(Kräft; August 11, 1893March 30, 1960). B. Oregon City, Oregon; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, and Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois; taught school at Rock Island, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, 1926. Works include Religion for Primary Grades in Units of Learning; The Lutheran Teacher's Handbook; Working Together; ed. Our Church at Work.
(18881965). Lay theol.; b. Amsterdam, Neth.; assoc. with Neth. Bible Soc. (see Bible Societies, 4) in Indonesia 192135; prof. Leiden 1937; dir. Ecumenical Institute of the Ecumenical Council, Bossey, Switz., 1948; emphasized community of Christians, missions, and role of laity in ch.; sought ways to build Christian way of life into secular callings; regarded relationship of young chs. to W chs. as partnership instead of dependence. Works include The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World; A Theology of the Laity; The Communication of the Christian Faith; Religion and the Christian Faith; World Cultures and World Religions: The Coming Dialogue.
(Kraft; Adam of Fulda; Crato Fuldensis; Vegetius; 14931558). B. Fulda, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; humanist; taught at Erfurt; became Luth.; court preacher of Philip* of Hesse; supt. Marburg 1526; prof. theol. Marburg 1527.
(January 11, 1810November 26, 1881). B. Derendingen, near Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Basel and Tübingen; CMS miss. to Abyssinia 1837; expelled as a result of hostile RC influence; est. miss. at Mombasa 1844; traveled through E Afr. with J. Rebmann*; projected plan for miss. chain across Afr. from the north. Tr. NT and parts of OT into Galla; rev. Amharic OT; other works include A Dictionary of the Suahili Language. See also Africa, A 6.
(September 7, 1862May 23, 1946). B. Kraussdale, Lehigh Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pastor Homestead, Pennsylvania, 188792: Minneapolis; Minnesota, 189294; Leechburg, Pennsylvania, 18941900. Prof. Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem. 1900, pres. 191520.
(June 4, 1851October 9, 1924). B. Nördlingen, Bav.; educ. Erlangen and Leipzig; severed connection with state ch. before graduation; to US 1873; Mo. Syn. pastor Cedarburg, Wisconsin, 1874; returned to Ger. 1875 to serve a Free Ch. cong. at Sperlingshof, Baden; returned to US; rejoined Mo. Syn.; dir. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison. Illinois, 18801905; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 190524. Ed. Lebensbilder aus der Geschichte der christlichen Kirche; other works include Meine Schuljahre.
(Ludwig; 180381). Luth. theol.; b. Mistelgau, near Bayreuth, Ger.; pastor Aufsess 1830, Fürth 1835; counsellor of the consistory and chief preacher Bayreuth 1854. Works include Katechetik; Vom alien protestantischen Choral; Historisch-musicalisches Handbuch für den Kirchen- und Choralgesang; Amt und Gemeinde in der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche; Musicalische Altaragende für den evangelisch-lutherischen Gottesdienst.
(May 7, 1797May 30, 1867). Father of C. Porterfield Krauth*; b. New Goshenhoppen, Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania; studied medicine at the U. of Maryland; then studied for the Luth. ministry under D. F. Schaeffer*; asst. pastor Winchester, Virginia, 1818; licensed by Ministerium of Pennsylvania* 1819; pastor Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, both now in W. Virginia; helped organize The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Maryland and Virginia (see Synods, Extinct; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11, 29) 1820; ordained by this syn. 1821; its pres. 1826; pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 182733; prof. Biblical and oriental literature Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Sem. 1833; also taught in Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.); 1st pres. Pennsylvania Coll. 183450; also taught at the Sem. during this time; pres. The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the United States of North America (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The) 1848; prof. Biblical philol. and ecclesiastical hist. Gettysburg Sem. 185067. Asst. ed. The Evangelical Lutheran Intelligencer; ed. The Evangelical Review. JW
(March 17, 1823January 2, 1883). Son of C. Philip Krauth*; b. Martinsburg, now in W. Virginia; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.) and Gettysburg Sem.; licensed by Maryland Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11) 1841; served a miss. at Canton, suburb of Baltimore, Maryland; ordained 1842. Pastor Baltimore 184247; Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, both now in W. Virginia, 184748; Winchester, Virginia, 184855; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 185559; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 185967. Prof. Luth. Theol. Sem. 186483, U. of Pennsylvania 186883, both at Philadelphia. Opposed theology of Definite* Syn. Platform but advocated kindness toward its adherents. Helped organize The General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.; its pres. 187080. C. F. W. Walther* described him as without doubt the most eminent man in the Eng. Luth. Ch. of this country, a man of unusual learning, at home in modern as well as old theol., and, what is most important, heartily devoted to the pure doctrine of [the Luth.] Ch. (L. u. W., XXIX, 1 [January 1883], 32). Ed. Lutheran and Missionary and The Lutheran Church Review; other works include The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology. See also Altar Fellowship; Fraternal Address; Fundamental Principles of Faith and Church Polity; Galesburg Rule. JW
A. Spaeth, Charles Porterfield Krauth, 2 vols. (New York, 1898; Philadelphia, 1909).
(171380). Son of J. T. Krebs*; b. Thuringia, Ger.; pupil of J. S. Bach,* who coined the double pun: der einzige Krebs im Bache. Organist Zwickau, Zeitz, and Altenburg. Works include preludes; chorales with variations.
(16901762). Father of J. L. Krebs*; b. Heichelheim, near Weimar, Ger.; pupil of J. S. Bach*; Luth. organist Buttelstedt and Buttstädt. Works include Prelude and Fugue in C Major; Trio in C Minor; organ chorales.
(November 10, 1877March 26, 1946). B. Buffalo, New York; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained by The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and Other States. Pastor E. St. Louis, Illinois, 190103; St. Paul, Minnesota, 190320; Detroit, Michigan, 192030. Pres. Eng. Dist. (Mo. Syn.) 191827; pres. Valparaiso U. 193039.
(September 8, 1817July 24, 1887). B. Schmalkalden, Ger.; educ. Dresden Miss. Inst. (see Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission); miss. to India 1846; served Madras 184858, 186575; Tamil scholar; founded Cuddalore and Madura stations; head of Leipzig Miss. in India 188487.
(February 23, 1877April 3, 1949). Brother of P. E. Kretzmann*; b. Dudleytown, near Seymour, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Stamford, Connecticut, 18991905; Baltimore, Maryland, 190506; NYC 190621; Orange, New Jersey, 192143. First full-time curator Conc. Hist. Institute, St. Louis, 194348. Works include The Atlantic District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States and Its Antecedents; The Oldest Lutheran Church in America.
(May 7, 1901September 14, 1975). B. Stamford, Connecticut; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; instr. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 192434; ex. secy. Walther League (see Young People's Organizations, Christian, II 3) 193440; pres. Valparaiso (Indiana) U. (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 5) 194068, chancellor 196874; Works include Hosanna in the Whirlwind; The Pilgrim; The Road Back to God; The Sign of the Cross; coauthor Voices of the Passion.
(August 24, 1883July 13, 1965). Brother of K. G. H. Kretzmann*; b. Farmers Retreat, Dearborn Co., Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Shady Bend, Kansas, 190607; Denver, Colorado, 190712; prof. sciences and math. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, 191219; ed., later production manager, Conc. Pub. House, St. Louis, Missouri, 191923; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 192446; pastor Forest Park, Illinois, 194648; helped form Orthodox* Luth. Conference; pres. of its sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota. Works include Education Among the Jews; The Liturgical Element in the Earliest Forms of the Medieval Drama, with Special Reference to the English and German Plays; Die Pastoralbriefe; Christian Art in the Place and in the Form of Lutheran Worship; Popular Commentary of the Bible; The Religion of the Child and Other Essays; The New Testament in the Light of a Believer's Research; The GOD OF THE BIBLE and other GODS; The Foundations Must Stand! ARS
(May 17, 1868March 5, 1940). B. Hartha, Saxony, Ger.; to US as a child with his father (Friedrich Hermann Kretzschmar; October 22, 1840November 14, 1930; b. Mittweida, Saxony; to US; educ. Wartburg Theol. Sem., St. Sebald, Iowa, grad. 1872. Iowa Syn. pastor Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; Albert Lea, Minnesota Joined Mo. Syn. 1875. Pastor Minnesota); educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor St. Louis 18911940; pres. W. Dist., Mo. Syn., 192139. Ed. Die Missions-Taube 190008.
(163466). B. Driesen (in the Neumark, Prussia); pupil of S. Scheldt*; organist Leipzig 1655, Dresden 1658; composer. Works include the cantata An den Wassern zu Babel; the melody of the hymn Nun sich der Tag geendet hat.
(18951986). Hindu philos.; b. Madanapalle (now in Andhra Pradesh state), W Madras, India; educ. privately in Eng.; called World Teacher. Works include Education and the Significance of Life; Commentaries on Living; The Urgency of Change. See also Besant, Annie.
(Hartmut von Cronberg; 14881549). B. Franconia, Ger.; knight; early adherent of M. Luther*; leader of reform movement in Oppenheim; related to and shared defeat of F. v. Sickingen*; lost castle and city Kronberg to Philip* of Hesse 1522; lived in exile 19 yrs.; reconciled to Philip 1541.
(Kropatschek; 18751917). B. Wismar, Ger.; educ. Greifswald, Basel, and Berlin; Luth. prof. Greifswald 1902, Breslau 1904. Ed. Biblische Zeit- und Streitfragen; other works include Das Schriftprinzip der lutherischen Kirche.
(February 4, 1826May 17, 1907). B. Ilsfeld, Württemberg, Ger., to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1830; educ. U. of Pennsylvania; pastor Lebanon, Lancaster, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and NYC; prof. Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, 186468; pres. Ministerium of New York 186668, Ministerium of Pennsylvania 188492. Helped found General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am.; its pres. 186970, 188893. Ed. in chief The Lutheran; ed. Der lutherische Herold.
(nee von Vietinghoff; 17641824). Russ. Pietist and chiliast; b. Riga, Livonia; restless wife of Russ. diplomat; converted 1804; assoc. with J. H. Jung-Stilling* and other mystics; promoted formation of Holy* Alliance.
(Kruch; Krugh; March 19, 1732March 30, 1796). B. Saxony; instructor Halle; arrived Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1764; assisted H. M. Mühlenberg* and J. F. Handschuh.* Pastor Reading, Pennsylvania, 1764; Frederick, Maryland, 1771.
1. Friedrich Adolf (17671845). Ref. theol.; poet; brother of 2, father of 3 and 4; b. Tecklenburg, Ger.; taught in Harem, Mörs, and Duisburg; pastor Kettwig, Bernburg, and Bremen. Opposed rationalism.* Works include Parabeln.
2. Gottfried Daniel (17741837). Brother of 1, uncle of 3 and 4; b. Tecklenburg, Ger.; Ref. pastor Baerl, Wülfrath, and Elberfeld; opposed rationalism* and the Prussian* Union. See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.
3. Friedrich Wilhelm (17961868). Son of 1, brother of 4, nephew of 2; b. Mörs, Ger.; educ. Halle and Jena; Ref. pastor Ruhrort, Middle Barmen (Barmen-Gemarke), Elberfeld, Berlin, and Potsdam; opposed rationalism*; endorsed Prussian* Union and Evangelical* Alliance. Works include Salomo und Sulamith; Elias der Thisbiter. See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.
4. Emil Wilhelm (17981886). Son of 1, brother of 3, nephew of 2; b. Mörs, Ger.; educ. Jena and Tübingen; Ref. pastor Baerl, Langenberg, and Duisburg; endorsed Prussian* Union; vehemently opposed confessionalism; declined fellowship with rationalistic C. K. J. v. Bunsen.*
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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