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod). Official pub.: Evangelisch-Lutherischer Synodal-Bote.
4. Pres. till 1917, when the Minnesota Syn. became the Minnesota Dist. (or Minnesota Dist. Syn.) of the Joint Syn. of Wisconsin and Other States: J. C. F. Heyer, J. H. Sieker, A. Kuhn,* C. J. Albrecht.*
E. Abbetmeyer-Selke, The Beginnings of the German Lutheran Churches in Minnesota, CHIQ II (192930), 7581, 108115; A. Kuhn, Geschichte der Minnesota Synode und ihrer einzelnen Gemeinden, 18601910 (St. Louis, 1910); J. P. Köhler, Geschichte der Allgemeinen Evangelisch-Lutherischen Synode von Wisconsin und andern Staaten (Milwaukee, 1925), tr., rev. and updated by author, The History of the Wisconsin Synod, Faith-Life, XI, 2XVII, 1 (February 1938January 1944), ed. L. D. Jordahl and pub. in book form 1970.
(18691943). RC modernist; b. Raggioli, It.; prof. Heb. Istituto Superiore, Florence, 1903; suspended 1908; prof. U. at Pisa. Ed. Rivista bibliografica Italiana 1896, Studi religiosi 1901; wrote in area of OT and on Francis of Assisi.
(2d and/or 3d c.). Lat. apologist; b. probably Afr. Wrote Octavius (Book VIII of Arnobius,* Adversus nationes), a dialog bet. Octavius (a Christian), Caecilius Natalis (a pagan, converted at the dialog's end), and Minucius. See also Apologists, 10.
Unusual acts of divine self-manifestation in the spiritual and natural world. In the OT, miracles are described as extraordinary manifestations of God's presence (Nm 16:30; Jos 10:1014; 2 K 20:811) and recognized as being from God by faith (Ex 712; Ju 6:1124; 1 K 18:3839). They are involved in God's saving activity (Gen 18:14; Ex 15:11; Ps 72:18) and are signs of His overruling power (Ex 7:3; 11:910; Jos 24:17).
In the NT miracles correspond to OT miracles and are described as acts of power (dynameis, Acts 19:11); signs (semeia, Lk 21:25; Jn 2:11) whose significance is perceived by faith (Jn 11:2527, 3840; 20:3031); wonders beyond laws as known (Jn 4:48; Acts 2:19; 2 Co 12:12). The miracles of Christ show that the kingdom of God has come (Mt 12:28; Lk 11:20). Paul contrasted his preaching of the cross with the Jewish request for a sign (1 Co 1:2223).
Various interpretations and conceptions of miracles have been held since ancient times. Miracles in the Bible were distinguished from magic. Miracles of Christ were used as evidence for His deity. The view that miracles demonstrated the authority of the OT and NT became prominent.
M. Luther* emphasized the faith-strengthening function of miracles and stressed the inner miracle of faith more than the external phenomena of miracles. He and J. Calvin* hesitated to acknowledge contemporary miracles.
Religionsgeschichtliche-Schule theologians try to trace Scriptural miracles to the Gk. or Jewish world. Rationalists look for natural explanations.
First word of Ps 51 (Vulgate 50) in Lat. The Ps played a prominent role in 16th c. musical hist.; set to music by Josquin* Deprès, O. di Lasso,* G. P. da Palestrina,* G. Gabrieli,* G. Allegri,* et al.
(Abbot, or Master, of Misrule). Person chosen in Middle Ages to preside over Christmas games and revels.
Term in use since ca. the 11th c. to designate the 1st part of the mass,* preceding Communion; derived from the ancient practice of dismissing catechumens at the end of the 1st part. See also Catechetics, 3.
Series of statements on missions based on Report of Mission Self-Study and Survey composed by Martin L. Kretzmann. The affirmations, adopted by LCMS at Detroit June 1965, are titled: The Church Is God's Mission; The Church Is Christ's Mission to the Whole World; The Church Is Christ's Mission to the Church; The Church Is Christ's Mission to the Whole Society; The Church Is Christ's Mission to the Whole Man; The Whole Church Is Christ's Mission.
Founded 1944; provides rapid and efficient transportation for many missions; operated by experienced and tested pilots. 1966 fields included Brazil, Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Guyana, Honduras, Kenya, Mex., Philippines, Surinam, Venezuela, W. Irian. HQ Fullerton, California, London, Eng., and Box Hill (Melbourne), Australia. Mem. IFMA Pub.: Missionary Aviation; Wings of Praise and Prayer.
Generic description of N (and later S) Baps. (see Baptist Churches, 89) because they favored organized efforts to raise miss. funds. Antimission Baps. (see Baptist Churches, 11) opposed such efforts, alleging that they were not by NT command.
Conferences for joint study and solution of miss. problems; denominational or interdenom.; constituted by voluntary participation of interested socs., administrators, and missionaries; advisory, without legislative power; most Am., Eur., and Asiatic countries have such confs., which have been held, e.g., NYC 1854, London 1854, Calcutta 1855, Benares (India) 1857, Liverpool 1860, Shanghai 1877 and 1890, London 1878 and 1888, NYC 1900, Edinburgh 1910, Jerusalem 1928, Tambaram, Madras, India, 1938, Whitby, Ont., Can., 1947, Willingen, Ger., 1952, Accra, Ghana, 1958. See also International Missionary Council.
Jesuits est. a sem. for miss. training 1542 in Coimbra, Port., Carmelites in Rome 1613; the Collegium Urbanum, organ of the Sacred Cong. for the Propagation of the Faith (see Curia) was est. in Rome 1627; there was a Dutch Ref. miss. sem. in Leiden 162232; J. Jänicke* est. a school 1800 in Berlin in which ca. 80 missionaries were educ.; the Basel* Miss. Soc. opened a sem. 1816; the Barmen Miss. Soc. (see Rhenish Mission Society) est. a preseminary 1825, enlarged it to a full sem. 1827; the Dresden Ev. Luth. Miss. est. a school 1832, moved to Leipzig 1848 (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission); the Gossner* Miss. Soc. opened a sem. 1836; the Norw. Miss. Soc. est. 1843 at Stavanger a school which was closed 1847, reopened 1858 (see also Norwegian Foreign Missions); a training institute was est. 1861 at Steeden, Ger., under leadership of F. A. Brunn*; a Dan. miss. school opened 1862 near Copenhagen, closed several yrs. later as a result of dissension; the Finnish* Miss. Soc. est. a school 1862; the Swed. Miss. Soc. est. a sem. at Johannelund 1863 (see also Swedish Missionary Societies); the Breklum* Miss. Soc. opened a sem. 1876, dedicated its Miss. House 1877; other institutes were est. later. See also Walaeus, Antonius.
Miss. institutes in Am. are gen. attached to theol. sems.; some chs. use univs. for preparation in such areas as anthropology. The ecumenical* movement has encouraged cooperation in training miss. personnel.
Festivals observed to arouse and further interest in miss. work; miss. festivals in the US have been traced to the 1850s; the custom of annual miss. festivals began to wane in the LCMS in the 1950s in favor of more frequent emphasis on missions.
Also called Bleckmar Miss.; est. 1892 as Hanover Ev. Luth. Free Ch. Miss.; supported since 1951 by 3 dioceses of the Indep. Luth. Ch., the Ev.-Luth. Free Ch., the Ev. Luth. (Old Luth.) Ch., and the Free Ev. Luth. Syn. in South Afr. (the latter consisting chiefly of congs. of Ger. descent); works chiefly in S Afr.; has ca. 18,000 mems. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 112.
1. This term defines the activity of bringing the Gospel of salvation in Jesus Christ to people everywhere through word and deed, the obligation of the ch. collectively and of its mems. individually (Mt 28:1820; Mk 16:1516; Lk 24:4648; Jn 20:21; Acts 1:8).
2. Many types of miss. expression have developed. The prime undertaking is the direct preaching of the Gospel. Other efforts include those in educ., health and medicine, agriculture, industry, economic development, concern for the handicapped, for the oppressed, for those experiencing discrimination, economic or soc. repression. Means used include mass communications, printed materials, audio-visual aids, radio, and TV.
4. Gustavus* I sent pastors to Lapps (see Lapland) 1559. Swed. Luth. colonists in Am. supported efforts of J. Campanius* to reach Am. Indians 164348. P. Heyling* was in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) from 1634; tr. NT into Amharic. See also Weltz, Justinian Ernst von.
5. Miss. concerns of Frederick* IV of Den. and lack of miss. manpower in Den. combined to lead Frederick to contact A. H. Francke* at Halle, Ger., for missionaries to Dan. colonies in India. Pioneer work of the Dan.-Halle miss. was done by B. Ziegenbalg* and H. Plütschau.* See also Medical Missions, 6.
8. Missions were encouraged esp. by C. Wesley* and J. Wesley* in Eng. and N. L. v. Zinzendorf* in Germany. Miss socs. est. as a result of miss. movements in the 18th and 19th cents. include Baptist* Miss. Soc. 1792, The London* Miss. Soc. 1795, Church* Miss. Soc. 1799, Wesleyan* Meth. Miss. Soc. 1813, Basel* Miss. Soc. 1815, Paris* Ev. Miss. Soc. 1822, Berlin* Miss. Soc. I 1824, Rhenish* Miss. Soc. 1828, Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss. 1836, Gossner* Miss. Soc. 1836, Neuendettelsau* Miss. Soc. 1849. Hermannsburg* Miss. 1849; other socs. were est. elsewhere (e.g., Scot. and Scand.).
10. As Luth. chs. in Am. grew they est. miss. socs. or bds. (see Central Missionary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States). The Society of the Synod of Pennsylvania for the propagation of the Gospel, founded 1836, sent J. C. F. Heyer* to the E. Indies 1841 in search of a suitable miss. field; he chose India, arriving 1842. LCMS sent K. G. T. Näther* and F. E. Mohn* to India 1894. The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States began work in India 1912, when it bought 2 stations of the Hermannsburg Miss. (see also India, 13). The Joint Ev. Luth. Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States (see Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod) did Miss. work among Apache Indians beginning 1892 (see also Indians, Lutheran Missions to North American). It joined the other chs. of the Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. of N Am. in opening work in Nigeria 1936 and in 1953 began its own work in N. Rhodesia. Other missions have been est. in various countries by Luth. chs.
11. As a result of WW I, many missions related to Eur. chs. were orphaned because of internat. tensions. Already during the war much interch. help was given. To ensure that no miss. would be overlooked, various US bds. est. the Luth. For. Missions Conf. of (N.) Am. 1919; it disbanded at the end of 1966, when the Lutheran* Council in the USA became operative.
13. More than 1,400 agencies, including at least 20 ecumenical and internat. organizations, are engaged in world missions. Ca. 600 miss. bds. or socs. or related groups in N. Am. send or support ca. 33,000 Prot. missionaries (ca. 70% of all missionaries). Of N. Am. Prot. missionaries, ca. 32% serve in Lat. Am., ca. 29% in Asia, ca. 29% in Afr., and ca. 10% elsewhere.
14. LCMS missions becoming chs. include India Ev. Luth. Ch. (see India, 13), Luth. Ch. of Nigeria (see Africa, C 14), The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Ghana (see Africa, C 11), The Luth. Ch. in the Philippines (see Philippines, Republic of the, 3), The China Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Taiwan), Wabag Luth. Ch. (see New Guinea, 6), The Luth. Syn. of Mex. (see Mexico, D 3), Japan Luth. Ch. (see Japan), Korea Luth. Ch. (see Korea, 5). Missionaries are at times loaned to or borrowed from other miss. and ch. related agencies.
International Review of Mission (called The International Review of Missions till April 1969; pub. by the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism of the WCC); Occasional Bulletin from the Missionary Research Library (New York, New York); World Christian Handbook (London, 1949, 1952, 1957, 1962, 1968); North American Protestant Ministries Overseas (former titles: Directory of Foreign Missionary Agencies in North America , Directory of North American Protestant Foreign Missionary Agencies , North American Protestant Foreign Mission Agencies ; New York, 1968); minutes and reports of the International* Miss. Council.
Atlas der evangelischen Missions-Gesellschaft zu Basel, ed. J. Josenhans, 2d ed. (Basel, 1859); The Encyclopedia of Missions, ed. H. O. Dwight, H. A. Tupper Jr., E. M. Bliss, 2d ed. (New York, 1904); A. v. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, tr. and ed. J. Moffatt, 2d enl. ed., 2 vols. (London, 1908); C. H. Robinson, History of Christian Missions (New York, 1915); World Missionary Atlas, ed. H. P. Beach and C. H. Fahs (New York, 1925); K. S. Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, 7 vols. (New York, 193745); Interpretative Statistical Survey of the World Mission of the Christian Church, ed. J. I. Parker (New York, 1938); J. C. Thiessen, A Survey of World Missions, rev. 3d ed. (Chicago, 1961); R. H. Glover, The Progress of World-Wide Missions, rev. and enl. J. H. Kane (New York, 1960); Weltmission in ökumenischer Zeit, ed. G. Brennecke et al. (Stuttgart, 1961); Frontiers of the Christian World Mission since 1938, ed. W. C. Harr (New York, 1962); B. G. M. Sundkler, The World of Mission, tr. E. J. Sharpe (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1965); G. F. Vicedom, Mission im ökumenischen Zeitalter (Gütersloh, 1967); The Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Missions: The Agencies, ed. B. L. Goddard et al. (Camden, New Jersey, 1967); R. Keen, A Survey of the Archives of Selected Missionary Societies (London, 1968); Dictionary Catalog of the Missionary Research Library, New York, 17 vols. (Boston, 1968); Concise Dictionary of the Christian World Mission, ed. S. Neill, G. H. Anderson, J. Goodwin (Nashville, Tennessee, 1971).
L. B. Wolf, Missionary Heroes of the Lutheran Church (Philadelphia, 1911); Ebenezer, ed. W. H. T. Dau (St. Louis, 1922); Men and Missions, ed. L. Fuerbringer, 10 vols. (St. Louis, 192433); Our Church Abroad, ed. in chief G. Drach (Columbus, Ohio, 1926); F. J. Lankenau, The World Is Our Field (St. Louis, 1928); W. G. Polack, Into All the World (St. Louis, 1930); E. T. Bachmann, They Called Him Father (Philadelphia, 1942); O. A. Buntrock, The History of American Lutheran Missions in Asia, Africa, and Oceania since World War I, CHIQ XIX (April 1946), 2542; (July 1946), 5762; (October 1946), 129141; (January 1947), 178191; XX (July 1947), 102107; (October 1947), 142154; (January 1948), 188192; XXI (April 1948), 4248; (July 1948), 8896; (October 1948), 114128; (January 1949), 187192; XXII (July 1949), 8489; (October 1949), 127142; R. Syrdahl, Lutheran Missions, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 556588; C. E. Lund-Quist, H. Lilje, R. Askmark, L. Terray, S. Herman, E. T. Bachmann, R. B. Manikam, F. Birkeli, Lutheran Churches of the World (Minneapolis, Minnesota ); W. J. Danker, Into All the World, Moving Frontiers, ed. C. S. Meyer (St. Louis, 1964), pp. 294343, and Two Worlds or None (St. Louis, 1964); F. D. Lueking, Mission in the Making (St. Louis, 1964).
Henkelite Luths. (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 7) moved W from western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee before 1839 and settled esp. in SE Missouri On invitation from mems. of this group, a free conf. was held 1872 at Gravelton, Wayne Co., Missouri, in which mems. of the Ev. Luth. Tennessee Syn., Holston Syn., Mo. Syn., and Norw. Syn. took part. C. F. W. Walther* took the lead in guiding the Eng. group (3 pastors, including P. C. Henkel [see Henkels, The, 3]) toward immediate organization of The Eng. (Ev.) Luth. Conf. of Missouri; A. W. Meyer* joined 1885, C. F. W. Dallmann* 1886. On basis of an 1886 resolution the conf. applied to the 1887 Mo. Syn. conv. for admission as a dist. but was advised to organize an indep. syn.
A city miss. cong. was est. by C. F. W. Dallmann in Baltimore, Maryland, 1888. Similar ventures followed in St. Louis, Missouri; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Winfield, Kansas; Washington, D. C.; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; St. Paul, Minnesota; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo and NYC, New York In 1888 the conf. adopted a const. and a new name expressing broader vision: The Gen. Eng. (Ev.) Luth. Conf. of Missouri and Other States. The conf. joined the Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. of N Am. 1890. In 1891 the conf. changed name to The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri and Other States.
The Lutheran Witness, begun 1882 under auspices of the Cleveland Dist. Conf. and ed. by C. A. Frank,* was presented to the syn. 1888. In 1893 the syn. received Concordia* Coll., Conover, North Carolina, and St. John's Coll., Winfield, Kansas (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B; the latter was given to the Mo. Syn. 1908. The Lutheran Guide (a child's paper for Sunday Schools), founded by 1891 syn. resolution and ed. by A. W. Meyer, began to appear 1893. In 1911 the syn. became the Eng. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. See also Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V. 10.
H. P. Eckhardt, The English District (n. p., 1946).
Oriental mystery* religion named after Mithras, mythical Persian savior hero; includes features of Zoroastrianism* and Hellenism; rivaled Christianity in the Roman Empire 24 c. AD See also Greek Religion, 3 b.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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