(180678). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin; teacher Königs Wusterhausen; pastor Wusterwitz 1834, Berlin 1850, the latter as successor of J. E. Gossner*; friend of missions; pietist; hymnist. Hymns include Lasst mich gehn.
(17981864). B. Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Maulbronn and Tübingen; held various secondary positions in Feuerbach near Stuttgart, Gaisburg, Sulz, Kirchheim, and Stuttgart; pastor Stuttgart 1845; poet. Ed. Christoterpe; comp. Evangelischer Liederschatz; hymns include O Vaterherz, das Erd und Himmel schuf.
(17531825). B. Glaucha, near Halle, Ger.; educ. Halle and Göttingen; prof. Halle; exponent of pietism* and moderate supranaturalism.* Ed. Gk. NT; other works include Beiträge zur Lebensgeschichte August Gottlieb Spangenbergs.
Uprising of knights in Ger. 152223 for religious, economic, and pol. reasons. Led by F. v. Sickingen* and U. v. Hutten,* the knights attacked the ecclesiastical princes and principalities, who, with the help of Philip* of Hesse and Elector Ludwig of The Palatinate, defeated the knights.
(Berend; Bernhard[t]; Knipperdollinck; Knipperdollink; ca. 1490 [or 1500?]1536). Cloth-merchant at Münster, Ger.; became Anabap. leader; pol. motivated; imprisoned; tortured; executed. See also Münster Kingdom.
(Knipstrov[ius]; Knipstrow; Kniepstroh; 14971556). B. Sandow, near Havelberg, Ger.; legend from end of 17th c. says he defeated J. Tetzel* in debate on indulgences January 1518; preached M. Luther's* doctrine; fled to Stettin: preacher Stralsund; supt. Wolgast; prof. Greifswald; helped found Prot. Ch. in Pomerania. Works include Antwort der Theologen und Pastorn in Pommern auff die Confession A. Osiandri, wie der Mensch gerecht wird durch den Glauben an den Herrn Christum.
(18411920). B. Schmedenstedt, Hannover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen and Erlangen; Luth. theol. and pedagog; dir. sem. at Wunstorf; prof. theol. Göttingen 1882. Ed. D. Martin Luthers Kleiner Katechismus nach den ältesten Ausgaben hochdeutscher, niederdeutscher und lateinischer Sprache; other works include Praktisch-theologischer Kommentar zu den Pastoralbriefen des Apostels Paulus; Der Christ und das politische Gepräge der Zeit.
(b. August 27, 1696). B. Rendsburg, Holstein, Ger.; ordained 1732 by Luth. pastors in London, Eng.; pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., NYC, 173250, Loonenburg (later called Athens) and related congs. 175165 as successor to W. C. Berkenmeyer,* and 177374.
(Knopken; Knop; Knopke; Knopf; Knophius; Knoppe; Cnophius; perhaps ca. 14931539). B. in or near Küstrin (Cüstrin; Kostrzyn), Brandenburg; assoc. with J. Bugenhagen* at Treptow on the Rega, Poland; to Riga, Latvia, 1521, with some Livonian scholars; enjoyed protection of civil authorities; with J. Briesmann* prepared ch. order for Riga based largely on M. Luther's* Formula missue (see Chant; Liturgics; Luther, Liturgies of); gained Riga for Luth. Reformation* by successtully defending 15 theses in disputation with Romanists; hymnist. Works include commentary on Ro. See also Estonia, 2; Latvia.
(163689). B. Alt-Raudten, near Raudten, Upper Silesia; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; high official at court of Christian August, Count Palatine, at Sulzbach; mystic; hymnist. Hymns include Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit; other works include Kabbala denudata.
1. Divine. God is a God of knowledge (1 Sm 2:3). His is an ever-present knowledge, one that directly knows things that exist and come to pass; not progressive knowledge, but total and perfect (Ps 139:14; Jn 21:17). He and His knowledge had no beginning (Ps 90:2; Eph 1:4). He is omniscient. See also Prescience, Divine.
2. Human. Man's knowledge was darkened by the fall. He can still know God and do natural acts of righteousness; but, under delusion of being wise, he becomes a fool and changes the truth of God into a lie (Ro 1:1923, 25; 2:1416). Man cannot by his own powers understand God and believe the Gospel and so save himself (1 Co 2:1416). By faith he conforms to God through Christ and tries to bring his thoughts into harmony with the Gospel (2 Co 10:5). See also God; God, Arguments for the Existence of.
(ca. 1505 [or ca. 1514]1572). Reformer; b. in or near Haddington (perhaps Giffordgate), E. Lothian, Scot.; perhaps educ. U. of Glasgow and/or St. Andrews; priest by 1540; tutor; assoc. with G. Wishart*; Prot. preacher St. Andrews 1547; captured when French, summoned by the Scot. queen regent, took St. Andrews castle 1547; galley prisoner 19 mo.; released 1549; preacher in Eng.; chaplain to Edward VI (see England, B 4); to Fr. 1554; to Switz. 1554, where he met J. Calvin*; pastor of Eng. refugee cong. Frankfurt, Ger., and Geneva, Switz.; to Scot. 1559, where he vigorously opposed RCm and promoted the establishment of Protestantism in Presb. form as the nat. religion; pastor Edinburgh. Politics and religion intertwined in his work. Helped revise Book* of Common Prayer 1552 and was apparently chiefly responsible for Black* Rubric; other works include The Appellation of John Knox from the Cruell Sentence Pronounced Against Him by the False Bishoppes and Clergy of Scotland; The Book of Common Order; The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women; The First Book of Discipline; The First Booke of the History of the Reformation of Religioun Within the Realme of Scotland. See also Calvinism; Scotland, Reformation in, 1; Sunday School, 2.
T. M'Crie, Life of John Knox. 5th ed., 1st complete Am. ed. (Philadelphia, [1831?]); The Works of John Knox, ed. D. Laing (Edinburgh, 184648); A. Lang, John Knox and the Reformation (London, 1905); F. A. MacCunn, John Knox, 2d and rev. ed. (London, 1908); J. G. Ridley, John Knox (New York, 1968).
(Knudson; January 11, 1813February 16, 1886). B. Copenhagen, Den.; miss. Tranquebar, India, 1838; sick, returned to Eur. May 1843, leaving the station in charge of J. H. K. Cordes*; pastor Jutland, then on Zealand, then at Deaconess Institute, Copenhagen; resigned latter position 1872; founded Soc. for Care and Educ. of Crippled Children, pioneering in that work.
(August 7, 1924March 12, 1973). B. Goldfield, Iowa; educ. Iowa State U., at Ames, and Luther Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota; ordained 1954 by the ELC (now part of The ALC); pastor Staten Is., New York, 195458; prof. Luther Sem. 195869; pres. Wartburg Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, 196970; pres. The ALC 197173 (took office January 1, 1971). Ed. Dialog 196568; other works include His Only Son, Our Lord and The Shape of the Question.
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