(variants of name include Henricus; Isaac; Isac; Izac; Yzac; Yzaac; Yzach; ca. 14501517). B. perhaps Brabant or E Flanders; contrapuntist composer; pioneered in giving melody to soprano; organist at court of Lorenzo the Magnificent (see Medici) and Maximilian* I. Composed sacred and secular music. See also Senfl, Ludwig.
(from Gk. eisagoge, introduction). 1. Introductory studies. Applied to the Bible and its individual books (Biblical introduction), it deals, e.g., with authorship, time and place of composition, people addressed, occasion and purpose, chief parts, and attacks on genuineness (authenticity); it treats of the assembling of the books into 1 collection and recognition of the latter as the canon of inspired Scripture (see Canon, Bible). The hist. of the sacred books to our time is included. Because the books of the Bible were composed in antiquity, because they were written in languages for. to us, and because conditions under which the first readers lived were different from ours, an introd. to the various books is desirable for the ordinary reader. The Bible is a clear book; but one better understands Gl, e.g., if he learns that it was written by Paul to oppose the false notion that the old Jewish Ceremonial Law is still binding for the children of God in the NT See also Antilegomena; Theology.
3. Negative NT criticism reached a high in the Tübingen* school, followed by a more moderate school of liberal theol. (see also Harnack, Karl Gustav Adolf von; Jülicher, Gustav Adolf). The school of form criticism (formgeschichtliche Schule), which includes Charles Harold Dodd (b. 1884 Wrexham, N Wales; Cong.; taught at Oxford, Manchester, and Cambridge, Eng.), Joachim Jeremias (b. 1900 Dresden, Ger.; prof. Berlin, Greifswald, and Göttingen), and Charles Francis Digby Moule (b. 1908; prof. Cambridge, Eng.), arose after WW I; it tries to determine the nature of the original documents which, so it is held, existed before composition of the gospels in Gk. as we have them. Eng. introductions that incline in this direction include those of B. W. Bacon,* J. Moffatt,* and E. J. Goodspeed.* Conservative views accepting the genuineness of NT books have been defended esp. by G. Salmon,* T. Zahn,* and J. H. Snowden.* See also Schmidt, Karl Ludwig. WA
T. Zahn, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 2 vols., 3d ed. (Leipzig, 190607), Eng. tr. Introduction to the New Testament, by J. M. Trout et al., 3 vols. (Edinburgh, Scot., 1909); G. Salmon, An Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament, 10th ed., new impression (London, 1913); E. J. Goodspeed, An Introduction to the New Testament (Chicago, 1937).
(ca. 13851464). B. Monemvasia, Greece; humanist; metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia 1436; cardinal 1439; attended Council of Florence*; favored union of E and W chs.; invested with the temporalities of the Lat. patriarchate of Constantinople 1452; Gk. patriarch 1459.
(Arab. submission). 1. Islam (Muhammadanism; Mohammedanism) is the only major religion est. after Christianity, to which it claims to be superior. It began in Arabia (see Middle East, L), under leadership of Muhammad.* It emphasizes submission to God (Allah). One who submits to God is said to be a Muslim (Moslem). The short creed of Islam is the shahadah: There is no deity (god) but God, and Muhammad is his apostle. It is perhaps best to regard the word Allah not as the Arab. name of God but as the word for God. Muslims object to being called Muhammadans; to them, Muhammad is the finest example of manhood, but only a man.
2. The sacred book of Islam is the Koran,* regarded as God's uncreated Speech revealed to man through Muhammad. The basic guide to Muslim daily life is the Koran. Where it is silent, the accepted tradition called sunna is used. Where this is silent, the custom (adat) of an Islamic community provides the answer.
3. Main tenets of Islam concern God, Holy Scriptures, angels, prophets, resurrection and final judgment, and predestination, with decisive differences from Christian doctrine. The five pillars of Islamic religious practice (required at least once in a lifetime, if possible): shahadah; 5 daily prescribed prayers (salat); annual month of fasting (Ramadan*); pilgrimage to sacred places in and near Mecca (hajj); giving alms to poor (legal, zakat; voluntary, sadakat).
4. Islam recognizes 6 great prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. Muhammad is said to have thought he would be accepted by Christians and Jews in Arab. because they were also people of the book. When he failed to win them, he directed his hostility first against Jews, later against Christians. Within 100 yrs. after Muhammad's death, Islam spread over Christian areas in N Afr., Spain,* and Fr. (see France, 1) to claim half of the former Roman Empire. Islam later spread toward the E to India,* Malaya, Indonesia* and was halted in the Philippine Islands by the Span. In the 15th c. Islam entered Eur. under leadership of Ottoman Turks, who threatened the Holy* Roman Empire at the time of the Luth. Reformation* (see also Holy Leagues and Alliances, 1).
5. The largest of many Muslim sects include Sunnites* (of which Hanafi[tes] are a subgroup) and Shi'ites.* Others include wahhabis,* Kharijites (Khawarij; from Arab. khariji, dissenter; radically puritanical and democratic), and the Ahmadiya miss. movement founded ca. 1879 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and centered in W Pakistan. Despite differences, there is an underlying unity and brotherhood in these sects.
Communal religious colony (see also Communistic Societies) est. 1903 by B. Purnell* at Benton Harbor, Mich. Purnell claimed to have received a revelation 1895 designating him the 7th messenger in Rv 8:6; 10:7; 11:15. He allegedly called himself Son of Man and Younger Brother of Christ. He and his followers considered themselves the remnant of the 12 tribes of Israel, of whom 144,000 are to be gathered body, soul, and spirit and restored to their proper position as rulers and judges of God's kingdom est. on this earth; all others would at best receive immortality only for the soul and their bodies would return to dust.^
Purnell taught that the glory of Christ's transfigured body consisted in immortality; there is no damnation; the 144,000 must keep the law of Christ, conform their bodies to His, refrain from all killing; communism of goods, vegetarianism, and wearing long hair were to be strictly observed by all mems.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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