God is jealous of His divine honor (Ex 20:5; 34:14; Nm 25:11; Dt 29:20; 32:16, 21; Ps 79:5; Is 42:8; 48:11; Zch 1:14; 8:2; 1 Co 10:22). It is God-pleasing when believers show holy zeal for God's honor, are indignant over wickedness, or are moved by intense interest for the welfare of others. All jealousy of men that is equivalent to suspicion and envy* is sinful. Examples: Gn 4:58; 37:311; Ps 37:1; 73:3; Pr 24:1, 19; Mt 27:18; Ro 13:13; 1 Ptr 2:12. Cp. LC I 184.
Organized 1886 [1893?] by a small group of men who came from the Missionshaus founded by W. Vilmar* at Melsungen, Ger. Prominent among them was Wilhelm C. F. Hartwig (October 30, 1854May 31, 1927; b. Cassdorf, Hesse-Cassel, Ger.). The conf. held the AC to be the only true Confession of the Luth. Ch. as such. Mostly located in and near Detroit, Michigan Disappeared from statistical lists toward the end of the 1920s.
(abandoned lowercase w ca. 1972) 1. Adv. group founded ca. 1872 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by C. T. Russell*; name based on Is 43:10; known also as Millennial Dawnists (after a book by Russell entitled Millennial Dawn, pub. in the 1880s), Russellites, and Internat. Bible Students Assoc.; several local groups were known as Watch Tower (or Watchtower) Bible and Tract Soc. Russell claimed to be the 7th messenger of Rv 11:25, rejected the doctrines of hell, Trin., and immortality of the soul, denounced chs. and the contemporary soc. order, and promised a 3d world, the golden age of mankind. J. F. Rutherford* succeeded Russell. Jehovah's witnesses engage in worldwide preaching and in propaganda through literature, radio, and colporteurs.
2. The cen. idea of Jehovah's witnesses is belief in the complete reorganization of the soc. order through establishment of Jehovah's theocracy. Adherents consider themselves to be faithful witnesses of Jehovah who must proclaim that the present world will be destroyed in the final war of Armageddon; that Jehovah is now gathering His faithful witnesses to est. His theocracy, which will be the only form of govt. in the world to come, and will offer the only refuge for distressed humanity. The divine plan of the ages, acc. to Russell and Rutherford: The hist. of the world falls into 3 great dispensations, in each of which man is given an opportunity to merit for himself the right to live in this world for ages to come by obedience to God's law. Good angels were in charge of the 1st dispensation, but they were unable to control the counter govt. which Satan est. Satan misled Adam and Eve by teaching them the lie of the immortality of the soul. Through disobedience of God's laws, man forfeited the right to live. In the 2d dispensation, beginning with Noah and ending with Armageddon, Satan used as allies the capitalistic system, human govts., and chs., to prevent man from being obedient to God's theocracy. Only few can withstand the onslaughts of Satan's allies and merit the right to live. Chs. are singled out as allies of Satan because organized chs. have undermined Jehovah's authority through the lie of the Trinity. Jehovah's witnesses speak of Christ as God's Son, but deny the eternal preexistence of the 2d Person in the Trin. and speak of the Logos only as God's chief administrator. Hell is said to be a place of entire destruction or annihilation. Jesus is said to have voluntarily given up His right to live and to have deposited it with God; thus He made it possible for God to restore the right to live to all men. Besides Christ, also the 144,000 of Rv 7:48, by perfect obedience to God's theocracy, earned the right to live. But they also give up the right to life; with Jesus they constitute the Christ. They alone will receive immortality. The rest of mankind will be resurrected; that is, new bodies will be created for them and their right to life will be restored to them. They will be given opportunity for 100 yrs. to be obedient to God's theocracy in the new world. Those who at the end of the probationary period are not obedient will be annihilated. The obedient will live under God's theocracy for ages to come. FEM
Variant form of Judah.
(18411913). B. Schlüsselburg on the Weser, Ger.; Gossner* Miss. Soc. miss. in India; pastor Prussia; influenced by the perfectionism and holiness views of R. P. Smith.* Works include Das völlige, gegenwärtige Heil durch Christum. See also Eisenacher Bund.
(170073). Son of Charles Jennens of Gopsall, Leicestershire, Eng.; studied at Balliol Coll., Oxford, but did not graduate, being a nonjuror (see Nonjurors). Friend of G. F. Hadcel,* for whose Messiah, Saul, and Belshazzar he wrote the words.
(January 6, 1893September 1, 1966). B. Brenderup, Den.; educ. Grand View Coll. and Sem., Des Moines, Iowa; ordained by The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1920. Pastor Cordova, Nebraska (twice); Tyler, Minnesota; Kimballton, Iowa. Pres. AELC 193660.
(18641935). Luth. theol.; b. Markersdorf, near Chemnitz, Ger.; pastor Leipzig; lectured at Leipzig U. Works include Allgemeine Religions-Geschichte; Das Alte Testament im Lichte des Alten Orients (tr. The Old Testament in the Light of the Ancient East); Die Panbabylonisten: Der Alte Orient und die Aegyptische Religion.
(Jeremiah; Tranos; ca. 153095). B. Anchialos, on the Black Sea; metropolitan of Larissa 1565; patriarch Constantinople ca. 157279, 158084, 1586ca. 1595. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches, 5; Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 5.
(Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus; b. probably in the 340s; d. 419 or 420). Ch. father; b. Stridon (probably in Dalmatia, near Aquileia, It.) of Christian parents; bap. at 19 in Rome, where he had gone to study rhetoric and philos.; journeyed through Gaul; then lived at Aquileia till ca. 373; traveled, living in and near Syrian Antioch, then in Constantinople, Rome, Antioch, Palestine, Egypt, settling finally at Bethlehem. Turned from secular studies to the things of God during his 1st stay at Antioch; secy. to Damasus* I. Works include rev. of the Lat. Bible (see Bible Versions, J 12); commentaries on books of the Bible; De viris illustribus; polemical writings. See also Apocrypha, B 2; Doctor of the Church; Fathers of the Church; Geography, Christian, 3; Millennium, 3; Origenistic Controversy; Patristics, 6.
(b. probably in the 1360s; d. 1416). B. Prague; friend of J. Hus*; educ. Prague, Oxford, Paris, Cologne, Heidelberg; copied Dialogus and Trialogus of J. Wycliffe*; championed Wycliffism; burned at Constance.
The 1st Christian syn. or council was held at Jerusalem, Acts 15. Later syns. at Jerusalem include: one in 335, which restored Arius to fellowship in an attempt to settle the Arian controversy (see Arianism); one in the 340s, which acknowledged fellowship with Athanasius, who had been deposed 335 by a council at Tyre, restored in the 340s by a council at Sardica (later called Sofia); an indecisive diocesan syn. in 415 called to deal with the Pelagian* Controversy; one in 634 against Monothelitism,* in favor of Dyothelitism*; one in 1672 against Calvinism. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, A 2.
(April 19, 1832April 28, 1910). B. Montrose, Pennsylvania; educ. Yale U. (New Haven, Connecticut) and Union Theol. Sem. (NYC); ABCFM Presb. miss. to Tripoli and Beirut; transferred to Presb. Bd. of For. Miss. 1870; prof. Syrian Theol. Sem., Beirut. Works include Syrian Home Life; The Greek Church and Protestant Missions.
Since about 1775 an immense literature has grown up which concerns itself with the life of Jesus. A survey chiefly of critical, negative works in this field is furnished in A. Schweitzer,* Von Reimarus zu Wrede (1906), 2d ed. 1913 entitled Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung, Eng. tr. of 1st ed. entitled The Quest of the Historical Jesus. A similar book bringing Schweitzer up to date and introd. several new viewpoints: C. C. McCown, The Search for the Real Jesus (1940); like Schweitzer's book, it is written from the viewpoint of the negative critic, but it is valuable because it acquaints one with the productions of radical and skeptical scholarship in this field. Some deny that Jesus ever lived; they speak of the story of His life as the Christ-myth (e.g., B. Bauer,* A. Kalthoff,* C. H. A. Drews*). They were refuted by S. J. Case,* The Historicity of Jesus. D. F. Strauss* advocated the mythical theory: Jesus was a hist. person, but we know few facts of His life; the Gospel accounts are results of mythical development. J. E. Renan,* Vie de Jésus, treated hist. facts more like a novelist than a historian. The liberal portrait of Jesus was drawn by J. F. W. Bousset,* K. G. A. v. Harnack,* and others who held that Jesus taught chiefly the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, and the value of human personality. The eschatological Jesus (the view that Jesus taught that the end of the world was coming very soon and that He would then be revealed as the Messiah) was the conception of Schweitzer and J. Weiss.* A. Edersheim,* F. W. Farrar,* J. Stalker,* A. Fahling,* et al. uphold the Scriptural presentation of the life of Jesus.
Form criticism (see Isagogics, 3) has tended to discourage attempts to write on the life of Jesus; many form critics hold that the chronological framework in the Bible accounts is hist. untrustworthy. Most Eng. critics have been conservative on this point, as witness accounts of the life of Jesus by Archibald Macbride Hunter (b. 1906), Vincent Taylor (b. 1887), John William Charles Wand (b. 1885) et al. Some words of Eur. RCs (e.g., Louis Claude Fillion , Léonce Loizeau de Grandmaison , Marie Joseph [or Joseph Marie; Albert] Lagrange , Jules Lebreton , Ferdinand Prat , Giuseppe Ricciotti ) are available in Eng. tr. Some students of R. Bultmann (see Demythologization; Existentialism, 1) have tried to break with his extreme hist. skepticism. This has led to a new quest of the hist. Jesus, with widely varying results. Best-known treatment is Günther Bornkamm (b. Görlitz, Ger., 1905; pastor; prof. Göttingen and Heidelberg), Jesus von Nazareth (1956; Eng. tr. 1960). Others include Ethelbert Stauffer (b. 1902), Jesus: Gestalt und Geschichte (1957; Eng. tr. 1960: Jesus and His Story); Walter Grundmann (b. 1906), Die Geschichte Jesu Christi (1957).
C. C. McCown, The Search for the Real Jesus (New York, 1940) and Jesus, Son of Man: A Survey of Recent Discussion, The Journal of Religion, XXVIII, No. 1 (January 1948), 112; J. M. Robinson, A New Quest of the Historical Jesus (London, 1959); Der historische Jesus und der kerygmatische Christus, ed. H. Ristow and K. Matthiae, 2d ed. (Berlin, 1961); H. Conzelmann, Jesus Christus, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. K. Galling, 3d ed. (Tübingen, 1959), III, col. 619653; F. C. Grant, Jesus Christ, The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, ed. G. A. Buttrick et al. (New York, 1962), II, 869896.
Pictures of Jesus are found in the catacombs. One of the oldest extant statues of the Good Shepherd is held to be of 3d-c. origin. Mosaic representations of Jesus are common and include the Baptism of Jesus in the dome of the Orthodox baptistery at Ravenna, It., Christ Dividing the Sheep from the Goats in the ch. of St. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, and Christ Enthroned in the ch. of St. Pudenziana, Rome. In the Middle Ages representations of Jesus relegated His character as Redeemer to the background and featured such subjects as Christ in the Glory of the New Jerusalem, Christ in His Majesty as Teacher, Christ on the Clouds of Heaven, Christ on the Globe of the World. Renaissance art was more concerned with Mary than with Jesus, though Andrea Mantegna (14311506; b. near Padua, It.; printer and engraver; his Adoration of the Magi was bought 1985 by the J. Paul Getty Museum of Malibu, California, for a record $10.4 million) painted a Crucifixion of Christ, Leonardo* da Vinci His Last Supper, and Guido Reni (15751642; b. near Bologna, It.) an Ecce Homo. Reformation and post-Reformation artists portraying Jesus as Savior include A. Dürer,* J. M. F. H. Hofmann,* B. Plockhorst,* H. Thoma,* E. K. F. v. Gebhardt,* F. v. Uhde,* and J. Schnorr* v. Carolsfeld.
(152271). B. Buden, Devonshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; bp. Salisbury 1560; friend and assoc. of Peter* Martyr; supported Angl. Ch. against Romanists and Puritans. Works include Apologia ecclesia Anglicanae.
The number of Jews is ca. 14,000,000 (1969 est.), with ca. 6,000,000 in N. Am. (ca. 1,836,000 in NYC). Luth. interest in miss. work among Jews dates back to M. Luther.* Modern Luth. missions to Jews include the work of the Zion Soc. for Israel (known since 1964 as The Church's Ministry to the Jewish People) and that of the National* Luth. Council. See also International Board of Jewish Missions, Inc.; International Society for the Evangelization of the Jews; Landsmann, Daniel.
Jewish philosophers include J. Albo,* Avicebrón,* M. Buber,* H. Cohen,* C. ben A. Crescas,* U. da Costa (see Da Costa, 2), A. ibn-Daud,* Levi* ben Gershon, Maimonides,* M. Mendelssohn,* Philo* Judaeus, B. Spinoza.* See also Cabala; Karaites; Talmud.
Organized 1937 to promote Jewish student activities. Headquarters NYC
War resulting from revolt of Jews against Romans 66 AD Nero sent Vespasian* to quell revolt. Vespasian was joined in 67 by son Titus* Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, whom he left in charge of Roman forces in Palestine 68. Jerusalem fell 70 AD The war and fall of Jerusalem was described by F. Josephus.* See also John of Galilee.
Conversion of Jews as a nation has been taught in connection with millenarian hopes (see Millennium). The claim is based on Ro 11:1529. Advocates of the theory hold that Paul asserts and proves from OT prophecies that a final and universal conversion of the Jews will occur; that such OT prophecies as Is 11:1112; 59:20; Jer 3:17; 16:1415; 31:31; Eze 20:4044; Hos 3:45; Jl 3:117; Am 9:1115; Zch 10:610; 12:10; 14 must be taken literally; that the entire territory promised to Abraham has not been fully possessed by his descendants (hence the prophecies in Gn 15:1821; Nm 34:612; Eze 47 must refer to the millenial reign of Christ, with Jews occupying the land described); and that the Jews, though scattered among the nations, have been preserved as a separate people for the purpose of constituting a distinct people during Christ's reign on earth.
Opponents of the theory hold that literal interpretation of the OT prophecies cited is untenable, since such interpretation, to be consistent, must be literal in all its parts. This literalism would imply that David will reign in person in Jerusalem, Eze 37:24; that the Levitical priesthood will be restored and bloody sacrifices offered to God, Jer 17:2526; that Jerusalem must be the center of govt., and all worshipers must come monthly and from Sabbath to Sabbath, from the ends of the earth, to worship at the Holy City, Is 2:3; Zch 14:1621. The literal interpretation leads to a complete revival of the Jewish ritual which was abrogated by Christ and which is opposed to clear NT teaching. Most important, Is 10:2223; Ro 9:2728; 11:38, 2532 refer to the elect saints in Israel, Israel acc. to the spirit, spiritual Israel. As in OT Israel only those called by grace were saved, so in NT times the chosen ones will be brought in only through the preaching of the Gospel (Ro 11:17). Thus such NT expressions as Abraham's seed and Israel of God (Gl 3:29; 6:16) apply to all believers in Christ, not only reconverted Jews.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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