(from Tibetan lama [or blama], superior one). Form of Mahayana Buddhism (see Buddhism, 1) first introd. into Tibet in the 7th c.; became distinctive Lamaism in the 8th c.; reintrod. in the 10th c.; reformed in the 14th c.; expanded to include temporal power; spread into Mongolia and Manchuria. The Dalai Lama was exiled from Lhasa, capital of Tibet, and fled to India 1959; est. an exile capital at Dharmsala, Punjab. The Tashi Lama (or Pan-ch'en Lama) was removed to Peking 1965 by Communist China.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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