Also called Holy Years. In 1300 Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12) offered plenary indulgence to all the faithful who, in 1300 and every 100th yr. thereafter, would make a stated number of daily visits to the chs. of Peter and Paul in Rome with pious prayer and penitent confession. A yr. of Jubilee was celebrated again 1350 (by a 1342 decree of Clement VI [Pierre Roger; 12911352; b. Correze, Fr.; pope 134252]) and 1390 (by direction of Urban VI [Bartolommeo Prignani; 131889; b. Naples, It.; pope 137889], who set the cycle at 33 yrs. on the analogy of the length of Christ's life). Further adjustments were made in the 15th c.; in 1470 Paul II (Pietro Barbo; 141771; b. Venice, It.; pope 146471), in view of the shortness of human life, reduced the time to 25 yrs. beginning 1475. Jubilees usually begin with opening of the holy doors of the basilicas of Peter, Paul, John Lateran, and Mary Major at Vespers December 24. Essential modern ceremonies were specified by Alexander VI (see Popes, 18). Twentieth-century Holy Years include 1933, 1975, 198##
(jubilatio; jubilum). Melismatic rendition of the final syllable of the 2d alleluia (see Hallelujah) before and of the alleluia after the alleluiatic verse in the gradual.* The sequence* grew out of the jubilus.
(Judae; Keller; 14821542). Meister Leu. B. Gemar, Alsace; educ. Basel, Switz., and Freiburg im Breisgau, Ger.; pastor Alsace and Switz.; assoc. with H. Zwingli* and J. H. Bullinger.* Helped formulate the First Helvetic Confession (see Reformed Confessions, A 6) and made its official Ger. tr.; helped make the (Ger.) Zurich Bible tr.; tr. OT books into Lat.; other works include a Lat. and 2 Ger. catechisms.
1. Religion and religious practices of the Jews. Term is of Gk. origin (2 Mac 2:21; 8:1; 14:38; 4 Mac 4:26; Gl 1:13, 14). The foundation of all forms of Judaism is the Pentateuch,* which records how God made the Jews His people and how He gave ordinances for faith and life. Judaism was unique in the ancient world in its doctrines that Jahweh* is one God, the Creator and Ruler of the universe; that He is a spirit; that He is holy and demands holiness from His followers, yet is ready to forgive repentant sinners who seek His mercy in faith; that He would provide a Messiah* who would redeem His people and extend His kingdom over all the earth; and that in the world to come the righteous are eternally blessed, but the wicked are eternally punished for their sins. Unique was also the observance of the Sabbath.* Characteristic rite of Judaism is circumcision as the sign of the covenant* bet. God and His people. Sacrifices at the nat. sanctuary held a cen. position before the destruction of the temple (2 K 25:9, 1317; 2 Ch 36:1819).
2. During the cents. after the return from the Babylonian Captivity (see Babylonian Captivity, 1) the voice of prophecy became silent. But loss of pol. indep., trials of the Babylonian Captivity, and difficulties under for. rule centered attention on spiritual heritage. Much study was spent on the Torah* and its interpretation in light of the prophets and oral tradition. The sect of the Pharisees sprang up, added its regulations to those of the Torah, and developed a system of obedience to the letter of the Law without true service of God. Another contemporary sect was that of the Sadducees; they were liberals or freethinkers. Many Jews, esp. among the common people, adhered to the OT hope and faith. With the conquest of Jerusalem and destruction of the temple by Romans 70 AD, the period of Judaism characterized by the Talmud* began; it is marked by extreme legalism and ritualism, but no unified system of doctrine resulted till Maimonides* in the 12th c. codified the teachings of Judaism under 13 principles: (1) Existence of God, source of all creation; (2) His unity; (3) His spirituality; (4) His unity has no beginning; (5) worship of Him alone; (6) prophecy; (7) Moses the supreme prophet; (8) revelation of the Torah to Moses; (9) Torah the only and unchangeable Law; (10) Creator knows thoughts and deeds of man; (11) God rewards and punishes; (12) coming of the Messiah; (13) resurrection of the dead.
3. In modern times Jews have been able to play a large part in the soc., economic, and pol. world. Many still adhere to Orthodox Judaism despite difficulties in adjusting religious practices to prevailing conditions. Others, called Conservative, regard the Torah and traditional laws of Judaism as basic, but have made concessions by being less strict in observing religious regulations. A 3d group, Reform Judaism, originated in Ger. as a lay movement in the late 18th c.; it tries to adjust Judaism to modern needs; services are in the vernacular and are modernized. Reform Judaism aims to retain elements of Jewish tradition regarded as permanent, but allows changes in all other respects. It stresses the principle that the Jew must make a contribution toward enlightening mankind. Reform Judaism is prominent in the struggle against anti-Semitism.* Despite differences, all Jews recognize each other as mems. of one family; variations in belief and practice are viewed as expressions of different schools of Judaism. See also Schechter, Solomon.
4. Besides observing Sabbaths, new moons, special fast days, and minor festivals, Judaism keeps as major festivals: Passover (Ex 12:2151; Mt 26:130 and parallel passages) and Pentecost (from Gk. pentekoste sc. hemera, fiftieth day; Feast of Weeks [Heb. Shabuoth, weeks]; Dt 16:913; Acts 2:1) in spring; New Year (Heb. Rosh Hashanah, head of the year; beginning of the 1st mo. of the Jewish civil [7th mo. of the religious] yr.; Feast of Trumpets; Lv 23:24; Nm 29:1), Day of Atonement (Heb. Yom Kippur; Lv 16; 23:2632; Nm 29:711; Acts 27:9), and Feast of Tabernacles (Heb. Sukkoth, booths; tabernacles; Feast of Harvest; Ex 23:16; Lv 23:3943) in fall. To these Mosaic festivals were added later Purim (Heb. lots; Feast of Esther; commemorates rescue of Jews from Haman's plot; Est, esp. 9:2028) and Hanukkah (Heb. dedication; commemorates victory of Maccabees over Syrians and the rededication of the defiled temple at Jerusalem; 1 Mac 1:4164; 2 Mac 1:18; 6:2; Feast of Lights; falls near Christmas). Up to AD 70, pilgrimages to the temple at Jerusalem were required in connection with observance of Passover, Pentecost, and Feast of Tabernacles. GVS
(April 23, 1803January 12, 1873). B. Paris, New York; ABCFM med. miss. to Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) 1828; interpreter and recorder of Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli; 181354; king of Sandwich islands 182554); organized 1st Hawaiian cabinet 1843; minister of finance 1844.
(Richter; 152864). B. Dippoldiswalde, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; vice-principal (Konrektor) of Gymnasium and deacon Magdeburg; prof. theol. Jena 1560; deposed and banned 1561; to Magdeburg, Wismar, and Rostock. Gnesio-Lutheran.* Contributed to Magdeburg* Centuries. See also Synergistic Controversy.
(August 9, 1788April 12, 1850). B. Malden, Massachusetts; educ. Brown U. (Providence, R. I.) and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; Cong. ABCFM miss. to India or Burma 1812; became Bap. on way and separated from ABCFM; from Calcutta, Indiana, to Rangoon, Burma, 181213, via the is. Mauritius and Madras, Indiana; suffered hardships during war bet. Eng. and Burma; miss. headquarters moved to Amherst 1826, to Moulmain 1827. Judson returned to the US 1845; back to Burma 1846. Tr. Bible and other books into Burmese. Other literary efforts include a Burmese-Eng., Eng.-Burmese dictionary; a Burmese grammar; a Pali dictionary. See also India, 11; Judson, Ann Hasseltine; Judson, Emily Chub buck; Judson, Sarah Hall; Haystack Group.
(December 22, 1789October 24, 1826). B. Bradford, Massachusetts; school teacher; married A. Judson*; with him to Burma. Tr. Gospel of Matthew and a catechism into Siamese; other works include a history of the Burman mission.
(pseudonym Fanny Forester; August 22, 1817June 1, 1854). B. Eaton, New York; taught at Utica; married A. Judson*; with him to Burma 1846. Works collected under titles including Olio; Kathayan Slave; My Two Sisters.
(Boardman; November 4, 1803September 1, 1845). B. Alstead, N.H.; married G. D. Boardman* Sr.; with him to Burma; after his death, married A. Judson.* Tr. tracts, hymns, part of J. Bunyan's* Pilgrim's Progress, and other Christian literature into Burmese; helped tr. tracts and the NT into the language of the Peguans.
Roman calendar as reformed ca. 46 BC under Julius Caesar (from whom it takes its name); days were added to the year of adjustment to restore the vernal equinox to March 25; the normal yr. then had 365 days; leap yrs. (every 4th yr.) had a day inserted after February 24. Called Old Style. See also Gregorian Calendar.
(ca. 380ca. 455). B. Eclanum, It.; bp. Eclanum; deposed and exiled 418 with 17 other bps. for refusing to subscribe to a papal condemnation of Pelagianism; opposed Augustine* of Hippo's doctrine of the total depravity of fallen man; held that sin is a matter of the will, not of inheritance or nature.
(18571938). B. Falkenberg (Berlin), Ger.; orphanage chaplain Rummelsberg (Berlin) 188288; taught at univs. of Berlin and Marburg; prof. Marburg 1889; liberal. Initiated critical ed. of Old Latin NT (see Bible Versions, J 1); other works include Die Gleichnisreden Jesu and Einleitung in das Neue Testament.
(ca. 160ca. 240). B. probably Jerusalem (some say Libya); lived at Emmaus; traveled through Asia Minor; Christian author. Works include a hist. of the world up to ca. AD 221, which was quoted by Eusebius* of Caesarea and became the foundation of medieval historiography.
(Giammaria [or Giovanni Maria] Ciocchi del Monte; 14871555). B. Rome; cardinal 1536; Council of Trent's* 1st pres. and papal legate 1545; pope 155055; confirmed Society* of Jesus 1550 and increased its privileges; sent R. Pole* to reunite Eng. with RC Ch. 1554; patron of Michelangelo.*
(Heinrich Jung; Heinrich Stilling; 17401817). B. Grund, near Hilchenbach, Westphalia; prof. Kaiserslautern, Heidelberg, and Marburg; friend of J. W. v. Goethe* and J. G. v. Herder*; mystic; theosophist. Adopted name Stilling because of sympathy with Pietists of the lower Rhine, who were called die Stillen im Lande; (cf. Ps 35:20 in Ger.). See also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.
(18751961). B. Switz.; lectured U. of Zurich 190513; assoc. with S. Freud*; held that all people have introvert and extrovert characteristics, with classification determined by dominance; explained religious and mythical symbols through the collective unconscious; stressed man's strong need for religious experiences and belief.
MPL, 68, 1142.
(Franz; François du Jon; 15451602). B. Bourges, Fr.; studied under T. Beza* in Geneva, Switz.; preacher to the Walloon cong., Antwerp, Belg.; helped his father-in-law J. I. Tremellius* tr. OT into Lat. Other works include De theologia vera.
The justice of God* is that quality in God by reason of which He legislates justly, His laws being the perfect expression of His holy will. He is true to His promises and will execute judgment acc. to the principles of right. He is His own perfect ethical norm and, consistent with Himself, He and His judgments are just and righteous, Dt 32:4; Ps 19:9. In His justice He gave laws which are perfect. When they are transgressed, His justice demands punishment; if vicarious atonement is made, it must be full satisfaction. His justice considers the manner and measure of sin committed, Mt 11:2124; Lk 12:4748. Just punishments are inflicted in retribution, Heb 2:2. Fulfillment of divine promises, credited in one respect to grace,* is also right, Is 54:10; 2 Ti 4:8.
1. Judicial act of God which consists of non-imputation of sin and imputation of Christ's righteousness.
2. The Luth. Confessions (Ap, esp. the Ger. version, IV 2, 3; FC SD III 6) and renowned teachers, e.g., M. Luther* (WA 30 II, 650; 43, 178; 40 III, 739), M. Chemnitz,* B. Meisner,* and C. F. W. Walther* call the doctrine of justification the most important teaching of divine revelation. The apprehension of this doctrine by Luther made him the divinely equipped Reformer of the ch.
3. The doctrine of justification presupposes that man, through his natural condition and his thoughts, words, and deeds, is a transgressor of God's Law, subject to His wrath, condemned to eternal death, Ec 7:20; Is 64:6; Mt 25:41; Ro 13. See also Sin; Sin, Original.
4. The doctrine includes, as one of its chief elements, that God is moved to justify us by grace,* a special kind of love, directed toward those who are undeserving or unworthy, Jn 3:16; Ro 3:23; 5:20.
5. God's grace accomplished its purpose through the redemption of Christ. God sent His holy, innocent Son to become man and made Him man's Substitute. This Substitute fulfilled all requirements of the Law in our place (active obedience). He also suffered the pangs and woes which we had deserved (passive obedience). Divine justice is satisfied and love triumphs. Through Christ God reconciled the world unto Himself, 2 Co 5:19. This act of God is called objective justification; it is not the same as redemption, justification being judicial, redemption sacrificial. See also Priest, Christ as.
6. The righteousness of Christ is given us by God in the Gospel and sacraments. These means of grace (see Grace, Means of) offer, give, and seal to us God's forgiveness, Jn 15:3; Ro 1:16; Gl 3:27. We receive this righteousness through faith.* The moment we accept the righteousness which Christ won, God pronounces us justified, free from sin, acquitted (subjective justification, Gn 15:6; Lk 15; Gl 2:16). the forgiveness of sins is a thing promised for Christ's sake. Therefore it can be accepted only by faith, since a promise can be accepted only on faith. In Rom. 4:16 Paul says, 'That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed,' as though he were to say, 'If it depended on our merits, the promise would be uncertain and useless inasmuch as we could never determine whether we had merited enough.' Experienced consciences can readily understand this. Therefore Paul says (Gal. 3:22), 'God consigned all things to sin, that what was promised to faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.' Here he denies us any merit, for he says that all are guilty and consigned to sin. Then he adds that the promise of the forgiveness of sins and justification is a gift, and further that the promise can be accepted by faith. Based upon the nature of a promise, this is Paul's chief argument, which he often repeats (Rom. 4:16; Gal. 3:18). Nothing one can devise or imagine will refute Paul's argument. So pious men should not let themselves be diverted from this declaration, that we receive the forgiveness of sins for Christ's sake only by faith; here they have a certain and firm consolation against the terrors of sin, against eternal death, and against all the gates of hell (Matt. 16:18). (Ap IV 8485).
7. Since justification is brought about by God's grace through the sacrifice of Christ and we become possessors of it through faith, all human merit is excluded, Ro 3:2731. Faith is not merit, since we are not justified on account of, but through, faith (J. Gerhard,* Locus XVII. De justificatione per fidem, CLXXX). Justification takes place outside of us, at the tribunal of God, Ro 8:3339.
8. When a sinner is justified, he has peace with God, enjoys Christian liberty, does good works, and is filled with hope of eternal life, Jn 8:36; Ro 7:25; 8:12, 17.
9. Justification is not a long-drawn-out process, but occurs in a moment; it is never partial, but always perfect and complete; it is alike in all who are justified; it puts one into a state of righteousness which continues as long as one believes; it can be lost; it can be obtained anew when it has been lost. WA
10. Council of Trent,* Sess. VI, Canon P. If anyone says that the sinner is justified by faith alone, meaning that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to obtain the grace of justification, and that it is not in any way necessary that he be prepared and disposed by the action of his own will, let him be anathema.
See bibliography under Dogmatics; T. Engelder, Objective Justification, CTM, IV, Nos. 79 (JulySeptember 1933), 507517, 564577, 664675; W. Arndt, The Doctrine of Justification, The Abiding Word, II (St. Louis, 1947), 235257; T. Hoyer, Through Justification unto Sanctification, CTM, XIII, No. 2 (February 1942), 81111; E. W. A. Koehler, Objective Justification, CTM, XVI, No. 4 (April 1945), 217235; W. Elert, Morphologic des Luthertums, I (Munich, 1931; improved print. 1952), 64123, tr. W. A. Hansen, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 73140; A. Köberle, The Quest for Holiness, tr. J. C. Mattes (New York, 1936); F. R. E. Preuss, Die Rechtfertigung des Sünders vor Gott, 2d ed. (Berlin, 1871); C. P. Krauth, The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology (Philadelphia, 1871); G. Aulén, Christus Victor, tr. A. G. Hebert (London, 1931); E. L. Lueker, Justification in the Theology of Walther, CTM, XXXII, No. 10 (October 1961), 598605.
(Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus; Flavius Anicius Justinianus; 483565). Justinian the Great. B. Tauresium, Illyricum, Macedonia; consul 521; E Roman emp. 527565; brilliant ruler; tried to restore the religious and pol. unity of the empire, but failed to prevent increased estrangement bet. the E and the W Ch.; efforts to codify Roman law resulted in Corpus iuris civilis (Code of Justinian), a revision and updating of the Code of Theodosius* II; it decreed the destruction of Hellenism. Closed the philos, school at Athens 529; promoted Christian missions; restricted civil rights and religious affairs of Jews; made Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed the sole symbol of the ch.; accorded legal force to the canons of the first 4 ecumenical councils. See also Constantinople, Councils of, 2; Natural Law; Popes, 3.
(Rhinotmetus [Gk. with the nose cut off]; 669711). Son of Constantine* IV; E Roman emp. 685695; 705711; convened Quinisext* Synod; cruel; defeated 695 by his gen., Leontius, who cut off his nose.
(Justin the Philosopher; ca. 100ca. 165). B. Flavia Neapolis (Nablus; ancient Shechem), Samaria, of heathen parents; Platonist; converted ca. 130; est. Christian school at Rome. See also Abbot, Ezra; Acta martyrum; Apologists, 4; Fathers of the Church.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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