Christian Cyclopedia

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Kraeft, Walter Otto

(Kräft; August 11, 1893–March 30, 1960). B. Oregon City, Oregon; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, and Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois; taught school at Rock Island, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, 1926. Works include Religion for Primary Grades in Units of Learning; The Lutheran Teacher's Handbook; Working Together; ed. Our Church at Work.

Kraemer, Hendrik

(1888–1965). Lay theol.; b. Amsterdam, Neth.; assoc. with Neth. Bible Soc. (see Bible Societies, 4) in Indonesia 1921–35; prof. Leiden 1937; dir. Ecumenical Institute of the Ecumenical Council, Bossey, Switz., 1948; emphasized community of Christians, missions, and role of laity in ch.; sought ways to build Christian way of life into secular callings; regarded relationship of young chs. to W chs. as partnership instead of dependence. Works include The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World; A Theology of the Laity; The Communication of the Christian Faith; Religion and the Christian Faith; World Cultures and World Religions: The Coming Dialogue.

Krafft, Adam

(ca. 1460–ca. 1508). See Kraft, Adam.

Krafft, Adam

(Kraft; Adam of Fulda; Crato Fuldensis; Vegetius; 1493–1558). B. Fulda, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; humanist; taught at Erfurt; became Luth.; court preacher of Philip* of Hesse; supt. Marburg 1526; prof. theol. Marburg 1527.

Krafft, Johann Christian Gottlieb Ludwig

(1784–1845). Ref. clergyman; b. Duisburg, Ger.; educ. Duisburg; tutor Frankfurt am Main; pastor Weeze, near Cleve, 1808; pastor Erlangen 1817; prof. Erlangen; helped revive Prot. ch. in Bav.

Kraft, Adam

(Krafft; ca. 1460–ca. 1508). B. probably Nürnberg, Ger.; stone sculptor. Works include reliefs of scenes from the life of Christ.

Kraft, Adam

(1493–1558). See Krafft, Adam.

Krakevitz, Albrecht Joachim von

(1674–1732). B. Gevezin, Mecklenburg, Ger.; prof. oriental languages 1699, theol. 1713, Rostock; prof. theol. and Gen. Supt. Greifswald 1721; moderate orthodox pietist.

Krakewitz, Berthold von

(Barthold; 1582–1642). Luth. theol.; educ. Wittenberg and other Ger. univs.; supt. and prof. Greifswald; responsible for inclusion of FC among Pomeranian confessions.

Krapf, Johann Ludwig

(January 11, 1810–November 26, 1881). B. Derendingen, near Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Basel and Tübingen; CMS miss. to Abyssinia 1837; expelled as a result of hostile RC influence; est. miss. at Mombasa 1844; traveled through E Afr. with J. Rebmann*; projected plan for miss. chain across Afr. from the north. Tr. NT and parts of OT into Galla; rev. Amharic OT; other works include A Dictionary of the Suahili Language. See also Africa, A 6.

Krasonicky, Laurentius

(d. 1532). Priest of Unitas Fratrum (see Bohemian Brethren); developed doctrine in rational biblicistic direction.

Kraus, Franz Xaver

(1840–1901). B. Trier, Ger.; RC priest; taught at Strasbourg 1872, Freiburg 1878; noted in field of archaeol. and hist. of art; opposed ultramontanism.* Works include Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte.

Krauss, Elmer Frederick

(September 7, 1862–May 23, 1946). B. Kraussdale, Lehigh Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pastor Homestead, Pennsylvania, 1887–92: Minneapolis; Minnesota, 1892–94; Leechburg, Pennsylvania, 1894–1900. Prof. Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem. 1900, pres. 1915–20.

Krauss, Eugen Adolf Wilhelm

(June 4, 1851–October 9, 1924). B. Nördlingen, Bav.; educ. Erlangen and Leipzig; severed connection with state ch. before graduation; to US 1873; Mo. Syn. pastor Cedarburg, Wisconsin, 1874; returned to Ger. 1875 to serve a Free Ch. cong. at Sperlingshof, Baden; returned to US; rejoined Mo. Syn.; dir. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison. Illinois, 1880–1905; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1905–24. Ed. Lebensbilder aus der Geschichte der christlichen Kirche; other works include Meine Schuljahre.

Kraussold, Lorenz

(Ludwig; 1803–81). Luth. theol.; b. Mistelgau, near Bayreuth, Ger.; pastor Aufsess 1830, Fürth 1835; counsellor of the consistory and chief preacher Bayreuth 1854. Works include Katechetik; Vom alien protestantischen Choral; Historisch-musicalisches Handbuch für den Kirchen- und Choralgesang; Amt und Gemeinde in der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche; Musicalische Altaragende für den evangelisch-lutherischen Gottesdienst.

Krauth, Charles Philip

(May 7, 1797–May 30, 1867). Father of C. Porterfield Krauth*; b. New Goshenhoppen, Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania; studied medicine at the U. of Maryland; then studied for the Luth. ministry under D. F. Schaeffer*; asst. pastor Winchester, Virginia, 1818; licensed by Ministerium of Pennsylvania* 1819; pastor Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, both now in W. Virginia; helped organize The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Maryland and Virginia (see Synods, Extinct; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 29) 1820; ordained by this syn. 1821; its pres. 1826; pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1827–33; prof. Biblical and oriental literature Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Sem. 1833; also taught in Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.); 1st pres. Pennsylvania Coll. 1834–50; also taught at the Sem. during this time; pres. The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the United States of North America (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The) 1848; prof. Biblical philol. and ecclesiastical hist. Gettysburg Sem. 1850–67. Asst. ed. The Evangelical Lutheran Intelligencer; ed. The Evangelical Review. JW

Krauth, Charles Porterfield

(March 17, 1823–January 2, 1883). Son of C. Philip Krauth*; b. Martinsburg, now in W. Virginia; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.) and Gettysburg Sem.; licensed by Maryland Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11) 1841; served a miss. at Canton, suburb of Baltimore, Maryland; ordained 1842. Pastor Baltimore 1842–47; Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, both now in W. Virginia, 1847–48; Winchester, Virginia, 1848–55; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1855–59; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1859–67. Prof. Luth. Theol. Sem. 1864–83, U. of Pennsylvania 1868–83, both at Philadelphia. Opposed theology of Definite* Syn. Platform but advocated kindness toward its adherents. Helped organize The General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.; its pres. 1870–80. C. F. W. Walther* described him as “without doubt the most eminent man in the Eng. Luth. Ch. of this country, a man of unusual learning, at home in modern as well as old theol., and, what is most important, heartily devoted to the pure doctrine of [the Luth.] Ch.” (L. u. W., XXIX, 1 [January 1883], 32). Ed. Lutheran and Missionary and The Lutheran Church Review; other works include The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology. See also Altar Fellowship; Fraternal Address; Fundamental Principles of Faith and Church Polity; Galesburg Rule. JW

A. Spaeth, Charles Porterfield Krauth, 2 vols. (New York, 1898; Philadelphia, 1909).

Krebs, Johann Ludwig

(1713–80). Son of J. T. Krebs*; b. Thuringia, Ger.; pupil of J. S. Bach,* who coined the double pun: “der einzige Krebs im Bache.” Organist Zwickau, Zeitz, and Altenburg. Works include preludes; chorales with variations.

Krebs, Johann Tobias

(1690–1762). Father of J. L. Krebs*; b. Heichelheim, near Weimar, Ger.; pupil of J. S. Bach*; Luth. organist Buttelstedt and Buttstädt. Works include Prelude and Fugue in C Major; Trio in C Minor; organ chorales.

Kreinheder, Oscar Carl

(November 10, 1877–March 26, 1946). B. Buffalo, New York; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained by The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and Other States. Pastor E. St. Louis, Illinois, 1901–03; St. Paul, Minnesota, 1903–20; Detroit, Michigan, 1920–30. Pres. Eng. Dist. (Mo. Syn.) 1918–27; pres. Valparaiso U. 1930–39.

Kremmer, Karl Friedrich

(September 8, 1817–July 24, 1887). B. Schmalkalden, Ger.; educ. Dresden Miss. Inst. (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission); miss. to India 1846; served Madras 1848–58, 1865–75; Tamil scholar; founded Cuddalore and Madura stations; head of Leipzig Miss. in India 1884–87.

Kretzmann, Karl Gustave Henry

(February 23, 1877–April 3, 1949). Brother of P. E. Kretzmann*; b. Dudleytown, near Seymour, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Stamford, Connecticut, 1899–1905; Baltimore, Maryland, 1905–06; NYC 1906–21; Orange, New Jersey, 1921–43. First full-time curator Conc. Hist. Institute, St. Louis, 1943–48. Works include The Atlantic District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States and Its Antecedents; The Oldest Lutheran Church in America.

W. G. Polack, “Karl Kretzmann, DD,” CHIQ, XXII (July 1949), 49–55.

Kretzmann, Otto Paul

(May 7, 1901–September 14, 1975). B. Stamford, Connecticut; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; instr. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1924–34; ex. secy. Walther League (see Young People's Organizations, Christian, II 3) 1934–40; pres. Valparaiso (Indiana) U. (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 5) 1940–68, chancellor 1968–74; Works include Hosanna in the Whirlwind; The Pilgrim; The Road Back to God; The Sign of the Cross; coauthor Voices of the Passion.

Kretzmann, Paul Edward

(August 24, 1883–July 13, 1965). Brother of K. G. H. Kretzmann*; b. Farmers Retreat, Dearborn Co., Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Shady Bend, Kansas, 1906–07; Denver, Colorado, 1907–12; prof. sciences and math. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 1912–19; ed., later production manager, Conc. Pub. House, St. Louis, Missouri, 1919–23; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1924–46; pastor Forest Park, Illinois, 1946–48; helped form Orthodox* Luth. Conference; pres. of its sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota. Works include Education Among the Jews; The Liturgical Element in the Earliest Forms of the Medieval Drama, with Special Reference to the English and German Plays; Die Pastoralbriefe; Christian Art in the Place and in the Form of Lutheran Worship; Popular Commentary of the Bible; The Religion of the Child and Other Essays; The New Testament in the Light of a Believer's Research; The GOD OF THE BIBLE and other “GODS”; The Foundations Must Stand! ARS

Kretzschmar, Richard Theodore

(May 17, 1868–March 5, 1940). B. Hartha, Saxony, Ger.; to US as a child with his father (Friedrich Hermann Kretzschmar; October 22, 1840–November 14, 1930; b. Mittweida, Saxony; to US; educ. Wartburg Theol. Sem., St. Sebald, Iowa, grad. 1872. Iowa Syn. pastor Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; Albert Lea, Minnesota Joined Mo. Syn. 1875. Pastor Minnesota); educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor St. Louis 1891–1940; pres. W. Dist., Mo. Syn., 1921–39. Ed. Die Missions-Taube 1900–08.

Kreuzer, Erwin

(1878–1953). B. Berlin, Ger.; bp. Old* Cath. Ch. 1935. Ed. Altkatholisches Volksblatt.

Krieger, Adam

(1634–66). B. Driesen (in the Neumark, Prussia); pupil of S. Scheldt*; organist Leipzig 1655, Dresden 1658; composer. Works include the cantata An den Wassern zu Babel; the melody of the hymn “Nun sich der Tag geendet hat.”

Krieger, Johann Philipp

(1649–1725). Luth. organist and composer; b. probably Nürnberg, Ger.; pupil of J. Rosenmüller*; forerunner of J. S. Bach*; Kapellmeister Halle and Weissenfels. Works include cantatas and operas.


An alleged incarnation of Vishnu. See also Hinduism, 3–6.

Krishnamurti, Jiddu

(1895–1986). Hindu philos.; b. Madanapalle (now in Andhra Pradesh state), W Madras, India; educ. privately in Eng.; called “World Teacher.” Works include Education and the Significance of Life; Commentaries on Living; The Urgency of Change. See also Besant, Annie.


Old High Ger. gospel harmony by Otfrid*; 5 books of metrical rhymed lines.

Kromayer, Hieronymus

(1610–70). B. Zeitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Wittenberg, and Jena. Works include Theologia positivo-polemica (against RCm, Calvinism, syncretism).

Kromayer, Johannes

(1576–1643). Luth. theol.; b. Döbeln, Ger.; pastor Eisleben; court preacher 1613, gen. supt. 1627 Weimar; exponent of orthodoxy; active in liturgical reform.

Kromer, Martin

(Cromer; 1512–89). B. Biecz, near Krakow, Poland; RC bp.; leader in Counter* Reformation in Poland. Works include a hist. of Poland.

Kronberg, Hartmuth von

(Hartmut von Cronberg; 1488–1549). B. Franconia, Ger.; knight; early adherent of M. Luther*; leader of reform movement in Oppenheim; related to and shared defeat of F. v. Sickingen*; lost castle and city Kronberg to Philip* of Hesse 1522; lived in exile 19 yrs.; reconciled to Philip 1541.

Kropatscheck, Friedrich

(Kropatschek; 1875–1917). B. Wismar, Ger.; educ. Greifswald, Basel, and Berlin; Luth. prof. Greifswald 1902, Breslau 1904. Ed. Biblische Zeit- und Streitfragen; other works include Das Schriftprinzip der lutherischen Kirche.

Kropf, Albert

(1822–1910). Miss. of Berlin* Miss. Soc. I in Union of S. Afr.; exponent of strict Luth. confessionalism.

Kropp Seminary.

Est. 1882 at Kropp, near Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Ger., by J. Paulsen*; in ca. 40 yrs. trained ca. 400 pastors for Ger. Luths. in Am., See also General Council, 5; Michigan Synod, 4.

Krotel, Gottlob Frederick

(February 4, 1826–May 17, 1907). B. Ilsfeld, Württemberg, Ger., to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1830; educ. U. of Pennsylvania; pastor Lebanon, Lancaster, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and NYC; prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, 1864–68; pres. Ministerium of New York 1866–68, Ministerium of Pennsylvania 1884–92. Helped found General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.; its pres. 1869–70, 1888–93. Ed. in chief The Lutheran; ed. Der lutherische Herold.

Krüdener, Barbara Juliana von

(nee von Vietinghoff; 1764–1824). Russ. Pietist and chiliast; b. Riga, Livonia; restless wife of Russ. diplomat; converted 1804; assoc. with J. H. Jung-Stilling* and other mystics; promoted formation of Holy* Alliance.

Krug, John Andrew

(Kruch; Krugh; March 19, 1732–March 30, 1796). B. Saxony; instructor Halle; arrived Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1764; assisted H. M. Mühlenberg* and J. F. Handschuh.* Pastor Reading, Pennsylvania, 1764; Frederick, Maryland, 1771.


1. Friedrich Adolf (1767–1845). Ref. theol.; poet; brother of 2, father of 3 and 4; b. Tecklenburg, Ger.; taught in Harem, Mörs, and Duisburg; pastor Kettwig, Bernburg, and Bremen. Opposed rationalism.* Works include Parabeln.

2. Gottfried Daniel (1774–1837). Brother of 1, uncle of 3 and 4; b. Tecklenburg, Ger.; Ref. pastor Baerl, Wülfrath, and Elberfeld; opposed rationalism* and the Prussian* Union. See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.

3. Friedrich Wilhelm (1796–1868). Son of 1, brother of 4, nephew of 2; b. Mörs, Ger.; educ. Halle and Jena; Ref. pastor Ruhrort, Middle Barmen (Barmen-Gemarke), Elberfeld, Berlin, and Potsdam; opposed rationalism*; endorsed Prussian* Union and Evangelical* Alliance. Works include Salomo und Sulamith; Elias der Thisbiter. See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.

4. Emil Wilhelm (1798–1886). Son of 1, brother of 3, nephew of 2; b. Mörs, Ger.; educ. Jena and Tübingen; Ref. pastor Baerl, Langenberg, and Duisburg; endorsed Prussian* Union; vehemently opposed confessionalism; declined fellowship with rationalistic C. K. J. v. Bunsen.*

Kruyt, Albertus Christiaan

(October 10, 1869–January 19, 1949). Netherlands* Miss. Soc. miss. to Celebes in the 1890s; tried to develop technique for bringing people into the ch. in soc. units rather than as individuals.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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