In Biblical criticism, the letter J is the symbol for one of the alleged sources of the Pentateuch. See also Higher Criticism, 613.
(November 13, 1821June 20, 1877). B. Wimmern, Hannover, Ger.; to Am. ca. 1841; taught school at Friedheim, near Decatur, Indiana, 1841; prepared for ministry by F. C. D. Wyneken* and W. Sihler*; pastor Friedheim 184677; charter mem. Mo. Syn.
(1) Peter Figulus (took the name Jablonski from the city of his birth; 161870). Father of 2; b. Jablunkov, Silesia; pastor Danzig 1654, Nassenhuben (near Danzig) 1657; joined Bohemian* Brethren 1659; pastor Memel 1667. (2) Daniel Ernst (resumed name Figulus 1688; 16601741). Son of 1; b. Nassenhuben; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Oxford; Ref. preacher Magdeburg 1683; pastor Polish cong. and rector of Gymnasium at Lissa (Leazno), Poland, 1686; court preacher Königsberg 1691, Berlin 1693, bp. 1699; tried to est. Luth. and Ref. union; ordained D. Nitschmann* and N. L. v. Zinzendorf.*
(18511912). B. NYC; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem., Union Theol. Sem. (NYC), and Berlin; Presb. pastor Norwood, New Jersey, 187680; prof. ch. hist. NYU 18951912. Ed. many reference works; ed. in chief The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
(May 18, 18341909). B. Minaville, New York; educ. Union Coll., Schenectady, New York, and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; miss. to Choctaw Indians 1858, to Indians and Anglo-Americans in Wisconsin and Minnesota 185969; miss. supt. Iowa, Nebraska, and Rocky Mountain areas 186970, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, and Utah 187072, Alaska* 18771907. Ed. Presbyterian Home Missionary 188284; other works include Alaska and Missions on the North Pacific Coast.
(15791640). B. Willowing, Durham, Eng.; educ. Oxford; Angl. dean Peterborough ca. 1639; first inclined to Puritanism (see Puritans), later to High* Ch. Works include Commentaries Upon the Apostles' Creed.
(from Syrian for ragged, because he usually wore ragged clothes; ca. 500578). B. Tella, near Edessa (Urfa), Turkey in Asia; educ. in monastery at Phesilta, near Nisibis (Nusaybin); bp. Edessa ca. 542; championed Monophysitism; reputed founder of Jacobites. Influenced the Ethiopic* Ch. See also Jacobites, 1.
(James; ca. 640708). B. En-debha (Indeba; Indaba), province of Antioch; Monophysite bp. Edessa perhaps ca. 684; after a few yrs. withdrew to monasteries; returned to bishopric of Edessa 708; Gk. and Heb. scholar. Works include Syriac grammar; scholia on the Bible.
1. Mems. of chs. which resulted from activities of Jacob* Baradaeus. See also Monophysite Controversy; Nonchalcedonian Churches. 2. Adherents of a movement to restore the Stuart dynasty following the flight of James II (Jacobus; 16331701; king of Eng., Scot., and Ireland 168588) after the revolution of 1688. See also England, C 1.
(December 5, 1875March 30, 1938). Son of H. E. Jacobs*; b. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. of Pennsylvania, and U. of Leipzig; pastor North Wales, Pennsylvania, 18991904, Allentown, Pennsylvania, 190413; prof. ch. hist. Luth. Theol. Sem., Mt. Airy, 191338. Coed. 6-vol. Works of Martin Luther; mem. bd. of eds. Lutheran Church Quarterly; other works include The Way; The Story of the Church; Helps on the Road; The Faith of the Church; What Then Is Christianity?
(1805November 30, 1830). Brother of M. Jacobs*; 1st teacher in Classical School (est. 1827; connected with Gettysburg [Pennsylvania] Sem.), renamed Gettysburg Gymnasium 1829, reorganized 1832 as Pennsylvania Coll., later called Gettysburg* Coll.
(November 10, 1844July 7, 1932). Son of M. Jacobs*; father of C. M. Jacobs*; b. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (see Gettysburg College) and Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg. Tutor Pennsylvania Coll.; miss. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; principal Thiel Hall (later called Thiel Coll.); pastor W Pennsylvania; prof. Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, and Luth. Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia. Coed. The Lutheran Cyclopedia; asst. ed. Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas; ed. The Lutheran Commentary and The Lutheran Church Review; other works include The Lutheran Movement in England During the Reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI.; The American Church History Series, IV: A History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States; Martin Luther: The Hero the Reformation; A Summary of the Christian Faith; The Doctrine of the Ministry as Taught by the Dogmaticians of the Lutheran Church; Elements of Religion; The Four Hundred and Four Theses of Dr. John Eck. RDL
(January 18, 1808July 22, 1871). B. Waynesboro, Pennsylvania; helped brother D. Jacobs* at Gettysburg Gymnasium 1829; prof. math. and natural science Gettysburg 1832. Works include Notes on the (Rebel) Invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania, and the Battle of Gettysburg.
(Jacobus de Benedictis; Jacopo [de] Benedetti; ca. 1230 [1240?]1306). Hymnist; b. Todi, Umbria, It.; after death of wife in an accident 1268 he withdrew from world; Franciscan lay brother; fearlessly attacked abuses of the ch. Hymns ascribed to him include Cur mundus militat and Stabat mater dolorosa.
(Jacob of Vitry; ca. 1170 [1180?]ca. 1240). B. probably Vitry near Reims, Fr.; bp. Acre 1216; cardinal bp. Tusculum ca. 1228; elected patriarch Jerusalem ca. 1239 but not instated by pope; active in Crusades.* Works include Historia orientalis.
(Yahweh; Jehovah). The Heb. consonants of this name of God are JHWH. Because of its sacredness, this name was usually not pronounced in ancient times; adonai (Heb. Lord) was substituted. Early Gk. versions of the OT use kyrios (Lord) for this name. Many Eng. translations use the Lord. Masoretes (see Masorah) added vowels to the Heb. text. The vowels of adonai were added to JHWH, resulting in JaHoWaH, Jehovah.
The name was revealed to Moses, Ex 3. Three consonants of 'eHJeH (Heb. I will be, Ex 3:12, where God's saving presence is promised; I am, Ex 3:14), namely HJH (older root form of the verb: HWH), run parallel to HWH in JHWH (Ex 3:15).
To call on the name of Jahweh (e.g., Jl 2:32) is to call on God Himself. To speak in the name of Jahweh or to bless or curse in His name is to invoke Him and His power. The 2d Commandment forbids taking the name Jahweh lightly or in vain. Men should rather use this name in praise (hallelu-jah, Heb. praise-Jah[weh]) and hallow it (cf. 1st Petition of the Lord's Prayer).
See also Hallelujah.
O. Grether, Name und Wort Gottes im Alten Testament (Giessen, 1934); J. A. Motyer, The Revelation of the Divine Name (London, 1959); A. Murtonen, A Philological and Literary Treatise on the Old Testament Divine Names (Helsinki, 1952); E. C. B. MacLaurin, YHWH: The Origin of the Tetragrammaton, Vetus Testamentum, XII (1962), 439463. JHS
Religion of India founded 6th c. BC by Nigantha Nataputta, later called Vardhamana Jnatiputra Mahavira (Mahavira means Great Hero). His followers also called him Jina (Conqueror). Arose in opposition to Brahmanism,* as did Buddhism,* but, unlike the latter, prescribed asceticism* as a means of attaining salvation, i. e., release of the soul from reincarnation.* Regards the universe as eternal. Denies divine authority of the Vedas.* Noteworthy is the Jain doctrine of ahimsa, i. e., of refraining from harming or killing any living thing. Schism created 2 sects: the Svetambara (Skt. whiteclad) and the Digambara (Skt. sky-clad, nude). Adherents may become mems. of monastic orders or remain laymen. Latter include wealthy tradesmen. Costly and beautiful temples include one at Mount Abu. See also Theosophy.
(Jay; Claude le Jay; ca. 1500 [1504?]1552). B. Mieussy, near Bonneville, Upper Savoy, Fr.; RC priest; studied in Paris; assoc. with I. Loyola*; participated in founding Society* of Jesus; present at Council of Trent* 154547. See also Counter Reformation, 8.
(15661625). King of Scot. as James VI 15671625, of Gt. Brit. as James I 160325; promoted pub. of 1611 rev. of Eng. Bible known as King James Version. See also Bible Versions, L 8, 1011; Roman Catholic
(181182). Philos.; father of H. James* Jr. and W. James*; b. Albany, New York; educ. Union Coll. (Albany, New York) and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; dissatisfied with what he called professional religion; to Eng. 1837; influenced by R. Sandeman (see Disciples of Christ, 1) and E. Swedenborg*; held that selfhood is the sin of sins and that religion and morality turn man to God through sociality. Works include Society the Redeemed Form of Man, and the Earnest of God's Omnipotence in Human Nature; Substance and Shadow.
(18431916). Novelist; son of H. James* Sr.; born NYC; naturalized Brit. citizen 1915; interested in spiritual and mystic phenomena. Works include The American; Confidence; A Passionate Pilgrim, and Other Tales; The Portrait of a Lady.
(17851859). B. Blandford, Dorsetshire, Eng.; educ. Gosport academy, Hampshire; qualified as dissenting preacher 1803; pastor Birmingham 1805; helped found Evangelical* Alliance. Works include The Anxious Enquirer After Salvation Directed and Encouraged.
(18421910). Psychol. and philos.; son of H. James* Sr.; b. NYC; prof. Harvard U., Cambridge, Massachusetts Works include The Principles of Psychology; Pragmatism; The Varieties of Religious Experience. See also Humanist Manifesto, A; Pragmatism; Psychical Research; Psychology, H.
(Jabneh; Biblical Jabneel; ca. 4 mi. inland, ca. 13 mi. S of Jaffa). An assembly of Jewish religious teachers was est. here after the fall of Jerusalem AD 70 (see Christian Church, History of the; Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus).
(Jenjk; 17481827). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin, Dresden, and Leipzig; pastor Rixdorf and Berlin; in 1800 founded in Berlin a training school, from which ca. 80 missionaries, including K. F. A. Gützlaff* and K. T. E. Rhenius,* were sent out. See also Berlin Missionary Society I; Schmelen, Johann Heinrich.
(18681942). B. Nagyleta, Hung.; educ. Debrecen, Zurich, and Budapest: Ref. pastor; worked for universal suffrage and educ., and for introd. of the principle of Christian brotherhood into economic and soc. structure.
(ca. 1350 [1355?]1394). B. probably Prague or Brüx (Most), Boh. (now Czechoslovakia); son of knight Wenzel of Janow; educ. Prague and Paris; precursor of J. Hus*; emphasized apostolic Christianity, frequent Communion, universal priesthood of believers.
The movement tried to revive the Augustinian doctrine of sin and grace as a means of counteracting Jesuitism (see Society of Jesus) and of quickening spiritual life. Jansen's book Augustinus was attacked by Jesuits, condemned 1641 by the Inquisition,* and by Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini; 15681644; b. Florence, It.; pope 162344) in the bull In eminenti (signed 1642, promulgated 1643). Arnauld's attack on the opus* operatum theory and the lax moral theol, of the Jesuits was met 1653 by Innocent X (see Popes, 23) with the bull Cum occasione, which explicitly condemned 5 propositions which Arnauld said could be favorably understood. When Jansenists protested that the propositions were not taught by Jansen in the sense in which they were condemned, Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi; 15991667; b. Siena, It.; pope 165567) said they contained the meaning which Jansen intended and condemned them in the bull Ad sanctam beati Petri sedem (1656; released in Fr. 1657). He also demanded that Jansenists accept the papal pronouncements of 1642, 1653, and 1656. Refusal of Jansenists to comply led to repressive measures against them by pope and king (see also Port-Royal). Many fled or were banished. Temporary cessation of the Jansenist conflict was effected ca. 1668.
The 2d stage of Fr. Jansenism began 1693 with pub. of Quesnel's NT with devotional comments, which provoked another outburst of Jesuit wrath and the bull Unigenitus.* The ensuing quarrel rent the Fr. clergy into Acceptants (who accepted the bull) and Appellants (who appealed from the pope to a gen. council). Appellants were excommunicated 1718. Dutch Jansenists separated from the RC Ch. 1723/24, later joined the Old* Catholics.
N. J. Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism (Oxford, 1936); A. Gazier, Histoire générale du mouvement janséniste depuis ses origines Jusqu'à nos jours (Paris, 1922).
(182991). B. Xanten, Ger.; educ. Münster, Ger., Louvain, Belg., and Bonn and Berlin, Ger.; RC prof. hist. Frankfurt am Main; his hist. of Ger. since the Middle Ages strongly influenced RC attitudes toward Reformation; championed ultramontanism.*
(Gennaro; fl. 3d c.). Bp. Beneventum, It.; allegedly martyred at Pozzuoli, near Naples, in Diocletian-Maximian persecution (see Persecution of Christians, 4); since ca. the 14th c., relics of his blood are said to liquify a number of times a yr.
(March 7, 1875July 20, 1949). B. Lewiston, Minnesota; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor St. Ansgar, Iowa, 190006, and Adelaide, Australia, 190645; pres. S Australian Dist. 191323; pres. ELCA 192341.
Area: ca. 145,800 sq. mi., ca. one-sixth arable. Major religions: Buddhism,* Shinto,* and Christianity. Shinto is indigenous and the oldest. Acc. to tradition, Buddhism, now dominant, was introd. AD 552 via Korea and Confucianism* about the same time. Jesuits under leadership of F. Xavier* introd. Christianity 1549. By 1600 Christians totaled hundreds of thousands. Suspicion of ultimate designs of proponents of Christianity led to prohibition (in effect till 1873) of the profession and practice of Christianity.
A commercial treaty bet. Japan and the US was signed July 29, 1858. In 1859 Episc., Presb., and Dutch Ref. missionaries reached Japan from the US Outstanding missionaries of the years that followed include S. R. Brown,* J. H. Neesima,* and G. F. Verbeck.* Their work helped give direction to soc. reform, govt. policies, and educ. Beginning in the early 1930s nationalism combined with Shinto, the state religion, dampened Japanese interest in Christianity, but a new period of Christian miss. began after WW II.
The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S began work on Kyushu 1892. The United Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5) sent its 1st miss. 1898, the Lutheran* Ev. Assoc. of Fin. 1900, the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. 1908, the Icelandic Syn. (see Canada, B 13; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 6) 1916 (worked in connection with the for. miss. bd. of the Gen. Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am.). Luth. missionaries in Jap. formed The Japan Ev. Luth. Ch. 1920. Largely as a result of govt. pressure in the early 1940s, this ch. joined the Nihon [or Nippon] Kirisuto Kyodan (Ch. of Christ in Jap.), a union of Prot. denominations; withdrew 1947. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, III. The LCMS began work in Jap. 1948; the resultant Missionary Conf. was absorbed into the Japan Luth. Ch. (organized 1968), which was accepted 1971 as a sister ch. of LCMS The Evangelical* Luth. Ch., the Church* of the Luth. Brethren of Am., the Norw. Luth. Miss. and The Norw. Miss. Soc. (the last 2 Norway-based) began work 1949; the Augustana* Ev. Luth. Ch., the Suomi Syn. (see Finnish Lutherans in America), and the Norwegian* Luth. Free Ch. 1950; the Lutheran* Free Ch. 1951; the Wisconsin* Ev. Luth. Syn. in the early 1950s.
The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S began work in Japan 1892. The Japan Ev. Luth. Ch. was organized 1920. It maintained the Japan Luth. Theol. Sem. in Tokyo, a boys school and girls school (middle and high) in Kyushu, and soc. welfare institutions in Kyushu and the Tokyo area. Merged 1963 with the Tokai* Ev. Luth. Ch. to form a new Japan Ev. Luth. Church. See also Japan.
Founded 1903. Concentrates on village evangelism and Bible school work. Mem. IFMA Helped form the autonomous, indigenous Nihon Iesu Kirisuto Kyodan (Japan Ch. of Jesus Christ) as a sister organization 1935.
(May 17, 1817September 24, 1883). Moravian miss. and linguist; b. Herrnhut, Saxony, Ger.; educ. and taught at Paedagogium at Niesky; in 1856 he went to Kyelang (Kailing), Lahul province, India, near Tibet, to prepare for work among Chinese Mongols. Works include Ger. Tibetan lexicon; Eng.-Tibetan lexicon; Tibetan grammar.
(18831969). Philos.; b. Oldenburg, Ger.; studied law at Heidelberg and Munich, medicine at Berlin, Göttingen, and Heidelberg; asst. in psychiatry Heidelberg; prof. psychology Heidelberg 1916; prof. philos. Heidelberg 1921; deposed by Nazis 1937; reinstated 1945; taught at Basel 1948. Emphasized subjectivity of thought. Method distinguished 3 levels of interpretation: philos., orientation in world (based on physical, psychol., and soc. sciences); illumination of existence (i. e. of human reality; Existenzerhellung); metaphysics (concern with transcendence). Held that Existenz (experience of infinity of possibilities in man) is the eternal, Dasein (the observable and describable) the temporal in man. Existenz is limited by boundaries which authentic existence explores and accepts. God is beyond all metaphysical conceptualization. Works include Allgemeine Psychopathologie; Philosophie; Existenzphilosophie; Die Schuldfrage; Der philosophische Glaube.
(Javorskij; Jaworsky; original name Simeon changed to monastic name Stephan [Stefan]; 16581722). Russ. Orthodox prelate; made pres. of Holy Syn. 1721 by Peter I (16721725; coruler of Russ. with half brother Ivan 168289, thereafter alone; the Great). Works include Kamen very (Rock of Faith), which shows Jesuit influence.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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