(18601932). RC theol. and philos.; b. Chazelet, Indre, Fr.; developed a theory of divine immanence (see Immanence of God). Works include Essais de philosophie religieuse and Le Réalisme chrétien et l'idéalisme grec; Études sur Descartes.
Antipathy bet. organized labor and chs. was aroused by methods of Knights of Labor (organized as a secret organization 1869 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; dropped secrecy early in 1880s; ended formal organization 1917) in 1880s and Industrial Workers of the World (organized 1905 in Chicago, Illinois) 1908ca. 1917. In course of time, after organization of the American Federation of Labor 1886 and the Congress of Industrial Organizations 1938, demands of labor were more often in harmony with Christian goals of love and justice. Arbitration of labor disputes by clerics and increasing activity of ch. mems. in unions have helped develop and widen areas of common interest. Application of Gl 6:2; Cl 3:224:1; 2 Th 3:10; 1 Ti 5:18 to collective bargaining, cooperatives, working conditions, wages, and overtime work has brought greater interest in the ch. to labor. See also Capital and Labor; Industry and the Church. JD
L. Pope, Millhands & Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut, 1942); Labor's Relation to Church and Community, ed. L. Pope (New York, 1947); Labor Speaks for Itself on Religion, ed. J. Davis (New York, 1929); J. Myers, Do You Know Labor? (Washington, D. C., 1940); W. H. Greever, Human Relationships and the Church (New York, 1939); C. Stelzle, The Church and the Labor Movement (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1910); J. Daniel, The Church and Labor-Management Problems of Our Day (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1947) and Labor, Industry, and the Church (St. Louis, 1957); R. C. Kwant, Philosophy of Labor (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1960); G. Siefer, The Church and Industrial Society: A survey of the Worker-Priest Movement and its implications for the Christian Mission (London, 1964).
2. Mainland part of Newfoundland province, Can. Area: ca. 112,600 sq. mi. Moravian missions in Labrador began soon after the middle of the 18th c. Nearly all of pop. is Christian. See also Canada, D; Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason.
(Jules-Esprit-Nicolas; 18321918). RC philos.; b. Fontainbleau, Fr.; influenced E. Boutroux* and H. Bergson*; tried to found induction in a philos. of nature based on twin laws of efficient and final causes.
(180261). B. Receysur-Ource, Côte d'Or, Fr.; first followed J. J. Rousseau*; lawyer Paris; RC 1824; priest 1827; interpreted RCm acc. to slogans of the Revolution: liberty, equality, and fraternity; opposed free thought. See also Church and State, 15; France, 5.
(Firmianus Lactantius; first names Lucius Caelius [or Caecilius]; ca. 240/260ca. 320/340). Christian apologist; b. probably N Afr. [or It.?] of heathen parents; pupil of Arnobius*; taught rhetoric at Nicomedia (modern Izmit, Turkey); became Christian perhaps ca. 300. Works include De mortibus persecutorum; Epitome divinarum institutionum; De origine erroris; De justitia; De ira dei.
(180061). B. Arjeplog, Norrbotten Co., N Swed.; educ. Uppsala; botanist; Luth. pastor Arjeplog 1825, Kaaresuvanto (Karesuando; Karesuanto) 1826, Pajala 1849; led pietistic movement that spread in N Swed., Norw., and esp. Fin. Adherents of the movement, called Laestadians, oppose luxury. See also Finland, Lutheranism in, 4; Finnish Lutherans in America, 4; Lapland. GH
February 11, 1877December 29, 1962). B. Milwaukee, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Chippewa Falls, Deer Park, Eau Claire and Pleasant Valley, and Sheboygan, all in Wisconsin; St. Louis, Missouri Prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 192747. Ed. The Abiding Word. Other works include The Minor Prophets; Jeremiah.
(father's surname: Bötticher; 1854 adopted the surname of his grandaunt [de Lagarde] who reared him; 182791). Orientalist and philol.; b. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin and Halle; prof. Göttingen; desired a new nat. ch. with a faith welling up out of the collective heart of the people. Works include Arica; Gedichte; Über das Verhältnis des deutschen Staates zu Theologie, Kirche und Religion.
(religious name: Marie Joseph; 18551938). B. Bourg, Fr.; Dominican; est. École Pratique d'Études Bibliques in Jerusalem 1890. Works include Études sur les religions sémitiques; L'Évangile de Jésus-Christ (tr. [L. Walker and R. Ginns] mems. of the Eng. Dominican Province, The Gospel of Jesus Christ); Introduction a l'étude du Nouveau Testament; commentaries. See also Battifol, Pierre.
Division of ch. mems. into clergy and laity is valid if the words simply distinguish those who have been called into the ministry (see Ministerial Office, 5) from those who have not been so called. But with the rise of the sacerdotal system, which culminated in the papacy, the idea that the priesthood formed an intermediate class bet. God and man became prevalent, and the term clergy took on added, hierarchic meaning in that context.
The doctrine of justification by faith alone abolished human mediation bet. man and God. M. Luther* effectively proclaimed the priesthood of all believers (cf. 1 Ptr 2:9). As a result, the laity recovered its proper position and lay representation again became possible. See also Laymen's Activity in the Lutheran Church; Priesthood.
(18721946). Biblical and patristic scholar; b. Southampton, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. Leiden, Neth., 190413, and Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 191438; did research work on NT MSS; organized archaeol. expeditions. Works include The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; The Text of the New Testament; The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul; coed. (with F. J. F. Jackson) The Beginnings of Christianity; tr. The Apostolic Fathers. See also Modern Churchmen's Union.
(from Tibetan lama [or blama], superior one). Form of Mahayana Buddhism (see Buddhism, 1) first introd. into Tibet in the 7th c.; became distinctive Lamaism in the 8th c.; reintrod. in the 10th c.; reformed in the 14th c.; expanded to include temporal power; spread into Mongolia and Manchuria. The Dalai Lama was exiled from Lhasa, capital of Tibet, and fled to India 1959; est. an exile capital at Dharmsala, Punjab. The Tashi Lama (or Pan-ch'en Lama) was removed to Peking 1965 by Communist China.
(François; Francis; Lambert of Avignon; Johannes Serranus; ca. 14861530). B. Avignon, Fr.; at first Franciscan (see Franciscans); Prot. 1522; met M. Luther* 1523; tr. Reformation pamphlets into Fr. and It.; promoted Reformation in Hesse 1526; prof. Marburg 1527; held Zwinglian view of Lord's Supper (see Hoen, Cornelisz Hendricxz).
(Lampert von [or of]; probably ca. 1025-probably after 1080). B. probably Thuringia; educ. probably Bamberg; monk Hersfeld 1058; abbot at monastery Hasungen, near Kassel. Works include a life of Lullus*; world hist. up to 1077.
Assem. of Engl. bps. at Lambeth palace, London, Eng.; cen. consultative body of the Angl. communion. Meetings have been held 1867, 1878, 1888, 1897, 1908, 1920, 1930, 1948, 1958, 1968. See also England, C 11.
(17961855). B. Lahamaide, near Charleroi, Hainaut, Belg.; RC organist Charleroi and Dinant, Belg., and Amiens, Fr.; Jesuit 1825; promoted revival of Gregorian chant (see Gregorian Music). Compositions include oratorios and cantatas.
(La Mennais; 17821854). B. Saint-Malo, Fr.; RC priest 1816; philos.; first supported ultramontanism,* later abandoned it; broke with the RC Ch. 1834; mem. Nat. Assem. 1848. Ed. L'Avenir; other works include Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de religion (tr. Lord Stanley of Alderley, Essay on Indifference in Matters of Religion). See also Mirari vos.
(170951). Physician and philos.; atheist; b. Saint-Malo, Fr.; forced to flee from Fr. and, later, Leiden, because of his materialism.* Held that the soul is produced by physical growth, that the brain has thought muscles, that psychical phenomena are caused by changes in brain and nervous system, and that sensual pleasures should be pursued. Works include Histoire naturel le de l'âme; L'homme machine.
(180278). Norw. Luth.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); pastor Skien; revivalist; founded local soc. for inner missions 1853; left state ch. and founded Free Apostolic Christian Cong. 1856; rejoined state ch. 1860. Coauthor (with G. C. Johnson*) Nogle Ord om Barnedaaben.
(Adolph; 16831729). Ref. theol.; b. Detmold, Ger.; educ. Bremen, Ger., and Franeker, Neth.; pastor Weeze (near Cleve) 1703, Duisburg 1706, Bremen 1709; prof. dogmatics and ch. hist. Utrecht 1720; prof. and pastor Bremen 1727; exponent of federal* theol.
(August 7, 1858April 30, 1928). Mo. Syn. Luth. businessman (woolen business), churchman, and philanthropist; b. NYC; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; cofounder LLL, its pres. till 1926; pres. ALPB 192028; supported Luth. educ. for clergy and laity; promoted Luth. soc. and miss. work; instrumental in founding Luth. Theol. Sem. at Zehlendorf, near Berlin, Ger.; helped est. endowment fund for Mo. Syn. retired pastors and teachers.
(Landmarkers). Mems. of the Am. Bap. Assoc. (see Baptist Churches, 14). Landmarkism is a term used in reference to their emphasis on what they regard as landmarks of the ch. and its practice: the ch. is only visible and local; valid baptism requires a proper administrator; other chs. are not recognized as Christian; true chs. are connected with NT times by apostolic succession or succession of believer's* Baptism.
(June 18, 1836May 13, 1896). B. Pinsk, Minsk, Russ., of Jewish parents; educ. as teacher; converted to Christianity in Jerusalem; was persecuted; wife divorced him; children taken from him; miss. to Constantinople; converted Elieser Bassin (Eliezer; Bessin), who became Scot. Free Ch. miss. Constantinople; to US; spent 9 mo. at Conc. Theol. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; miss. to Jews NYC July 1883.
(180280). B. Maasö, Finmarken, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); vicar Gausdal; pastor Kviteseid, Seljord, Frederikshald, and Sande; poet; interest in folk songs influenced his hymns. Hymns include I Know of a Sleep in Jesus' Name; When Sinners See Their Lost Condition; O Blessed Home Where Man and Wife; Lo, Many Shall Come from the East and the West; other works include Kirkesalmebog.
(ca. 100589). B. Pavia, It.; to Fr. ca. 1035; Benedictine (see Benedictines) at Bec*; prior there 104562; involved in controversy with Bérenger*; abp. Canterbury* 107089. Works include De corpore et sanguine domini.
MPL, 150, 9782.
(ca. 14871548). Reformer of Erfurt, Ger.; b. Erfurt; Augustinian* monk 1506; priest 1508; friend of M. Luther*; supported Luther at the 1519 Leipzig* Debate; introd. new order of service in Erfurt 1525.
(ca. 14681540). B. Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Ingolstadt, and Vienna; imperial secy.; bp. Gurk 1505; cardinal 1511/12; abp. Salzburg 1519; first favorably inclined toward evangelicals; relapsed after receiving from Rome unqualified patronage of certain bishoprics in his diocese; demanded that J. von Staupitz* reject Luth. heresy 1521; drove P. Speratus* out of Salzburg; at the 1530 Augsburg Diet (see Lutheran Confessions, A) he declared himself a bitter foe of M. Luther.*
(January 5, 1864November 29, 1938). B. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Fremont, Nebraska; Chicago, Illinois; St. Louis, Missouri; Fort Wayne, Indiana Coed. Die Rundschau; ed. Die Abendschule and Lutherisches Kinder- und Jugendblatt.
(Rudolph; January 8, 1825October 2, 1892). B. Polish Wartenberg, Prussia; studied theol. privately; to US 1846; educ. at the practical sem. est. by J. K. W. Löhe* at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and at the Mo. Syn. theoretical sem., Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri; pastor St. Charles, Missouri, 1848; prof. Conc. Coll. and Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1858, and in Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1861. Pastor Defiance, Ohio, SeptemberDecember 1872; Chicago, Illinois, December 187278. Prof. theol. and philos. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 187892; lectured in English. Coed. Lehre und Wehre 186164; ed. The St. Louis Theological Monthly 188182 (18 issues; pub. by the Missouri* Syn. in connection with the predestinarian* controversy); other works include Kleines Lehrbuch der Englischen Sprache.
(182875). B. Wald, near Solingen, Ger.; son of J. P. Lange*; educ. Duisburg, Zurich, and Bonn; taught at various places; prof. Zurich; neo-Kantian philos., economist, sociol.; opposed materialistic metaphysics; held that materialism is valid only as a method; championed pol. freedom and the well-being of the working class. Works include Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart (tr. E. C. Thomas, The History of Materialism and Criticism of Its Present Importance); Die Arbeiterfrage.
(16701744). B. Gardelegen, Altmark, Ger.; prof. Halle 1709; prominent Pietist; controversialist; opposed orthodox Luths. (esp. V. E. Löscher*), rationalists (C. Thomasius,* C. v. Wolff*), and the Wertheim* Bible; recommended B. Ziegenbalg* and H. Plütschau* as missionaries to India. See also Millennium, 5.
(Lang[ius]; 16641731). Luth. pietistic theol.; b. Etzelwang(en), near Sulzbach, in The Palatinate; educ. Altdorf (Altorf) and Jena; served several parishes as pastor; prof. Altdorf; chiliast. Wrote in various fields of theol.; works include Kern des wahren Christentums; Tractatus de nuptiis et divortiis.
(180284). Ref. theol.; father of F. A. Lange*; b. Sonnborn, near Elberfeld, Prussia, Ger.; educ. Düsseldorf and Bonn; asst. pastor Elberfeld, near Langenberg, 1825; pastor Wald, near Solingen, 1826, Langenberg 1828, Duisburg 1832; prof. theol. Zurich 1841, dogmatic theol. Bonn 1854; consistorial councillor 1860. Ed. Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk; other works include Das Leben Jesu nach den Evangelien (refutation of D. F. Strauss*; ed. M. Dods, various translators, The Life of the Lord Jesus Christ).
(ca. 1510ca. 1570). B. Schneeberg, Saxony; cantor; deacon Glauchau and Schneeberg. The Christmas hymn Lasst uns alle frühlich sein (Let Us All with Gladsome Voice) has been ascribed to him, but his authorship of it is dubious.
The Luth. Ch. was transplanted to Am. mainly by Germans and Scandinavians. Since Am. became an Eng.-speaking country, Luths. adopted the Eng. language. The New York Ministerium made Eng. its official language 1807. Failure to use Eng. had adverse effects in some cases.
Many feared that a change of language from Ger. would lead to loss of pure doctrine. In many places, strong opposition against language transition resulted in ch. membership losses. In some cases the problem was temporarily solved by organizing Eng. syns. Over the yrs. the change to Eng. was effected. Nearly all Luths. in the US now worship and transact churchly affairs in Eng. ARS
W. A. Baepler, A Century of Grace (St. Louis, 1947); Documentary History of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States (Philadelphia, 1898); V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927); J. L. Neve, History of the Lutheran Church in America, 3d ed., prepared by W. D. Allbeck (Burlington, Iowa, 1934); J. Nicum, Geschichte des Evangelisch-Lutherischen Ministeriums vom Staate New York und angrenzenden Staaten und Ländern (Reading, Pennsylvania, 1888); W. G. Polack, The Building of a Great Church, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1941); A. R. Wentz, A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1964).
(Francis James; April 26, 1868July 15, 1939). B. Fort Wayne, Indiana; educ. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; pastor New Orleans, Louisiana, 1891; pres. Luther Coll., New Orleans, 190308; pastor Napoleon, Ohio, 190839. Works include In Season Out of Season; Occasional Addresses; Communion Counsel and Prayers; ed. The Lutheran Pioneer.
(Diedrich; March 18, 1817August 30, 1901). Luth. businessman; philanthropist; b. Bremen, Ger.; to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1836; helped expand Ger. Hosp. (later called Lankenau Hosp.), Philadelphia. Est. Mary J. Drexel Home (named in honor of his wife, nee Drexel, who died 1873) in Philadelphia and Philadelphia Deaconess Mother-house 1888; also School for Girls (renamed Lankenau School for Girls 1910).
(Lao Tzu; Lao-tse; Lao-tsze; sometimes identified with a Li Erh and Li An; perhaps ca. 604ca. 531 BC). Details of his life and activity uncertain; b. perhaps Ch'u State, Honan Province, China; stressed mystic adherence to right conduct or the spirit of righteousness in opposition to Confucius' emphasis on proper form and ceremony. Traditionally, founder of Taoism* and author of Tao Tê Ching (teaching of Tao). See also Chinese Philosophy, 2.
(Peteira; ca. 1594/160076). B. Bordeaux, Fr., of Port. New Christian, or converted Jewish, background; Calvinist; humanist; held that there were people on earth before Adam; became RC to escape persecution. Works include Praea-damitae; Relation du Groenland; Relation de l'Islande.
Region of N Norw., N Swed., N Fin., and the Kola Peninsula of NW Russ.; most of it is N of the Arctic Circle. Lapps (word of obscure origin; probably from Swed), Finno-Ugrians who call themselves Samelats, were carried N to this their present homeland before the birth of Christ by migrations of Slavs, Goths, and other Finno-Ugrians, to whom they are linguistically related. Swedes and Russians influenced Lapps culturally and religiously by propagating the Luth. and Gk. Orthodox faith resp. Attempts to Christianize Lapps in the late Middle Ages yielded no large results. Effective miss. work began in the 17th and 18th cents. by Erik Bredal (d. 1617; bp. Trondheim, Norw.) after Swedes drove him out of Trondheim 1658 and by T. v. Westen.* After decline, miss. work again prospered mid-19th c. under leadership of N. J. C. V. Stockfleth.*
Lapps in Swed. were introd. to Christianity in the late Middle Ages. Several Vasa kings showed interest in them, esp. Charles* IX, who laid the foundation of an ecclesiastical organization in Lapland. A 1723 royal ordinance required all clergy in Lapland to know the native tongue and provided educ. facilities and printed matter in Lapp at pub. expense. An early Swed. miss. to Swed. Lapps was Pehr Högström (171484). Pehr Fjellström (16971764) issued a cat. 1738, ch. manual and hymnal 1744, and a Lapp NT 1755. A Lapp Bible appeared 1811. The work of L. L. Laestadius* and his brother Petrus Laestadius (d. 1841) is noteworthy. Important adjustments in ch. organization were made 1846 and 1896.
See also Gustavus I.
E. Haller, Svenska Kyrkans mission i Lappmarken under Frihetstiden (Stockholm, 1896); East Carelia and Kola Lapmark, ed. V. T. Homén (New York, 1921).
(August 5, 1930April 26, 1970). B. Sacramento, California Educ. Conc. Coll., Oakland, California; Conc. Sem. and Washington U., St. Louis, Missouri; U. of California, Berkeley. Taught at Am. U., Washington, D.C.; Am. School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem; Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Theol. Sem. Excavated many sites, including 'Araq el 'Emir, Tell el Fâl, Wâdi Dâliyeh, Bâb edh-Dhrâ' (by the Dead Sea), Ta 'anach; planned excavations at Idalion. Works include Palestinian Ceramic Chronology 200 BCAD 70; The Dhar Mirzbâneh Tombs; Biblical Archaeology and History.
(Lat. lapsed). Term applied in early ch. to former mems. of Christian congs. who became weak in persecutions (see Persecution of Christians) and (1) put incense on fire before image of emp. (thurificati; from Lat. thurificare, burn incense), (2) took part in heathen sacrifices (sacrificati; from Lat. sacrificare, sacrifice), (3) bought letters certifying that the bearer had returned to paganism (libellatici, from Lat. libellum, letter; certificate), (4) made some false depositions to save their lives (acta facientes; Lat., literally those doing the acts), or (5) gave up sacred books and/or vessels and/or revealed names of fellow Christians (traditores; from Lat. tradere, hand over; deliver; betray, whence Eng. traitor). Some favored readmitting the lapsed to the ch. after they had done rigorous penitential acts; others, e.g. Tertullian* (e.g., De pudicitia, xx), opposed their readmission. See also Ancyra.
(November 28, 1882January 28 [29?], 1923). Son of P. L. Larsen*; b. Decorah, Iowa; educ. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, and Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota; ordained The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1907; pastor North Dakota, Iowa, New York; pres. NLC 192023. Ed. Our Friend; Children's Friend.
(Lauritz; August 10, 1833March 1, 1915). Father of L. Larsen*; b. Kristiansand (Christiansand), Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); ordained Christiania 1857; to US 1857 in response to call issued by Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. of Am.; pastor near Rush River, Pierce Co., Wisconsin, 185759; Norw. prof. Conc. Coll. and Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 185961; pres. Luther Coll., Halfway Creek, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 186162, Decorah, Iowa, 18621902; prof. Heb. there till 1911; acting pres. Synodical* Conf. 188082. Helped ed. Kirkelig Maanedstidende; ed. its successor, Evangelisk Luthersk Kirketidende.
K. Larsen, Laur. Larsen (Northfield, Minnesota, 1936).
(Lat. masks of God). Term used by M. Luther* (e.g., WA 40, 1, 174177; cf. 31 I, 436; 45, 522) and others who held that God, because He cannot be viewed by man in His naked transcendence, wears a mask or veil (e.g., human form, word, sacraments) in all His dealings with men, to shield them from His unapproachable brightness.
Village in Fr. Alps, near Grenoble, where a poor, uneducated, peasant boy and girl allegedly saw a vision of Mary September 19, 1846. Virgin of the Alps shrine begun 1852.
(164387). B. Rouen, Fr.; explorer; settler, trader near Montreal, Can., 1666; made expedition to Lake Ontario region 1669; claimed to have discovered Ohio R.; went down Mississippi R. to Gulf of Mex., claiming the whole valley for Louis* XIV. RCs settled in regions he explored.
(14741566). B. Seville, Sp.; priest 1510; miss. to natives of W Indies, Cen. Am., and Mex.; appointed their protector by F. Jiménez* de Cisneros; hostility of conquistadores put many obstructions in his way; bp. Chiapa(s), Mex., 154447; returned to Sp. Works include Historia de las Indias.
(John Lasicius; Jan Lasicki; Lasiczky; 15341600). B. Grosspolen (NW Poland) or Lithuania; nobleman; joined Ref. Ch. 1557; friend of T. Beza,* Bohemian* Brethren, J. Calvin,* Philippists.* Works include De origine et rebus gestis Fratrum Bohemicorum; De Russorum, Moscovitarum et Tartarorum religione, sacrificiis, nuptiarum, funerum ritu.
(ca. 150072). Luth. theol.; b. Strasbourg; pastor; active in Görlitz, Greussen, Spandau, Lauingen, and Cottbus; opposed M. Flacius* Illyricus. Works include Das güldene Kleinot vom verlornen Schaf; Grundfeste der reinen evangelischen Warheit. See also Religious Drama, 3.
(Johannes a Lasco; John Laski, or Lasco; 14991560). B. probably Lask, near Lodz, Poland; nobleman; assoc. with D. Erasmus* and other reformers in the 1520s; became strict Calvinist theol.; supt. of ch. of for. Prots., London, Eng., 1550; influential at court of Edward VI (see England, B 4); returned to Poland 1556 to spread Reformation; tried to reconcile Ref. and Luths. Worked on Bible translations. See also Poland; Trepka, Eustachy; Utenhove, Jan.
(Orlandus; Roland de Lassus; originally Roland Delattre, or de Lattre; ca. 153294). RC composer; regarded by some as the greatest representative of the Flemish school; teacher of J. Eccard* (15531611) and L. Lechner*; active at court of dukes of Bav. beginning 1556; polyphonist. Works include motets, masses, madrigals, settings for Psalms.
Eschatology is that part of dogmatics, or doctrinal theol., which treats of the last things in life and hist.: immortality, resurrection, life after death, last coming of Christ, final judgment, and end of the world.
1. Signs of the Last Times. Besides many promises to return (e.g., Mt 25:31; Mk 13:26; Lk 21:27), the Lord has placed a description of many signs into His Word by which believers are to recognize and be reminded that He shall come again.
a. Signs of the last times in the physical world are those which are in the universe itself, e.g., signs in the sun, moon, stars, planets, and constellations (Jl 2:31; Mt 24:2930; Lk 21:2532). All decline and alteration in the nature and operation of the universe indicates that heaven and earth shall pass away (Heb 8:13).
b. The 1st sign in human hist. is the gross and fine materialism which rules the inhabitants of the world (Lk 17:2630; 1 Th 5:13; 2 Ti 3:15; Jude 1719).
c. Another sign is the worldwide preaching of the Gospel of the kingdom of God for a witness unto all nations (Mt 24:14).
d. A 3d sign is the frequent appearance of unfaithful mems. within the ch., traitors to the truth of God, antichrists almost without number (Mt 24:11, 2427; 2 Th 2:311; 1 Ti 4:13; 2 Ti 4:34; 2 Ptr 2:13; 3:34).
e. A 4th sign lies in perilous times (2 Ti 3:1).
f. A 5th sign is the continuing existence of the Jews (Lk 21:32).
g. A 6th sign lies in wars and rumors of wars (Mt 24:68; Rv 6:4).
h. A 7th sign is this, that men living in the last times will not read the signs or refuse to heed them (2 Ptr 3:34).
2. Return of Christ. It is a clear Bible doctrine that Christ's return will coincide with the end of the world. The Bible does not allow separation in time of these events (2 Ptr 3:7; 2 Ti 4:1). Christ's last coming will be visible (Mt 24:27, 30; Lk 17:24; Acts 1:11), in full divine glory and majesty, and with all the holy angels (Mt 25:31; Lk 9:26); it will be sudden and, despite all signs pointing to it, almost completely unexpected (Lk 17:24; 21:35; 1 Th 5:24). At His return (a) all dead will return to life (Jn 5:2829); (b) the bodies of all believers will suddenly be glorified (1 Co 15:5154); (c) He will judge the whole human race (Mt 25:3132; Rv 20:12) and (d) carry out the verdict. These events will occur at a time set in eternity but unknown to men (Mt 24:36, 42; Mk 13:32; Lk 12:40; Acts 1:7). Christ's return is emphasized over against scoffers (2 Ptr 3:34) and the forgetfulness of believers (Mt 24:4244; Mk 13:3237).
3. The end of the world will coincide with Christ's last coming (see also par. 2). The world which God created (Gn 1:1) shall pass away (Ps 102:26; Lk 21:33; 1 Co 7:31; Heb 1:1012; 1 Jn 2:17). The earth and the works therein shall be burned up (2 Ptr 3:10). Luth. dogmaticians divide as to how this is to occur. Some hold with J. Gerhard* (Loci theologici, Locus XXX [De consummatione seculi], chap. V [De forma consummationis seculi; pars. xxxviilxiii]) a total destruction (annihilation) of the world; others hold with M. Luther* (WA 41, 309) that only the form of this world as it appears now will pass (cf. Ro 8:21; 2 Ptr 3:13).
4. The Resurrection. The bodily resurrection of all mankind (an essential point in the faith of Christendom) will occur immediately upon Christ's return at the end of the world (Mt 25:3132). The resurrection is not a long process, nor does it include interruptions (cf. Jn 5:26; 6:40; 1 Co 15:5152; 1 Th 4:16). The resurrection will be universal (2 Co 5:10; Rv 20:12), but there will be 2 distinct classes: They who have done evil will rise to damnation (Dn 12:2; Mt 25:4146; Jn 5:29); they who died in saving faith will rise with a spiritual body (1 Co 15:44) fashioned like unto Christ's glorious body (Lk 24:39; 1 Co 15:5152; Ph 3:21; 1 Jn 3:2). The body of believers, sown in corruption, will be raised in incorruption; sown in dishonor, it will be raised in glory; sown in weakness, it will be raised in power; sown a natural body, it will be raised a spiritual body (1 Co 15:4245).
5. Last or Final Judgment. There will be a final judgment (Mt 25:3146; 2 Co 5:10). It does not decide the question of eternal life or eternal death; that is previously determined (conversion or nonconversion; Jn 3:18; 6:47). There will be no need of questions of evidence or law, but Christ the Judge, who knows all things, will proceed at once to pronounce sentence by judicial and final separation. Since faith and unbelief are invisible to created eyes, the outward fruits of both will bear witness. The works of love, by which the faith of the elect was active, are cited, not by the righteous, but by the Judge, to prove righteousness. The counterpart is true of the failures of unbelievers, cited by the Judge to prove unrighteousness. The Judge will award to believers the kingdom prepared for them by Himself, not as a remuneration, but as an inheritance (Gl 3:2629). The wicked works of the wicked will testify that the wicked are of their father, the devil (Jn 8:41, 44), and that it is just for them to share his abode. The condemned will go away into everlasting punishment, the righteous into eternal life (Mt 25:2446). WFW
P. Althaus, Die Letzten Dinge (Gütersloh, 1933); L. Fuerbringer, Leading Thoughts on Eschatology in the Epistles to the Thessalonians, CTM, XIII (1942), 183192; 265273; 321329; 401414: 511518; 591603; 641654; W. F. Beck, I Believe in the Resurrection of the Body, CTM, XVI (1945), 153169; W. F. Wolbrecht, The Doctrine of the Last Things, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 544560; G. F. Hall, Luther's Eschatology, The Augustana Quarterly, XXIII (1944), 1321; T. F. D. Kliefoth, Christliche Eschatologie (Leipzig, 1886); J. A. Seiss, The Last Times and the Great Consummation, rev. and enl. ed. (Philadelphia, 1863); P. S. Minear, Christian Hope and the Second Coming (Philadelphia, 1954); T. A. Kantonen, The Christian Hope (Philadelphia, 1954) and Life after Death (Philadelphia, 1962); J. Moltmann, Theology of Hope, tr. J. W. Leitch (New York, 1967); U. Hedinger, Hoffnung zwischen Kreuz und Reich (Zurich, 1968); C. E. Braaten, The Future of God (New York, 1969).
Bldg., or group of bldgs., on Monte Celio in Rome, named after the family of the Laterani, former owners of an ancient palace which stood on the site. Main bldgs.: 1. Basilica of St. John Lateran; originally called Ch. of the Savior; episc. seat of pope as bp. Rome; meeting place of many councils. 2. Baptistery; founding traced to Constantine* I. 3. Lateran Palace; occupied by popes in Middle Ages; the Scala Sancta (Lat. holy steps; Scala Pilati; 28 steps allegedly ascended by Christ to the praetorium of Pilate and climbed on his knees by M. Luther*) once led to one of its corridors, now leads to the old private papal chapel; largely destroyed by earthquake 896 and fires 1308 and 1360; museum est. on site 1843. See also Lateran Councils; Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, 2.
412 abps. and bps. and 800 or more abbots and priors attended Lateran Council IV 1215; concerns included recovery of the Holy Land (see Crusades, 7), ch. reform, and condemnation of doctrines of Albigenses,* Cathari,* and Waldenses*; noteworthy also for definitive doctrine of transubstantiation* and for legislation on annual confession and Communion.
Average attendance at Lateran Council V 151217 was ca. 100150; approved Leo X's (see Popes, 20) 1516 bull Pastor aeternus, which abolished the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges and declared the pope superior to councils; approved strict censorship of publications; confirmed Unam* sanctam. See also Agapetae; Councils and Synods, 4; Inquisition, 3.
(162062). B. Zellershausen, near Coburg, Ger.; asst. prof. Königsberg 1647; gen. supt. Derenburg, near Halberstadt, 1654; suspended for immorality; Austrian chaplain. Disciple of G. Calixtus*; proposed a type of synergism* (Latermannianism) in which man converts himself by spiritual powers given by God.
(ca. 14851555). B. Thurcaston, Leicestershire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; priest ca. 1515; embraced Protestantism; bp. Worcester 1535; resigned 1539 because he opposed the Six Articles (see Anglican Confessions, 3); imprisoned in Tower of London 1546; released 1547 by Edward VI; burned at stake. See also England, B 35; Parker, Matthew; Ridley, Nicholas.
Organized 1921 by Harry and Susan Strachan et al. as The Latin America Evangelization Campaign with headquarters at San Jose, Costa Rica; present name adopted 1938; carried on evangelistic work in tents, theaters, pub. halls; experimented with attention-catching methods; first allowed existing missions to absorb converts. Mem. IFMA 1966 fields included Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., El Salvador, NYC, Panama. Cooperated with World* Radio Miss. Fellowship; active in other radio ventures. US headquarters Bogota, New Jersey Publications include El Mensajero Bíblico 192461; Latin America Evangelist.
Beliefs and practices developed in W Christianity (which used Lat. as its official language) in distinction from Gk., or E Christianity (see Eastern Orthodox Churches). See also Western Christianity 5001500.
17th c. Eng. churchmen who professed indifference to supposedly insignificant matters in dispute bet. Puritans* and the High* Ch.; stressed Christian fundamentals rather than any professed ecclesiastical system and were tolerant toward dissenters. Also called Cambridge Arminians. See also Cambridge Platonists; Low Church.
(Steinmetz [father was stonemason]; ca. 14901570). RC humanist and controversialist; b. Arlon, Luxembourg, Belg.; educ. Freiburg im Breisgau, Ger.; taught at Cologne, Louvain, Paris; friend of D. Erasmus*; councillor of elector of Trier 1542; present at Hagenau* Colloquy 1540, Regensburg* Conf. 1546, Consultation of Worms* 1557; involved in controversy with M. Bucer,* P. Dathenus,* Jakob Andreä.*
(Jacques Masson; ca. 14751544). RC theol. and controversialist; b. Cambron, Hainaut, Belg.; educ. Paris and Louvain; prof. Louvain; opposed D. Erasmus,* M. Luther,* P. Melanchthon,* J. Oecolampadius,* W. Tyndale.*
(18841968). Bap. cleric and Oriental scholar; b. Oregon City, Oregon; educ. Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut; traveling secy. Student Volunteer Movement For. Missions 190910; mem. faculty Coll. of Yale in China 1910; taught at Reed Coll., Portland, Oregon, 1915; prof. Denison U., Granville, Ohio, 1916; prof. Yale U. 192153; lecturer many univs.; pres. Am. Bap. Conv. 1951. Works include The Development of Japan; The Development of China; China; The Chinese: Their History and Culture; Beyond the Ranges: An Autobiography; Christianity in a Revolutionary Age; Christianity Through the Ages; A History of the Expansion of Christianity.
RC theologians distinguish 3 kinds of cultus: latria, dulia, and hyperdulia. Latria (worship; adoration) is accorded only God; dulia (honor; reverence; veneration; homage) is accorded saints and angels in gen.; hyperdulia (higher dulia) is accorded Mary, gen. regarded in RCm as the noblest and holiest creature. Cultus involving a symbol is referred to the prototype, the cultus being regarded as applying only in a relative way to the symbol. See also Angels, Veneration of; Nicaea, Councils of, 2; Saints, Veneration of.
(Latter-Day; Latter-day; Latter day). a. The Ch. of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (see also par. g 1) was founded 1830 with 6 mems. at Fayette, Seneca Co., New York, by Joseph Smith* Sr. He claimed that Moroni, son of Mormon (alleged 4th c. AD prophet in Am.; collected and revised the material later pub. in The Book of Mormon), repeatedly appeared to him and said that God had work for him (Smith) to do in the latter days to help restore the full Gospel in preparation for the premillennial coming of Christ. He claimed that in 1827, at the direction of Moroni, he found thin metal plates, ca. 6 inches by 7 inches, gold in appearance, which had been buried ca. 420 AD near the top of the W side of a hill (anciently called Cumorah) near Manchester, Ont. Co., New York; the plates, he said, contained a record in Reformed Egyptian and 2 stones in silver bows, fastened to a breastplate (Urim and Thummim), by which he tr. part of the record; he pub. his tr. 1830 as The Book of Mormon; the plates, he said, were returned to Moroni when he called for them. The Book of Mormon includes a purported hist. of ancient Am., parts of the Bible (e.g., parts of Is; the Sermon on the Mount acc. to Mt.; Pauline passages), and apparent reflections of some Ref. confessions of faith.
b. Smith and Oliver Cowdery claimed ordination to Aaronic priesthood by John the Baptist May 1829 and to Melchizedek priesthood by Peter, James, and John shortly thereafter. In 1831 the ch. numbered several hundred. It moved to Kirtland, Ohio, the same yr. and also began to settle in Jackson Co., Missouri, where it hoped to build the city of Zion with a magnificent temple. It was driven from Jackson Co. 1833. Lillburn W. Boggs (17921860; b. Lexington, Kentucky; gov. Missouri 183640) expelled the Mormons from Missouri by military force 183839. They moved to Illinois and immediately settled in Hancock Co. at Commerce, renaming the settlement Nauvoo (Beautiful Place, acc. to Mormons from Heb. naveh, pleasant); Smith had civil and military control of it. Discontent arose when Smith claimed a revelation authorizing polygamy. Civil war became imminent. State militia intervened 1844. Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were imprisoned in Carthage, where a mob stormed the jail, killed both, and wounded other Mormons including John Taylor.*
c. B. Young* assumed leadership. When persecution again became fierce 1846, the Mormons moved from Illinois first to Iowa, then W of the Missouri R. near Omaha, and 1847 to Great Salt Lake, Utah, where they founded Salt Lake City and est. the provisional govt. of the State of Deseret [which, Mormons say, means 'honeybee'] with Young as gov.; other settlements were scattered over the face of the entire region.
d. The Territory of Utah was created 1850. Young was appointed gov., reappointed 1854 when Colonel E. J. Steptoe declined to accept the appointment; succeeded 1857 under US military pressure by Alfred Cumming (180273; b. Augusta, Georgia; gov. Territory of Utah 185760). Peaceful relations were restored 1858.
e. Mormon Articles of Faith:
1. We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 2. We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not for Adam's transgression. 3. We believe that through the atonement of Christ, all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel. 4. We believe that the first principles and ordinances of the Gospel are:(1) Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; (2) Repentance; (3) Baptism by immersion for the remission of sins; (4) Laying on of Hands for the Gift of the Holy Ghost. 5. We believe that a man must be called of God, by prophecy, and by the laying on of hands, by those who are in authority, to preach the Gospel and administer in the ordinances thereof. 6. We believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive Church, viz: apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, etc. 7. We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, healing, interpretation of tongues, etc. 8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is translated correctly; We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God. 9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. 10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten Tribes; That Zion will be built upon this [the American] continent; That Christ will reign personally upon the earth; and, That the earth will be renewed and receive its paradisiacal glory. 11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege, let them worship how, where, or what they may. 12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, honoring, and sustaining the law. 13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men; indeed, we may say that we follow the admonition of Paul, We believe all things, we hope all things, we have endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report, we seek after these things. (Articles of Faith by Joseph Smith, in J. E. Talmage, The Articles of Faith [Salt Lake City, 1899], p. iii)
f. Smith claimed sanction of polygamy by revelation, which Young openly promulgated first 1852. The practice of plural marriage, as it was called, was undergirded by the thought that it insured more inhabitants of heaven. Marriage rites took place in temples to which outsiders were not admitted. W. Woodruff* issued a manifesto against polygamy 1890: I now publicly declare that my advice is to refrain from contracting any marriage forbidden by the law of the land.
In baptism for the dead, performed only in temples, with only approved Mormons admitted, a living person is proxy for one who died without a chance to hear or accept the Gospel.
g. Latter Day Saints divided:
1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. See also pars. a-f.
2. Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Josephites [after Joseph Smith* Jr.]). Formed as a result of division among Latter Day Saints after the death of Joseph Smith* Sr. Differences involved the question of succession of leadership, the doctrine of the Godhead, and polygamy. Joseph Smith Jr. became leader of the dissenters. Reorganization began in Wisconsin 1852, was completed 1860. Headquarters were moved to Plano, Illinois, 1865, Lamoni, Iowa, 1881, Independence, Missouri, 1920.
3. Church of Christ. Formed in Bloomington, Illinois, as a result of division among Latter Day Saints after the death of Joseph Smith* Sr., by men who opposed baptism for dead, exaltation of men to be gods, and the idea that God was once man like other men, the doctrine of lineal right to office since the Christian era began, and the doctrine of polygamy; to Independence, Missouri, 1867; bought temple lot there. Headquarters: Temple Lot, Independence, Missouri
4. Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonites). Organized 1862 at Greenock (Green Oak), Pennsylvania, by William Bickerton; opposed baptism for dead, polygamy, and other features of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
5. Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerites). Organized 1853 at Fisher Grove, Fremont Co., Iowa, by Alphaeus Cutler.
6. Church of Jesus Christ (Strangites). Organized 1844 near Burlington, Wisconsin, at a place which was given the name Voree (said to mean garden of peace), by J. J. Strang* after the death of Joseph Smith* Sr. Denied virgin birth of Christ.
On basis of Jl 2:2324 and Acts 2:1621 some Pentecostals compare the former rain with the beginning of the 6th dispensation (NT era) and the latter rain with its end, beginning ca. 1890. The term Latter Rain Movement probably originated with the revival movement of R. G. Spurling* Sr. and Jr. (see also Church of God, 2).
N Eur. country at E end of Baltic Sea; includes part of medieval Livonia (see Estonia, 12). Area: ca. 24,700 sq. mi. Language: Latvian (or Lettish), akin to Lithuanian, belongs to Baltic branches of Indo-Eur. languages.
Acc. to Adam* of Bremen (Gesta IV 16), Sweyn II (Sweyn Estrithson; Sven Estridson; d. 1075; b. Eng.; king Den. 104775) helped a Dan. merchant build a ch. in Latvia ca. 1045. Some missionaries of the Russ. Orthodox Ch. appeared in tribal kingdoms; in the 12th c. a few Orthodox chs. were built at Gersika (Gerzike; Jersika) on the Dvina (Daugava; Düna; Southern Dvina; Western Dvina; Zapadnaya Dvina). For hist. of Ger. colonization see Estonia, 1.
For 7 cents. (13th20th) Latvians lived under for. rulers (Ger., Poland, Swed., Russ.). Until the 16th c. the ruling class did not provide for popular educ. Few chs. and no schools for children were built in Latvia before the 16th c. In 1522 A. Knöpken* and S. Tegetmeyer* began preaching ev. sermons in Riga in the early 1520s. Walter (or Wolter) von Plettenberg (ca. 14501535), grand master Teutonic Knights (see Military Religious Orders, c), assured Lutheranism complete freedom 1525. E. J. Glück* promoted schools and pub. of religious and educ. books.
Ca. the end of the 19th c. Latvian teachers and pastors, educ. U. of Dorpat (Tartu), est. 1632 by Gustavus* II* Adolphus, initiated religious revival among their own people. K. Irbe* was invested Luth. bp. Latvia by N. Söderblom* 1922; resigned 1931. T. Grinbergs* succeeded him 1932 and was immediately named abp. In 1935 the total no. of Ev. Luths. in Latvia was ca. 1,000,000 (including ca. 61,000 Ger. Luths.) or ca. 56% of the pop. Of the Luths., those of Latvian origin constituted ca. 93%.
Latvia, which became an indep. rep. 1918, was occupied by the Union* of Soviet Socialist Reps. 1940, by Ger. forces 194144; retaken by USSR 1944/45. Under subsequent severe strictures the ch. in Latvia declined. By the end of WW II the abp. and more than 100 Latvian Luth. pastors, followed by ca. 100,000 or more Latvian laymen, fled from their homeland, many to the US and Can. Other countries with Latvian congs. include Argentine, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Den., Fr., Gt. Brit., W. Ger., New Zealand, Norw., Swed., and Venezuela. Under leadership of abp. K. Kjundzins they formed a fed. of Latvian Luth. congs. AL
A. Svabe, F. Balodis, E. Blese, O. Silis, and V. Korsts, Latvia on the Baltic Sea (n. p., 1946); A. Bilmanis, The Church in Latvia, The Augustana Quarterly, XXIII (1944), 291310.
(15731645). B. Reading, Berkshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; Angl. priest 1601; opposed Calvinism,* Puritanism (see Puritans), and RCm; high churchman (see High Church); abp. Canterbury 1633; failed in attempt to force ritualism on Scot. Ch.; persecuted nonconformists; committed to Tower of London 1641; beheaded on Tower Hill. See also Arminianism.
Service of canonical hours*; either the 2d or, combined with matins,* the 1st; until the reform of Pius X (see Popes, 30) it always closed with Ps 148150, in which laudate (Lat. praise ye) and related words occur frequently.
(Lorenz Lorenzen; 16601722). B. Husum, Schleswig-Holstein, Ger.; educ. Rostock and in music at Kiel; cantor and dir. at Luth. Cathedral Ch., Bremen; piestistic hymnist; based many hymns on Gospel pericopes* in application to Christian life. Evangelia Melodica, pub. 1700, contains ca. 150 of his hymns.
(150269). B. Stolpen, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; deacon Leisnig and Wittenberg; supt. Pirna. Noted esp. for recording much of M. Luther's* table talk and for correspondence with Luther; helped draft Leipzig Interim.*
(183490). B. Schönaich, Wörttemberg, Ger.; educ. Schöntal and Tübingen. Pastor Adolzfurt, near Öhringen, 1862; Heilbronn 1870; Stuttgart 1874. Hymnographer. Works include Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs, VIII: Die Kernlieder unserer Kirche.
(Caspar; 17411801). Philos., mystic, poet, theol., physiognomist. B. Zurich, Switz.; pioneer in personal counseling and pastoral ministry; contributed to decline of rationalism and rise of idealism. Poetic works include Christliche Lieder; Die Auferstehung der Gerechten; Jesus Messias; other works include Aussichten in die Ewigkeit. See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.
(182592). B. Huire, near Bayonne, Fr.; abp. Algiers 1867; apostolic delegate of W. Sahara and Sudan 1868; cardinal 1882; abp. Carthage and primate of Afr. 1884; sought greater pol. freedom for natives and tried to est. Christian Arab villages; opposed slavery; founded Société des missionaires d'Algier.
The law is a divine doctrine which reveals the righteousness and immutable will of God, shows how man ought to be disposed in his nature, thoughts, words, and deeds in order to be pleasing and acceptable to God, and threatens the transgressors of the law with God's wrath and temporal and eternal punishment. For, as Luther says against the nomoclasts, 'Everything that rebukes sin is and belongs to the law, the proper function of which is to condemn sin and to lead to a knowledge of sin' (Rom. 3:20; 7:7). Since unbelief is a root and fountainhead of all culpable sin, the law reproves unbelief also. (FC SD V 17)
The Gospel, strictly speaking, is the kind of doctrine that teaches what a man who has not kept the law and is condemned by it should believe, namely, that Christ has satisfied and paid for all guilt and without man's merit has obtained and won for him forgiveness of sins, the 'righteousness that avails before God' [Ro 1:17; 2 Co 5:21], and eternal life. (FC Ep V 4)
The word 'Gospel' is not used in a single sense in Holy Scripture, and this was the original occasion of the controversy. Therefore we believe, teach, and confess that when the word 'Gospel' means the entire doctrine of Christ which he proclaimed personally in his teaching ministry and which his apostles also set forth (examples of this meaning occur in Mark 1:15 and Acts 20:24), then it is correct to say or write that the Gospel is a proclamation both of repentance and of forgiveness of sins. (FC Ep V 6)
Law and Gospel do not differ if Law is taken in a broad sense, as in Is 2:3, or if Gospel is taken in a broad sense, as in Mk 1:1. They do not contradict each other. Both are God's Word; both are in the OT and NT; both are to be applied to people everywhere, including Christians.
The fact that Law and Gospel differ in their narrow sense is suggested or indicated, e.g., Zch 11:7; Mt 13:52; Lk 12:42; Ro 10:4; Gl 3:24. The difference was used, e.g., 2 Sm 12:114: Lk 7:3650; Acts 2:3739; 16:2731; 1 Co 5:15; 2 Co 2:68.
Differences: (a) The Law was written into man's heart: the Gospel is not known by nature, but was revealed through Jesus and the Word of God. (b) The Law contains commandments of what we are to do and not to do and how we are to be; the Gospel reveals what God has done and still does for our salvation. (c) The Law promises eternal life conditionally; the Gospel promises it freely. (d) The Law demands perfect fulfillment and pronounces curses and threats if there is no perfect fulfillment; the Gospel has only promises and comforting assurrances. (e) The purpose of the Law is to serve as a curb, mirror, and rule (see also FC VI); the purpose of the Gospel is to forgive sins and give heaven and salvation as a free gift.
Law and Gospel are both operative in conversion* (see also Contrition). But the very nature of justification excludes the Law and leaves the Gospel as the only means whereby God justifies the sinner. The incentive power of the Gospel and the criterion of the Law are operative in sanctification* (see also Good Works). WFG
W. Geihsler, The Law and the Gospel, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 105123; C. F. W. Walther, The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, reproduced from the Ger. ed. of 1897 by W. H. T. Dau (St. Louis, 1929); W. Elert, Gesetz und Zorn Gottes, Morphologie des Luthertums, I (Munich, 1931; improved print., 1952), 3139, tr. W. A. Hansen, The Law and the Wrath of God, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 3543; T. M. McDonough, The Law and the Gospel in Luther (London, 1963).
1. A law code is a collection of laws which has become authoritative for a specific community. The code of Sumerian king Ur-Nammu (sometimes called Ur-Engur) antedates 2000 BC; that of Lipit-Ishtar (Lipiteshtar) of Issin (Isin), Babylonia, stems from ca. 18701860 BC (the time of Abraham); that of Hammurabi* was promulgated perhaps ca. 1800 BC. Hittite codes probably stem from ca. the 15th c., Assyrian codes from the 14th c. BC. Many of these ancient laws are casuistic: hypothetical cases are based on common precedent. Ancient Near E codes gen. have no clear parallels to the Biblical practice of setting laws in the form of direct command or prohibition as in the Decalog.* But they have many parallels to Biblical Law. Law 195 of the Hammurabi code: If a son has struck his father, they shall cut off his hand; the parallel Biblical law Ex 21:15 sets the penalty at death.
2. The OT law codes are covenant law: law to which a community bound itself in covenant allegiance to God as its overlord (Ex 24:38; Jos 24:25). The 1st OT code law is Ex 20:217. Ex 20:ca. 2123, sometimes called Covenant Code, includes civil, criminal, soc., and cultic laws. Lv 17 contains directions for offerings and sacrifices. Ex 34:ca. 1026 (some add 22:29b30; 23:1219), sometimes called Ritual Decalog, including laws regarding Jewish festivals and cultus. Lv 1726, sometimes called Holiness Code (or Law of Holiness) esp. because of such passages as Lv 19:2; 20:78, 26; 21:8, includes cultic, civic, ceremonial, dietary, and hygienic laws. Dt 1226, sometimes called Deuteronomic Code, treats esp. of religious, agricultural, martial, soc., and ecclesiastical activities. Isolated laws are scattered through the rest of Scripture.
3. Theol. emphases of OT codes vary. Laws pertaining to the same subject appear in each of these codes presented in varying forms and divergent perspectives, e.g., Ex 12; 23:1419; 34:1826; Lv 23; Nm 2829; Dt 16:117. This has led to the suggestion that original Mosaic laws were reformulated by later inspired leaders to make them relevant to changing conditions. Many therefore date the final formulation of the various codes at various times from Moses to Ezra. Some identify the book of the law found by Hilkiah (2 K 22:8) with some form of Dt. The codes are esp. significant for an appreciation of Jewish customs and of the way in which daily life of the community and of the individual was to be related to God. They were God's guide for living for the people of God under the OT dispensation. NH
See also Higher Criticism.
G. E. Mendenhall, Law and Covenant in Israel and the Ancient Near East (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1955); R. de Vaux, Les Institutions de L'Ancien Testament, tr. J. McHugh, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (New York, 1961); J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3d ed. with supplement (Princeton, New Jersey, 1969); J. Bright, A History of Israel (Philadelphia, 1959); H. M. Buck, People of the Lord (New York, 1966); The World History of the Jewish People, First Series: Ancient Times, I: At the Dawn of Civilization, ed. E. A. Speiser (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1964).
(July 1, 1839August 6, 1907). B. Aldermaston, Berkshire, Eng.; trained by LMS at Bedford; miss. to Niue (Savage Is.) 186172; home on furlough 1872; to New Guinea 1874; at Port Moresby 20 yrs., then at Vatorata. Completed the work (begun by others) of tr. NT into Niuean 1886; reduced Motu (language of a Melanesian people in Papua) to writing; other Motu works include selections from OT hist., a rev. NT, a grammar and dictionary, a manual of geogr. and arithmetic. See also New Guinea, 3.
(Laurence; Laurentius; Lorenz; 3d c.). Deacon Rome; martyr; Ap IV 377 (Ger. text cites Acta Sanct. August II, 485 ff. in BSLK p. 231 and Trig. p. 222, Eng. p. 223) cites him as an example of a saint who did not trust in his works. See also Church Year, 17; Symbolism, Christian, 4.
Layman in charge of an abbey and its income.
Cong. polity of Luth. chs. directs laymen's chief energies into parish administration and work. Membership assemblies, bds., etc., provide opportunities to contribute time and talent. Many parishes also organize groups for soc. and recreational purposes. These groups occasionally sponsor or promote direct service in the interest of the cong. budget or program of evangelism. They may form nat. or internat. assocs. Areas of interest and activity include Scouting and other parish youth programs and scholarships at colleges and univs. Unofficial groups engage in intersyn. contact. See also Lutheran Laymen's League, International; Woman in Christian Scoiety.
Organized 1906 in 5th Ave. Presb. Ch., NYC; incited new interest in for. missions; endorsed 1907 by annual conf. of for. miss. bds. of US and Can.; plan was not to send out missionaries or administer miss. funds, but to cooperate in enlargement of for. miss. work of affiliated chs.
(Laínez; Iago; Jakob; James; Giacomo; 151265). B. Almazán, Sp.; educ. Alcalá, Sp., and Paris, Fr.; Gen. of Jesuits* 155865; prominent at Council of Trent* and Colloquy of Poissy*; supported papal absolutism. Works include Disputationes Tridentinae. See also Counter Reformation, 8.
(Layritz; 180859). B. Nemmersdorf, Bav., Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Leipzig; pastor Hirschlag 1837, St. Georgen (near Bayreuth) 1842, Sehwaningen 1846; advocated restoration of the original form of the Ger. rhythmical chorale. Works include Kern des deutschen Kirchengesangs; Kern des deutschen Kirchenlieds von Luther bis auf Gellert; Die Liturgie eines vollstöndigen. Hauptgottesdienstes nach lutherischem Typus; music supplement to J. K. W. Löhe's* Agende; tune for the hymn Eins ist Not [One Thing's Needful].
(Lazarites; Lazarians; so named after the priory of St. Lazare, which they received from the canons regular of St. Victor 1632. Also called Vincentians, and Cong. of the Mission). Community of priests, clerics, and brothers founded 1625 by Vincent* de Paul for miss. work among Fr. peasants; suffered severely in Fr. Revolution (see Church and State, 15; France, 5); engages in extensive miss. work in many countries; early bases in the US included Perryville and St. Louis, Missouri; dir. Kenrick Sem., St. Louis.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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