(18611934). B. Lielsatini, Kurland (Courland; later in Latvia); educ. Dorpat (Tartu); pastor Moscow 1887, Livonia 18881905; dir. Lettish Gymnasium in Riga 190515; pres. Lettish Ev. Luth. consistory in Russ. 191720; bp. 192231; organized ch. in Latvia.*
(Erin; Emerald Isle; Lat.: Hibernia). 1. One of the Brit. Isles; W of Eng. and Wales; includes Eire (Ireland; Irish Free State; Rep. of Ireland; Irish Rep.) and Northern* Ireland. Area: Eire ca. 27140 sq. mi.
3. The RC date of Easter was gen. adopted in Ireland by the end of the 7th c. Adrian IV (see Popes, 8) gave Ireland to Henry* II of Eng. ca. 1155, provided he secure the rights of the ch. and render tribute to Rome. Henry invaded Ireland and was acknowledged sovereign 1171. By 1172 the Romanization of the Irish Ch. in internal affairs was complete.
4. In the Reformation period the Eng. govt. tried to enforce a form of Protestantism (see Henry VIII). But the loyalty of many to Rome made it impossible to secure dominance of state over ch. The Irish Articles (1615; see Anglican Confessions, 8) yielded ca. 1635 to the Thirty-nine Articles (see Anglican Confessions, 6), which were less Calvinistic. The 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act restored civil rights to RCs See also England.
5. The 1920 Government of Ireland Act offered Home Rule to all ireland. S Ireland refused and, after the 191921 Anglo-Irish War, became the Irish Free State (Gaelic: Saorstat Eireann; called Eire beginning 1937), a dominion of the Brit. Empire, effective 1922; declared complete independence 1948; officially proclaimed the Republic of Ireland 1949.
6. See Northern Ireland.
7. The 1st Luth. service in Ireland was probably that conducted ca. 1690 by Iver Didericksen Brink (b. 1665 Norway; pastor London, Eng., 16911702), chaplain of a Dan. regiment supporting William III (Dutch: Willem; 16501702; count of Nassau [prince of Orange]; stadtholder of Holland 16721702; king of Eng. 16891702) against James II (16331701; of the house of Stuart; king of Eng., Scot., and Ireland 168588; father-in-law of William III) A Luth. ch. was est. at Dublin ca. 1697, with services in Scand. languages and Ger.; this ch. lost its Luth. character and vanished ca. 1850. After WW II many Luths. came to Ireland; the LWF est. a ch. at Dublin (pastor installed 1955).
J. Lanigan, An Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 4 vols. (Dublin, 1822); G. T. Stokes, Ireland and the Anglo-Norman Church, 2d ed. (London, 1892); History of the Church of Ireland, ed. W. A. Phillips, 3 vols. (London, 193334); F. R. Webber, A History of Preaching in Britain and America, 3 vols. (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 195257).
(18381918). Am. RC prelate; b. Burnchurch, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; to Am. in the late 1840s; to St. Paul, Minnesota, in the early 1850s; educ. France; ordained St. Paul 1861; abp. St. Paul 1888; opposed Cahenslyism.*
(Gk. the Peaceful; d. ca. 200 AD). Gk. ch. father; b. probably Smyrna (modern Izmir), Asia Minor; saw and heard Polycarp*; presbyter Lyons, Gaul, 177; succeeded Pothinus* as bp. Lyons 178; opposed gnosticism and other heresies; worked zealously for the spread of Christianity and defense of its doctrines; developed a concept of recapitulation*; emphasized apostolic succession and tradition. Works include Detection and Overthrow of the False Gnosis (also known as Adversus haereses); Demonstration of the Apostolic Teaching. See also Fathers of the Church; Federal Theology; Tradition.
F. R. M. Hitchcock, Irenaeus of Lugdunum (Cambridge, Eng., 1914); J. Lawson, The Biblical Theology of Saint Irenaeus (London, 1948); G. Aulèn, Christus Victor, tr. A. G. Hebert (London, 1931), pp. 3251.
(ca. 1522ca. 1595). B. Scheidnitz, Silesia, Ger.; probably studied in Wittenberg; rector Bernburg and Ascherleben 1545; pastor Eisleben 1562; court preacher Koburg and Weimar; supported M. Flacius* Illyricus and opposed J. Andreä*
(irenic theol.). Theol. which tries to arrive at Christian peace. Irenics presupposes polemics,* which in its true character should have no other aim than irenics. The bond of peace, Eph 4:3, embraces all Christians, and speaking the truth in love, Eph 4:15, deserves to be emphasized at all times. But he who truly seeks ecclesiastical peace well-pleasing to God will find himself compelled to engage in controversy. True irenics does not exclude polemics, but is another way of gaining the same end. The danger of polemics lies in the direction of separatism and magnification of unessential differences; irenic efforts are prone to degenerate into syncretism and unionism; love of revealed truth guards against both dangers.
(Friedlieb; 14951559 [or 1565?]; educ. Tübingen; won for Reformation by Heidelberg* Disputation 1518; court preacher of Philipp I (14791533) of Baden-Baden; present at 1526 Diet of Speyer*; pastor and leader Lat. School at Gemmingen 1531.
(17921834). B. Annan, Dumfriesshire, Scot.; educ. Edinburgh; asst. to T. Chalmers*; pastor Hatton Garden Caledonian Chapel, London, 1822, and of a new ch. in Regent Square, London, 1829; charged with heresy in doctrine of Trin.; accepted Pentecostal phenomena, esp. speaking in tongues; charged with heresy regarding sinlessness of Christ; deposed from ranks of clergy 1833 by presbytery of Annan. Followers, known as Irvingites, formed the Catholic* Apostolic Ch. (sometimes called Holy Catholic Apostolic Ch.).
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