(180971). B. Castle Solitude, near Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; pastor Ehningen (near Böblingen), Gross-Aspach (near Marbach), Heilbronn, and Erdmannhausen (near Marbach). Wrote Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs der christlichen, insbesondere der deutschen evangelischen Kirche.
(Hans Harald; 190463) Luth. hist.; b. Hellerup, suburb of Copenhagen, Den.; prof. Copenhagen 1937. With B. S. Kornerup ed. Den danske Kirkes Historie; other works include Pronoia und paideusis; Grundtvig; Det danske Folk, 10421241.
(Joshua; original name: Harrsch; ca. 1669/70December 27, 1719). B. in or near Bretten, Ger.; pastor Landau, Palatinate; after Fr. invasion 1703, visited London 1704 to investigate feasibility of emigration to Am.; reached New York December 31, 1708, with ca. 50 followers; he returned to Eur. 1709; led ca. 10 shiploads of Palatines to Am. 1710; settled them along the Hudson in E Camp and W Camp.
See also as if spelled without this e.
(163295). B. Utrecht, Neth.; Ref. theol.; pastor Sluis 1662; deposed 1675 because of his opposition to fixed liturgical formulas, multiplicity of ch. festivals, and assoc. of ch. and state; became traveling preacher; opposed separatism.
(Curt; 18861941). Psychol.; b. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin and Edinburgh; asst. to Oswald Külpe (18621915; Ger. philos. and psychol.; b. Kandava, Latvia) and Karl Marbe (18691953; Ger. philos. and psychol.; b. Paris, Fr.) at Würzburg, Ger.; taught at academy Frankfurt am Main 191011; prof. Giessen 1911, Smith Coll., Northhampton, Massachusetts, 1927; helped popularize Gestalt psychol. (see Educational Psychology, D 5; Psychology, J 5). Ed. journal Psychologische Forschung; other works include The Growth of the Mind (tr. R. M. Ogden); Principles of Gestalt Psychology.
(18711928). B. Berlin, Ger.; prof. Greifswald and Kiel. Ed. H. Cremer's Biblisch-the-ologisches Wörterbuch der Neutestamentlichen Gräzität; other works include Christus der Herr; Die Gedankeneinheit des Ersten Briefes Petri; Der Sohn und die Söhne. See also Lexicons, B.
(182996). B. Birnbaum, Posen, Prussia; educ. Halle and Berlin; gymnasial teacher Dresden 185254; supply pastor Nakel (near Bromberg) ca. 185457, The Hague 185763; court preacher Berlin. Championed Prussian* Union and orthodoxy as opposed to liberalism; founded Positive Union 1876; opposed syn. principle.
(Kohlbrugge; 180375). B. Amsterdam, Neth.; first Luth., later Ref.; pastor Elberfeld, Ger. Works include Das site Testament nach seinem wahren Sinne gewürdigt aus den Schriften der Evangelisten und Apostel; Opleiding tot recht verstand der Schrift voor eenvoudigen die Gods woord onderzoeken; sermons.
(Koehler; Eduard; October 31, 1875May 12, 1951). B. Wolfenbüttel, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Billings, Christian Co., Missouri, 18991902; Knoxville, Tennessee, 190309. Prof. Mosheim* Coll., Mosheim, Tennessee, 190203; Conc. Teachers Coll., Addison and River Forest, Illinois, 190951. Works include A Short Explanation of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism with Additional Notes; A Christian Pedagogy; Summary of Christian Doctrine; Conscience.
(January 17, 1859September 30, 1951). B. Manitowoc, Wisconsin; son of P. Köhler.* Educ. Northwestern Coll., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Vicared for G. A. T. F. Hönecke* 1878; asst. pastor to his father at Hustisford, Wisconsin, 188082; pastor Two Rivers, Wisconsin, 188288. Prof. Northwestern Coll. 18881900; Wisconsin Syn. sem. at Wauwatosa and Thiensville (near Mequon), Wisconsin, 190030 (pres. 192030). Taught NT exegesis, ch. hist., hermeneutics, ch. music, liturgics, Ger., and Lat. Deposed from professorship 1930 as a result of intrafaculty tensions. Works include Der Brief Pauli an die Galater, tr. E. E. Sauer, The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians; Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte; Geschichte der Allgemeinen Evangelisch-Lutherischen Synode von Wisconsin und andern Staaten (tr., rev., and updated by author, The History of the Wisconsin Synod, Faith-Life, XI, 2XVII, 1 [February 1938January 1944]; ed. L. D. Jordahl and pub. in book form 1970). See also Protes'tant Conference, The, Inc.; Wauwatosa Theology. WJH
(182098). B. Juniata Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. and Gettysburg Sem., both at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor Williamsport 184449, New Holland 185064, Trappe 186473, Stroudsburg 187382, and Leacock 188493, all in Pennsylvania; principal of academic dept. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 188284; mem. Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Other States (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); advocated episcopate.
(18801956). Nephew of P. Köhler*; b. Neuwied, Ger.; educ. Zurich, Switz.; prof. OT Zurich; criticoliberal; noted for word studies, lexicography, grammatical studies. Coauthor (with Walter Baumgartner Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros; other works include Theologie des Alten Testaments.
(October 8, 1828September 3/4, 1895). Father of J. P. Köher*; uncle of L. H. Köhler*; b. Neuwied, Ger.; educ. Barmen; to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1854; ordained Milwaukee at the 1855 Wisconsin Syn. conv.; pastor Wisconsin; championed confessional Lutheranism.
(Koehler; 18701946). Luth. theol.; b. Elberfeld, Ger.; educ. Halle, Heidelberg, Strasbourg, Bonn, and Tübingen; prof. Giessen, Zurich, Heidelberg. Outstanding hist. of Reformation, M. Luther,* H. Zwingli,* Anabaps. (see Mennonite Churches; Baptist Churches, 2). Works include Zwingli und Luther; Die Geisteswelt Ulrich Zwinglis; Huldrych Zwingli; Luther und die Kirchengeschichte nach seinen Schripen.
(18871967). Psychologist and educ.; b. Reval (Tallin), Estonia; educ. Tübingen, Bonn, Berlin; privatdocent Frankfurt am Main; dir. anthropoid experiment station, Tenerife, Canary Is., 191320; helped found journal Psychologische Forschung; prof. Berlin 1922; visited Am. several times; prof. Swarthmore (Pennsylvania) Coll. 1935; research prof. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, 1958; exponent of Gestalt psychology (see Educational Psychology, D 5; Psychology, J 5). Works include Intelligenzprüfungen an Anthropoiden; Die physischen Gestalten in Ruhr und im stationären Zustand; Gestalt Psychology; The Place of Value in a World of Fact; Dynamics in Psychology.
(June 2, 1865March 13, 1943). B. Ger.; to US 1865; &educ.; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; asst. pastor St. James Luth. Ch., Chicago, Illinois, 188788; pastor St. Andrew Luth. Ch., Chicago, 18881913; pres. N. Illinois Dist. of Mo. Syn. 190913; pres. Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 191339; continued to teach.
Collective name for non-Hindu aboriginal tribes in Chota Nagpur, Bihar, India; missions begun 1845 by Gossner* Miss. Soc.; CMS granted financial aid 1858; SPG entered field 1869; RC Ch. came 1880; Dublin U. Miss. est. 1891; Gossner missions became autonomous after WW I.
(18431925). Instructor at theol. sem. of Herrnhuters (see Moravian Church, 3) at Gnadenfeld, Upper Silesia, 1868; under influence of A. Ritschl* he clashed with prevailing theology and left the school; returned 1886 after change of administration; dir. sem. 18941907; prominent esp. 189597 in his ch.'s controversy regarding the hist.-critical method; a working solution of the controversy was based on common faith of the heart; preacher Strasbourg 1907.
(18501913). B. Friedland, Silesia; educ. Breslau and Leipzig; Luth. prof. Marburg and Erlangen. Works include Luther und der Reichstag zu Worms; Martin Luther; Das religiöse Leben in Erfurt beim Ausgange des Mittelalters.
(Aramaic all vows). Opening prayer (named after its first words) of Jewish service on eve of Day of Atonement (see Judaism, 4); speaks of annulment of vows. Entire service is also called Kol Nidre. Connection with Day of Atonement is not clear.
(Komander is formed from Gk. kome, village, and aner, andros, man, and is equivalent to Ger. Dorfmann; also called Hutmacher; ca. 14841557). Reformer of Swiss canton Graubünden (Fr. Grisons); b. Maienfeld, Switz.; educ. Saint Gall and Basel, Switz. Works include a catechism.
Doctrinal norm for realm of John* Frederick II, who had it drafted 155859 at the prompting of M. Flacius* Illyricus; upheld views of Flacius; opposed G. Major,* V. Strigel,* adiaphorists (see Adiaphoristic Controversies), and others. See also Weimar, Colloquies and Conventions of; Synergistic Controversy.
(18461936). B. Reichenbach, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; privatdocent 1879, assoc. prof. OT exegesis 1885 Leipzig; prof. Rostock 1888, Bonn 1900; conservative in theol.; opposed extreme higher criticism. Works include Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache; Hebräisches und aramäisches Wörterbuch.
(ca. 132090). Taught at Paris 1344, Heidelberg 1387; canon Mainz 1359; provost Worms ca. 1380. Advocated conciliar* movement. Urged calling a gen. council without papal convocation, to settle the papal schism that began 1378. See also Councils and Synods, 7; Schism, 8.
(190368). Luth. theol.; b. Barneveld, Neth.; pastor Veendam 1927, Deventer 1929, Amsterdam 1935; prof. ch. hist. Amsterdam 1945. Works include Luthers kerklied in de Nederlanden; Maarten Luther, Doctor der Heilige Schrift, Reformator der Kerk (tr. B. L. Woolf, By Faith Alone: The Life of Martin Luther); De Nederlandsche Luthersche gemeenten in Noord-Amerika 16491772; Philippus Melanchthon; Luther en de Bijbel (tr. J. Schmidt, Luther and the Bible).
(181471). Luth. theol.; b. Tönning, Ger.; educ. Kiel; pastor Lauenburg 1845, Ottensen (near Altona) 1854; gen. supt. Altona 1855; opposed rationalism*; defended confessionalism. Works include Das evangelische Christenthum in seinem Verhältnisse zu der modernen Cultur; Die Rechtfertigung allein durch den Glauben an Christum im Lichte der neueren Theologie.
(Köpphel; Köphel; Köfl; Wolff; 16th c.). Printer in Strasbourg at time of Reformation. Works printed include Teutsch Kitchen ampt; Psalmen und geystliche Lieder; Psalmen, Gebet und Kirchenübung; Ein New Auserlesen Gesang büchlin; Enchiridion geistlicher gesenge.
(Qur'an; Quran; Qoran; Arab. book; reading; recitation). Sacred book of Islam*; source of Muslim* religious, soc., civil, commercial, military, and legal regulations; regarded by Muslim as revealed by Allah to Muhammad* through an angel. Text was compiled after Muhammad's death. The present common text consists of 114 suras (surahs; Arab. that which opens, or begins); the last 2 are imprecations against evil spirits and enchantments; the others are arranged acc. to length, from the longest (nearly 700 lines) to the shortest (2 lines). Includes Arab. legendary matter and distorted echoes of the Bible. See also Ramadan.
(Corea; N. Korean and official Jap. name: Chosen [see par. 2], Land of Morning Calm; S. Korean: Hangook, or Han-kuk; name used within Korea after WW II by Rep. of Korea: Tae Han. The name Korea is said to derive from Koryo [see par. 2]). 1. Peninsula S from Manchuria bet. Yellow Sea and Sea of Jap.; ca. 550 mi. long; ca. 125ca. 200 mi. wide; more mountainous in N than in S; thousands of islands along the coast. Area: ca. 85,250 sq. mi. (North Korea [Dem. People's Rep. of Korea] ca. 46,663 sq. mi., South Korea [Rep. of Korea] ca. 38,100 sq. mi., demilitarized since 1953 [see par. 2] ca. 487 sq. mi.) Climate gen. hot and wet in summer, cold and dry in winter. Han people (Tungusic or Mongoloid) invaded the land perhaps ca. the 3d millennium BC, formed the dominant racial stock, and originated the Korean language, which resembles Japanese in grammar.
2. Korea's legendary past begins 2333 BC Recorded hist. begins ca. 57 BC with the Period of Three Kingdoms (Silla, Koguryu, Pakche), followed by the Koryo dynasty (ca. 9181392) and the Li (or Yi) dynasty (13921910), under which the land was named Chosen by the emp. of China. Jap. protectorate 1907, province 191045; divided at 38th parallel into zones of Russ. (N) and Am. (S) occupation; N. Korean People's Rep. and S. Korean Rep. est. 1948; Korean War 195053.
4. Shamanism,* oldest indigenous religion, began in prehistoric times. Confucianism* was introd. from China before the Christian era. Buddhism* entered Korea 4th c. AD, reached its zenith 12th14th c. Chondokyo (ch'ondogyo [Religion of the Heavenly Way]; first called Tonghak [Eastern Learning]), indigenous and eclectic, was founded ca. 1860 by Ch'oe Che-u (Suun [honorific title]; 182464). Shinto,* introd. from Jap., virtually disappeared after 1945.
5. First contact with Christianity apparently was with Jap. RCs who came 1592 with invaders. There were Korean Christians at least as early as 1784. Severe persecution, intermittent since 1785, started anew 1801, continued till 1881; total martyrs est. ca. 10,000. Three Fr. RC missionaries arrived in the 1830s, were martyred. K. F. A. Gützlaff* explored the coast 1832, spent ca. a mo. there. Robert J. Thomas, LMS miss. to China, visited Korea 1865 as agent of the Nat. Bible Soc. of Scot., was martyred 1866. J. Ross* helped tr. Scripture into Korean, baptized Koreans in Manchuria 1881 and 1884. Other miss. ventures include those of H. N. Allen,* Presb., 1884; other Presbs. and N. Meths. in the middle 1880s; Australian Presb. Ch. and Ch. of Eng. near the turn of the decade; S. Presbs. 1892; S. Meths. in middle 1890s; Can. Presbs. 1898; Advs. and the Oriental* Miss. Soc. in the 1st decade of the 20th c.; Salv. Army 1908; LCMS 1958. Hankuk Rutu Kyohoe (Korea Luth. Ch.) grew out of LCMS efforts; organized 1971; accepted as a sister ch. of LCMS 1971; later called Luth. Ch. in Korea. After WW II many schisms occurred, resulting in many sects. Ca. 1,500,000 Christians in S. Korea; figures for N. Korea not available. Luth. theol. training program began in the middle 1960s in Seoul. See also Nevius Methods.
G. M. McCune, E. McCune, and A. L. Grey Jr., Korea Today (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1950); C. B. Osgood, The Koreans and Their Culture (New York, 1951); Chae Kyung Oh, Handbook of Korea (New York, 1958); Korea: Its Land, People and Culture of All Ages (pub. by Hakwon-sa, Seoul, 1960); S. H. Moffett, The Christians of Korea (New York, 1962); R. E. Shearer, Wildfire: Church Growth in Korea (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1966); Korea Struggles for Christ, ed. H. S. Hong, Won Yong Ji, and Chung Choon Kim (Seoul, 1966); M. W. Dorow, Developing a Ministry on Mission Fields in the Light of the New Testament Concepts of Church and Ministry (Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, STM Thesis, 1963); G. T. Brown, Mission to Korea (n. p., 1962); B. B. Weems, Reform, Rebellion, and the Heavenly Way (Tucson, Arizona, 1964). WYJ
(December 22, 1826December 19, 1910). Luth. clergyman; b. Bergen, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); taught Lat. School, Christiana, 185253; to US 1853; ordained 1853; pastor Little Iowa (later called Washington Prairie) and adjoining congs., near Decorah, Iowa, 18531910; taught at Luther Coll., Decorah, 187475; pres. Syn. for the Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 813) 18941910. Works pub. under title Samlede Skrifter.
(Cortholt; 1632 [1633?]94). B. Burg, on is. Fehrmarn (Femern), Ger.; educ. Rostock, Jena, and Wittenberg; prof. Rostock 1662, Kiel 1666; opposed R. Bellarmine,* C. Baronius,* B. Spinoza,* T. Hobbes,* E. Herbert.*
(18791950). B. Warsaw, Poland; to US 1916, naturalized 1940; pres. and dir. Institute of Gen. Semantics, Chicago, Illinois, from 1938. Works include Manhood of Humanity; Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. See also Semantics, General.
(Henrich; Küster; 16621749). B. Blumenberg, Lippe, Westphalia; studied law in Bremen; hofmeister of Baron Otto von Schwerin; drawn to Lutheranism by baron's father; to Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1694; conducted Luth. services; opposed Quakers; mystic pietist; returned to Eur., arriving London near the end of January 1700. Works include Ein Bericht an alle Bekenner und Schrifftsteller.
CHIQ, XXII (January 1950), 158166.
(February 20, 1830January 20/21, 1908). B. Hannover, Ger.; educ. Fort Wayne, Indiana Pastor Adams Twp., near Fort Wayne, Allen Co., Indiana, 185358; Frankenthal, Spencer Co., Indiana, 185861; Arcadia, Hamilton Co., Indiana, 186164; Altenburg, Perry Co., Missouri, 186487; St. Louis, Missouri, 18871904. Wrote Auswanderung der sächsischen Lutheraner im Jahre 1838.
(18461907). B. Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; taught in Paris 186970; military chaplain 187071; music tutor Tübingen 187273; pastor Maulbronn 187578, Friedrichshafen 187881, Stuttgart 188183; prof. theol. Friedberg, Hesse, 188391; supreme consistorial councillor and supt. of the province of Starkenburg 189195; privy ecclesiastical councillor and prof. theol. Giessen 18951901. Organized Württemberg Evangelischer Kirchengesangsverein; helped found Evangelischer Kirchengesangverein für Deutschland. Works include Geschichte der Musik im Umriss; Die Tonkunst; Luther als der Vater des evangelischen Kirchengesanges; Geschichte des christlichen Gottesdienstes; Die Lehre von der Seelsorge nach evangelischen Grundsätzen.
(18261902). Prot. theol.; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; prof. Göttingen 1855, Breslau 1860, Halle 1870; introd. Presb. features into Ger. ch. govt. Works include Christliche Ethik; Martin Luther: Luthers Theologie in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung und ihrem inneren Zusammenhange, tr. (from the 2d Ger. ed.) Charles Ebert Hay, The Theology of Luther in Its Historical Development and Inner Harmony.
(Ko-Thah-Byu; d. 1840). Karen (Burmese) native; robber and murderer in early life; slave of Burman Buddhist; redeemed and became servant in family of A. Judson*; bap. by G. D. Boardman (see Boardman, 2) 1828; miss. to Burmese. See also Asia, C 1.
(July 7, 1842April 9, 1923). B. Neukirchen, near Melle, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Hermannsburg* Miss. school; miss. to Maori in New Zealand 1876; pastor of Ger. colonists at Upper Moutere, New Zealand, 1882; to Am. 1886. Mo. Syn. pastor Harvel, Illinois, 188691; Orchard Farm, Missouri, 18911908; Ontarioville, Illinois, 190816. Later lived in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and Elgin, Illinois.
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