(Kaabeh; Kaba[h]; Caaba; Arab. cube). Ancient Arab. shrine in the form of an irregular cube in the heart of Mecca. Muhammad* retained it as chief sanctuary of Islam,* prescribed pilgrimages to it, and appointed it as qibla(h) (kibla[h]), the point toward which Muslim* turn to pray. Set in masonry in its SE corner, at a height convenient for kissing, is the sacred Black Stone, main object of veneration in the Kaaba. Every devout Muslim is supposed to visit the shrine at least once.
(18811952). B. Trier, Ger.; educ. Rome; RC priest, prof., and prelate; mem. Weimar Nat. Assem. 1919, Ger. Diet 192033; moved to Rome 1933; participated in 1933 concordat bet. Ger. and Rome (see Concordat, 8).
(18681914). B. Kemnitz, near Greifswald, Ger.; ev. theol. of religionsgeschichtliche* Schule; educator; advocated culture-religion in state education. Works include Die Eschatologie des Paulus in ihren Zusammenhängen mit dem Gesamtbegriff des Paulinismus; Das neue Geschlecht: Ein Erziehungsbuch; Wie lehren wir Religion? (with H. Tögel).
(18481926). B. Loit, near Apenrade, Schleswig, Ger.; brother of T. Kaftan*; theol.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, Kiel; prof. theol. Basel 1874, Berlin 18831920; representative of Ritschlian theol. (see Ritschl, Albrecht); emphasized mystic element in Christianity; regarded the Christian religion as the only satisfying religion. Works include Die Wahrheit der christlichen Religion; Das Wesen der christlichen Religion.
(18471932). B. Loit, near Apenrade, Schleswig, Ger.; brother of J. W. M. Kaftan*; Prot. theol.; educ. Erlangen, Berlin, and Kiel; asst. pastor Kappeln; pastor Dan. cong. Apenrade 1873; govt. and school councillor Schleswig 1880; provost Tönder, Den., 1885; gen. supt. Schleswig 1886; pastor Luth. cong. Baden-Baden. Works include Moderne Theologie des alten Glaubens; Zur Verständigung über moderne Theologie des alten Glaubens.
(18881960). B. Kobe, Jap.; Presb. evangelist and soc. reformer; studied theol. in Jap., sociol. in US; founded 1st Labor Federation in Jap. 1918, also Peasant Union 1921, Anti-War League 1928, Kingdom of God Movement 1930. Works include The Religion of Jesus; Christ and Japan; Songs from the Slums; The Two Kingdoms.
(18351912). B. Neuhausen, near Königsberg, Ger.; educ. Königsberg, Heidelberg, Halle, Töbingen; taught at Halle and Bonn. In opposition to quest for hist. Jesus (see Jesus, Lives of), Kähler held that the gospels were not primarily sources for hist. research, but records of apostolic proclamation. Faith is related to hist. events. Kähler distinguished mission, which emphasizes that the ch. exists where Christ and His Spirit are active through His Word, from propaganda, which is egocentric and seeks to proselytize for one's own views and interests. Works include Der sogenannte historische Jesus und der geschichtliche Christus; Theologe und Christ; Gott in der Geschichte; Die Wissenschaft der christlichen Lehre von dem evangelischen Grundartikel aus im Abrisse dargestellt. See also Biblicism; Eisenacher Bund.
(181488). Luth. theol.; b. Greiz, Ger.; educ. Halle; taught at Berlin 1842; prof. Breslau 1844, Leipzig 1850. At first defended confessional Lutheranism; joined Old* Lutherans 1848. Later adopted a subordinationist view (see Subordinationism) and divergent views on Scripture and the Lord's Supper. Works include Der innere Gang des deutschen Protestantismus; Die lutherische Dogmatik historisch-genetisch dargestellt. See also Kenosis.
(Kaires; 17841853). B. on the is. Andros, Greece; Orthodox priest and liberal theol.; educ. Pisa and Paris; imbibed philos, of Fr. Revolution; took part in Gk. War of Indep. (182130); founded orphanage on Andros 1835; opposed and imprisoned by ch. authorities for theophilanthropism* and ideas derived from Enlightenment.* His system came to be called theosebism.
(Käser; Kayser; ca. 14801527). B. Raab, near Schärding, Bav.; educ. Leipzig; vicar Waizenkirchen ca. 1517; endorsed M. Luther*; imprisoned; recanted; to Wittenberg 1525; returned home 1527 to visit dying father; fell ill; imprisoned; burned at stake.
(1570/721634). B. Trnava (Hung.: Nagyszombat; Ger.: Tyrnau); Hung. Jesuit; educ. Rome; preacher Transylvania and Vienna; prof. Olomouc (Ger.: Olmütz) and Brno (Ger.: Brünn); dir. Trnava 1615, Bratislava (Ger.: Pressburg; Hung.: Pozsony) 1625. Works include Bible tr. into Hungarian.
(180988). B. near Glasgow, Scot.; educ. Glasgow; physician; indept. miss. to Madeira Islands 1838; ordained by LMS 1839; forced to flee under persecution in the mid-1840s; miss. to Malta, Palestine, and Brazil (the latter 1855). See also Africa, C 16; Help for Brazil Mission.
(ca. 150057). B. Kálmncsa, Hung.; RC till the late 1530s; ev. pastor in the 1540s; apologist; organizer; influenced by H. Zwingli,* J. H. Bullinger,* and the Consensus Tigurinus (see Calvin, John, 12; Reformed Confessions, A 8).
(Cameroons; Port.: Camarões; Cameroun). Former Ger. protectorate in W Afr. Divided 1920 into Brit. and Fr. mandate; UN trust territory 1946; Fr. territory became indep. 1960, annexed Southern Cameroons (part of Brit. territory) 1961 (Northern Cameroons, the other part of Brit. territory, remained part of Nigeria). See also Africa, F 7.
(Jozef Kam; ca. 17691833). Apostle to the Moluccas; b. 's Hertogenbosch (Fr.: Bois-le-Duc), Neth.; influenced as child by Moravian Brethren (see Moravian Church, 3); educ. Netherlands* Miss. Soc. institute at Berkel, near Rotterdam, and LMS sem. at Gosport, Eng.; sent by Neth. Miss. Soc. with help of LMS to Indonesia; active there ca. 181433. Effected renewal of the ch. by emphasizing its native character and the training of native ministers.
(18291909). B. Solingen, Ger.; educ. Bonn; private secy. of C. K. J. v. Bunsen*; taught at Heidelberg 185659; returned to Bonn; prof. Bonn 18631901; mem. of committee for revising M. Luther's* OT tr. Works include Das Buch Daniel und die neuere Geschichtsforschung; Die Chronologie der hebräischen Könige.
Statement adopted 1913 at Kansas City, Missouri, by the Nat. Council of Cong. Chs. Reaffirms democratic principles; confesses God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit; states that it is the miss. of the ch. to proclaim the Gospel and work for progress in knowledge, justice, peace, and brotherhood; asserts the freedom and responsibility of the individual soul and the right of private judgment; affirms autonomy of local chs.; holds to fellowship of chs. for counsel and cooperation in matters of common concern. See also United Church of Christ, I A 3.
(17241804). 1. B. Königsberg, E. Prussia, in a pietistic home; educ. at the Collegium Fredericianum in Königsberg and the U. of Königsberg; prof. logic and metaphysics Königsberg 1770; never married; academic life rigorously disciplined.
3. Kant detected in the new physical science: a scientist is active, not passive or discovering laws in nature; he (a) thrusts laws upon nature (b) in accord with characteristics of the human mind. The clue for Kant came in an analysis of the concept of causality. The notion of cause is not deduced by reason or gained inductively or disposed by mere mental habit of associated ideas (D. Hume*), but springs a priori from pure understanding. This led Kant to affirm: (a) reason has insight into that only which it produces after a plan of its own; accidental observations can never be made to yield necessary laws, which reason alone is concerned to discover; (b) using its own principles and experiments, reason must approach nature to learn from it not as a pupil, passively, but as an appointed judge who compels the witness to answer questions which the judge himself formulates.
4. Kant affirmed that space and time are subjective, a priori forms of possible perception and that judgment (the fundamental unit of thought) must conform to basic, a priori categories of understanding (i. e., connective concepts which are basic forms of the elaboration in thought of the material of cognition, e.g., unity, multiplicity, substance, causality, possibility). Experience is the product of the joint operation of forms of perception and categories of understanding, which the mind uses spontaneously in accord with the inherent laws of its being, in the very act of experiencing, as essential preconditions of significant experience.
5. The upshot is that all significant experience is in part a mental construction, for there is no significant experience unless the mind itself is at work in it, decisively determining what it is as assimilated to the laws of its own nature. The categories are applicable only to phenomena within our consciousness, hence we prescribe laws to nature. Our constructive understanding builds up the world from the sum total of impressions, acc. to its own laws of thought. Our world picture is not an image of reality mirroring the original. In fact, we can never learn the nature of the world in itself, but only as it appears to us. But neither is it purely a subjective fiction, for that there is a connection of our sensibility and understanding with the outer world is verified by experimentation in science.
6. Human beings, then, can never transcend the limits of possible experience, hence there can be no rational metaphysics of being as it is in itself (beyond experience), but only knowledge of appearances as constituted in the mind. A priori knowledge has to do only with the appearances (phenonmena) in our experience; the thing-in-itself (noumenon; see also Ding an sich) is always beyond our forms of perception and categories of understanding. Causality, e.g., applies only to phenomenal objects, hence the will in its invisible, phenomenal acts cannot appear free, but in itself (as noumenal) is not bound by our category of understanding and hence is free. The attempt to prove the existence of God, human freedom, and immortality is doomed to failure as beyond the scope of pure reason, but such beliefs (regulative ideals) are necessarily postulated in faith by practical reason as essential conditions of the possibility of our moral experience of duty and obligation.
7. Kant's formalistic ethic centered in the notion of moral autonomy: man as giving moral laws to himself. The only thing intrinsically good is good will. Kant's test of the morality of an act: Can the maxim of the act be universalized? Religion is the recognition of our duties as enjoined by divine commands; the clue to the purpose of the world is thus found in moral experience, the realm of the ought. See also Categorical Imperative.
8. Kant's influence was tremendous. (a) His notion that all experience is a mental construction, riddled with reason, had led him to postulate the unknown thing-in-itself (see par. 6). Absolute idealism* (see also Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich) rejected noumena (see par. 6). Experienced phenomena are reality. The real is the rational. All reality is theoretically knowable. (b) Because reason is a tool for interpreting phenomena only, its range coincides with physical science; metaphysics and theol. are cognitively meaningless, beyond our mental powers. Not only categories of thought but also human language is inadequate for expressing anything meaningful about the transempirical. Conscious of the limitations of reason, we must concentrate on natural science, renouncing more ambitious but unattainable intellectual projects. (c) Reason can deal only with phenomena, but in intense moral experience we approach ultimate being,-not in thought about being, but in the act of being, of self-consciousness; for self-consciousness implies, paradoxically, both self-transcendence and an abiding self. Rational metaphysics is impossible, but it is by being ourselves and discovering within ourselves that which transcends the world of phenomena that we grasp our kinship with Ultimate Being. The proper task of philos. is plumbing man as he knows and experiences himself in the depths of his personality, and how he apprehends God, freedom, and human destiny. (d) Laws and theories of physics are not laws of nature but laws of the physicists; such laws are not discovered in nature but are imposed on nature. The aim of physics is to forge a practical instrument for coordinating and predicting phenomena. Modern atomic theory is not of the real nature of things but belongs to the categorical and conventional order. (e) The necessity, authority, and certainty of propositions of logic and mathematics reside in language, not in the constitution of the world. Logical propositions, like categories, are imposed on the world by the mind, arising from customary and conventional categories of language. The world lying behind the logico-lingual categorical frame is beyond our intellectual reach, hence metaphysics, ethics, theol., and other nonempirical enterprises are not cognitively but only emotively meaningful. (f) Theol. assertions about the Godhead and divine Persons are not to be taken as metaphysical statements but as value judgments of the believing community. Thus ethical rather than metaphysical categories are the foundation of theol. discourse. The hist. Jesus is taken as (has the value of) God because of His moral perfection. The goal of Christianity is establishment of the morally ideal kingdom of God. The essence of religion is the human feeling of absolute dependence. The essence of theol. is the phenomenology of religious experience of the holy.
Works include Kritik der reinen Vernunft; Kritik der praktischen Vernunft; Kritik der Urtheilskraft; Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können. RVS
H. J. Paton, The Categorical Imperative (London, 1936) and Kant's Metaphysic of Experience (London, 1936); S. Körner, Kant (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng., 1955); E. Hirsch, Luthers Rechtfertigungslehre bei Kant, Lutherstudien, II (Gütersloh, 1954), 104121; W. Pannenberg, Theologische Motive im Denken Immanuel Kants, Theologische Literaturzeitung, LXXXIX, No. 12 (December 1964), cols. 897906.
Choral group usually identified with a ch., school, court, or municipality; provides music (often choral-instrumental) for religious, cultural, or soc. occasions. Kantorei hist. begins in the early Middle Ages. The Kantorei led by J. Walther* became a model for others.
(180579). B. Güglingen, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; Pietist; pastor Korntal, near Stuttgart, 1833; dean Münsingen 1843, Herrenberg 1847; to Reutlingen 1850; preacher Stuttgart 1852. Works include Der religiöse Zustand des evangelischen Deutschlands nach Licht und Schatten.
(18671941). B. Oels (Olesnica), Silesia; led in reshaping the ch. and its relationship to the state after 1918; led Ger. delegation at Universal Christian Conference on Life and Work (see Ecumenical Movement, 9) 1925; pres. Ger. Ev. High Consistory 192533.
(George Christopher Albert Kaeppel; April 19, 1862January 11, 1934). B. Indianapolis, Indiana; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem. (Mo. Syn.), Addison, Illinois Parish school teacher Wittenberg, Missouri, 188183; St. Louis, Missouri, 188397. Prof. Addison, Illinois, 1897; River Forest, Illinois, 1913. Organist; composer. Works include contatas Unto Us, Agnus Dei, and Soil Deo Gloria; organ compositions; Die Orgel im Gottesdienst.
(John Henry Christian Kaeppel; September 15, 1853February 3, 1925). B. Cleveland, Ohio; educ. Fort Wayne, Indiana, and St. Louis, Missouri; Mo. Syn. parish school teacher St. Louis; instructor Walther Coll., St. Louis; pastor Jefferson City, Missouri, 188788; dir. St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 18881925.
(Qaraites). Heb. Bene miqra, sons of the Scripture. Jewish sect founded ca. 765 in Baghdad by Anan* ben David; spread to Jerusalem, Syria, Egypt, S Russ., W Eur., and US; rejects rabbinism and Talmudism; accepts OT as sole authority. In 1910 there were ca. 13,000, nearly all in S Russ.
(Carlstadt; Karolstadt; ca. 14801541). Revolutionist of the Reformation; b. Karlstadt, Lower Franconia, NW Bav., Ger.; educ. Erfurt and Cologne; prof. Wittenberg; supported M. Luther's* 95 theses*; tangled with J. Eck* at the Leipzig* Debate 1519; introd. Reformation at Wittenberg 1521, but forced the issue; preacher at Orlamünde 1523/24; rejected Baptism and the Lord's Supper as sacraments and abolished ceremonies in undue haste; expelled 1524 by Saxon authorities; wandered from place to place; assoc. with H. Zwingli* at Zurich and finally with J. H. Bullinger* at Basel. Not to be confused with J. Draconites.* See also Apocrypha, B 2; Zwickau Prophets.
H. Barge, Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt (Leipzig, 1905); F. Kriechbaum, Grundzüge der Theologie Karlstadts (Hamburg, 1967).
(Skt. deed, action, work). Term used in Hindu doctrine of reward and punishment, combined with the doctrine of reincarnation*; designed to explain inequalities in human conditions. Brahmanic in origin. Souls have been transmigrating for ages; whatever happiness or sorrow an individual experiences is the unalterable recompense for good or evil deeds in former incarnations; whatever good or evil an individual does will result in happiness or sorrow in future existences. Reincarnations continue till all acts of the present and past have worked out their consequences. All ways to release from karma suggested by Indian religions amount to salvation by works. See also Brahmanism, 3, 4; Buddhism, 2, 3; Jainism; Transmigration of Souls.
(18821952). B. St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Russ.; philos.; prof. St. Petersburg 1912; exiled 1922; prof. Kaunas, Lith., 1928; held that God and cosmos form one unity; cosmos is the absolute becoming or the completion of the being of divinity; all existence is theophany.
Modern German for Cassel.
(from Gk. kath' hena, one at a time, and theos, God). Worship of 1 god at a time without denying existence of other gods; usually includes tendency to change from one god to another. See also Henotheism; Monolatry.
(18511935). B. Kettwig, Ger.; educ. Bonn, Berlin, Halle; prof. Giessen, Göttingen, Halle; follower of A. Ritschl.* Works include Das apostolische Symbol; Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Confessionskunde; Von Schleiermacher zu Ritschl.
(Cucius; ca. 1500after 1532). B. Grossbokkenheim, in The Palatinate; preacher Worms 1524; became Anabap.; dismissed; became wandering preacher. With J. Denk* and L. Hetzer* wrote 7 theses for disputation with Luth. preachers; other works include Bible tr. See also Socinianism, 1.
(18411910). Prot. theol.; b. Plauen, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Basel, Tübingen, Halle; Hebraist and grammarian. Tr. and ed. OT (see also Bible Versions, M), including apocryphal and pseudepigraphic books; other works include Wilhelm Gesenius' hebräische Grammatik völlig umgearbeitet.
(September 3, 1798February 11, 1860). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin; private tutor 182126; ordained Berlin 1826; pastor Klemzig, (near Frankfurt an der Oder, Harthe, and Goltzen 1826; influenced by work and writings of J. G. Scheibel*; resigned pastorate; joined Old* Luths. at Posen; early in 1836 began to explore possibility of emigration to Am. or Australia; while negotiating for financial support, he served Ger. seamen and the Ger. community in London, Eng. After many negotiations in the face of opposition from the Prussian govt. to emigration, conditional approval was obtained and ca. 250 persons under Kavel's leadership left Ger. in July 1838 and arrived Port Adelaide, Australia, in November 1838. They named their new community in S. Australia Klemzig. The 1st Luth. syn. (conv.) in Australia was held 1839 at Glen Osmond under Kavel's leadership. Later other immigrants joined them. Additional colonies were est. A rupture occurred 1846 as a result of differences regarding polity and chiliasm. This breach was not healed till the Luth. Ch. in Australia was formed 1966. See also Australia, B 1, C 1. ARS
(18471918). B. Bunzlau, Silesia; educ. Berlin; pastor; prof. Kiel 1886, Breslau 1893; provost, mem. supreme ch. council, and honorary prof. Berlin 1907. Ed. several vols. of WA; Der Briefwechsel des Justus Jonas. Other works include Hieronymus Emser; Johann Agricola von Eisleben; Luther in katholischer Beleuchtung.
(181757). B. Heidelberg, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg; won for Christianity by F. A. Tholuck* and writings of L. Hofacker*; diaconus and rector Gernsbach, S Baden, 1840; hymnist. Works include translations of some writings of D. Nasmith*; biographies of Nasmith and of W. Wilberforce*; Alle Jahre wieder kommt das Christuskind (1855).
Variant Spelling of Kaiser.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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