(183894). B. Kirchheim unter Teck, Ger.; educ. Sehoenthal, in Württemberg, and Tübingen; prof. Herborn 1870; pastor Ellwangen 1874; prof. Tübingen 1879. Influenced by J. T. Beck* and F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; inclined to Lutheranism. Works include Das christliche Lehrsystem nach der heiligen Schrift; Ueber den Unterschied zwischen der positiven und der liberalen Richtung in der modernen Theologie; Christliche Ethik; Exegetisch-homiletisches Handbuch zum Evangelium des Matthaäus.
(April 10, 1864September 8, 1935). B. Laurys, Lehigh Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Roanoke Coll., Salem, Virginia, and the Luth. Theol. Sem. at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained by Ministerium of Pennsylvania 1891; commissioned by General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. as miss. to India 1891; given charge of the sem. at Rajahmundry 1892; returned to US 1898; sent to India again 1908; returned to US 1913. Coauthor (with J. G. P. Drach*), The Telugu Mission of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America.
(April 16, 1846April 1, 1916). B. Columbiana, Columbiana Co., Ohio; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Mo. Syn. pastor Omaha, Nebraska, 1870, and Cumberland, Maryland, 1871; Ohio Syn. pastor of a 2-ch. cong. near Koiner's (or Coyner's) Store and near Waynesboro, Augusta Co., Virginia, 1879; resigned from Ohio Syn. in Predestinarian Controversy (see Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 5); helped form Ev. Luth. Concordia* Syn. of Pennsylvania and Other States 1882; when it disbanded 1886 he remained indep. till 1888, when he and his cong. joined with the Eng. (Ev.) Luth. Conference of Missouri to form the Gen. Eng. (Ev. Luth.) Conference of Missouri and Other States (see also Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of); he was elected pres. Works include Country Sermons; Book of Devotion; Your Confirmation Vow.
(April 18, 1856July 26, 1930). B. Ardmore, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Philadelphia; med. miss. of Woman's Home and For. Missionary Soc. of The Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA to Guntur, India, 1883; founded hosp. at Guntur.
(18611918). B. Visbuhr (or Wisbuhr), near Köslin, Pomerania, Ger.; educ. Berlin; prof. NT exegesis Breslau 1887, Marburg 1893, Königsberg 1895. Works include Der Brief des Paulus an die Römer; Die Gemeindeordnung in den Pastoralbriefen; Zur paulinischen Theodicee.
(February 2, 1835May 1, 1915). B. Saint Gallen canton, Switz.; educ. St. Chrischona*; to Trin. Luth. Ch. (mem. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Minnesota and Other States; see Minnesota Synod), St. Paul, Minnesota, as asst., 1865; pastor Woodbury 1865, Mankato 1869, Greenwood (Hennepin Co.) 1882, all in Minnesota; pres. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Minnesota and Other States 187683; asst. to his son Gustave A. Kuhn at Lake Benton 1900, at Jordan 1907, both in Minnesota Wrote Geschichte der Synode von Minnesota und andern Staaten, in Geschichte der Minnesota-Synode und ihrer einzelnen Gemeinden (St. Louis, ), pp. 150.
(cultural struggle or struggle for civilization). Term used January 17, 1873, in the Prussian Landtag (Parliament) by Rudolf Virchow (18211902; Ger. pathologist, anthropologist, pol.; b. Schivelbein, Pomerania) in reference to the conflict bet. church* and state. RC power and influence had waned with the decline of Austria (marked by the fall of Sadowa [Königgrätz] to Prussia 1866) and Fr. (marked by the fall of Sedan to Prussia 1870); Protestantism came into ascendancy in Ger. with the founding of the Ger. empire under William I (Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig; 17971888; king of Prussia 186188; Ger. emp. 187188) and Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (181598; Iron Chancellor of Ger. 187190); papal infallibility* and authority was challenged. Resultant tension led to May* Laws. In the ensuing polarization, Prots. also came to resist the new policy. Basic realignment and relief of tension was effected by change in policy when Pius IX was succeeded by Leo XIII (see Popes, 2829); most pertinent laws were modified or nullified; Falk resigned 1879; by 1887 the Kulturkampf was over.
(18741930). B. Osterode am Harz, in former Prussian province of Hannover, Germany. North* Africa Mission miss. to Egypt 1898; founded the Ger. Sudan Pioneer Miss. 1900; helped found Sudan United Miss. 1904 and led its pioneer missionaries to Nigeria. See also Africa, C 14; E 1.
(March 8, 1824August 30, 1889). B. Tringenstein, Nassau, Ger.; educ. Idstein; teacher Lochum; to US ca. 1855; joined Mo. Syn. 1857; teacher St. Louis, Missouri, 186389; organist; composer. Ed. Immanuels-Süngerbund; Vor- und Zwischenspiele zu den gangbarsten Choralmelodien aus Kern des deutschen Kirchengesangs, von Dr. Fr. Layriz; helped ed. and compile H. F. Hölter's Choralbuch; other works include Zwischenspiele zu den gebräuchlichen Chorälen der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche.
(Johan[n]; Kuntze; August 5, 1744July 24, 1807). B. Artern, near Mansfeld, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1770; coadjutor to H. M. Mühlenberg*; ordained 1770; son-in-law of H. M. Mühlenberg; est. pretheol. school Philadelphia 1773, closed 1776 by Revolutionary War; succeeded Mühlenberg as chief pastor 1779; pastor NYC 1784; prof. Oriental languages Columbia Coll., NYC, 178487, 179299; official tr. of Congress 1785; prof. Hartwick Sem. 17971807. Works include Einige Gedichte und Lieder; Van den Absichten und dem bisherigen Fortgang der privilegirten Deutschen Gesellschaft zu Philadelphia in Pennsylvanien; Ein Wart für den Verstand und des Herz vom Rechten und Gebanten Lebenswege. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
(February 28, 1795December 29, 1865). Grandson of J. N. Kurtz*; b. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; studied theol. under J. G. Lochman*; asst. to his uncle, J. D. Kurtz,* Baltimore, Maryland, 1815. Pastor Hagerstown, Maryland, 181531; Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 183133. Pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1829, 1862; championed Definite* Synodical Platform; founded Missionary institute, Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, 1858; its pres. 185865; exponent of American* Lutheranism. Ed. Lutheran Observer, and Weekly Religious Visiter; other works include Why Are You a Lutheran? See also New Measures; Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 5.
E. W. Hutter, Eulogy on the Life and Character of Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, DD, LL. D. (Philadelphia, 1866); C. A. Hay, Memoirs of Rev. Jacob Goering, Rev. George Lochman, DD, and Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, DD, LL.D. (Philadelphia, 1887).
(180990). Luth. ch. hist. and exegete; b. Montjoie, near Aachen, Rhenish Prussia; educ. Halle and Bonn; prof. Dorpat 184970. Works include Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte für Studierende; Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte; Die Astronomic and die Bibel; Biblische Geschichte; Geschichte des Alten Bundes; Lehrbuch der heiligen Geschichte; Abriss der Kirchengeschichte.
(March 30, 1764 [1763?]June 30, 1856). Son of J. N. Kurtz*; uncle of B. Kurtz*; b. Germantown, Pennsylvania; pastor Baltimore, Maryland, 17861832. Chm. organization meeting of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; pres. 1823, 1827.
(Nicholas; October 12, 1720May 12, 1794). Grandfather of B. Kurtz*; father of J. D. Kurtz*; b. Lutzenlinden, Nassau-Weilburg, Ger.; educ. Giessen and Halle; to Am. 1745; ordained Ministerium of Pennsylvania 1748. Pastor Tulpehocken (near Reading) 1748, York 1773, both in Pennsylvania
(18701956). B. Basel, Switz.; educ. Bern, Switz., and Bonn, Ger.; pastor Lucerne 1896, Basel 1906, both in Switz.; bp. The Christian* Cath. Ch. of Switz. 1924. Issued Internationale Kirchliche Zeitschrift.
(18631931). B. Bern, Switz.; ev. theol.; pastor Zurich; advocated Religious Socialism (see Christian Socialism, 4); held God, in Christ, to be the only reality; his theocentric theol. was a precursor of dialectical* theol.
(18371920). Calvinist theol. and statesman; b. Maassluis, Neth.; founded Free (Ref.) U. of Amsterdam 1880, Free Ref. Ch. (Ref. Free Ch.; Calvinistic Ref. Ch. Community) 1886; prime minister 190105; opposed modernism and liberalism. Works include Het Calvinisme oorsprong en waarborg onzer constitutioneele vrijheden; Encyclopaedie der Heilige Godgeleerdheid (tr. Encyclopedia of Sacred Theology); Het Modernisme; Nabij God te zijn (tr. J. H. de Vries, To Be Near Unto God).
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