1. The Incarnation of the Son of God consists in His assumption of a human body and soul (Mt 22:4245; Lk 1:35; Jn 1:14; Ro 1:3; Ph 2:7; Cl 2:9; 1 Ti 3:16). It is commemorated March 25.
3. By this mysterious union, Jesus Christ was Mediator bet. God and man, 1 Ti 2:5. Though the 2 natures personally united in Christ are and remain essentially distinct, eah retaining its own essential properties or attributes, its own intelligence and will, so that His divinity is not His humanity nor a part of the same, nor His humanity His divinity: yet there is in Christ a communion of natures, so that the divine nature is the nature of the Son of Man, and the human nature the nature of the Son of God (A. L. Graebner,* Outlines of Doctrinal Theology, par. 101).
4. Inseparably connected with the doctrine of the Incarnation is the doctrine of the Virgin Birth (Is 7:14; Mt 1:1825; Lk 1:3435).
5. Ebionites* and some Gnostics (e.g., early Ophites and adherents of Carpocrates and Cerinthus; see Gnosticism, 7 b, f, i) denied the Virgin Birth. The gen. belief of the early ch. in the Virgin Birth is reflected, e.g., in Irenaeus,* Ignatius of Antioch (see Apostolic Fathers, 2), Aristides (see Apologists, 3), and Justin* Martyr.
6. The Incarnation is a mystery beyond human understanding. Rationalists hold that incarnation involved change that would have destroyed the Godhead. Christian apologists reply: In the Incarnation the divine nature is the active, as the human nature is the passive, factor; any change resulting from the act will affect the human nature, not the divine (see also Immutability of God). The Logos* did not cease to be God when He became flesh; He was made man, not changed into man. Scripture continued to speak of the Logos incarnate in such a way that each nature must be understood as retaining all its essential characteristics. In Christ 2 complete natures are united in the personality of 1 of them (the relation bet. body and soul is esp. weak as analogy). Generation of the man Jesus and union of the 2 natures were simultaneous. The human nature of Christ never existed by itself; it was not produced from the essence of the Holy Spirit, but, by His creative energy, from the body of Mary. Conceived by the Holy Ghost denotes the efficient energy. Born of the Virgin Mary denotes the material.
J. G. Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ, rev. ed. (New York, 1932); D. M. Baillie, God Was in Christ (London, 1948); A. Koeberle, The Incarnation of Christ, Journal of Theology of the American Lutheran Conference, VII (January 1942), 113.
(Lat. On the Lord's Supper). Bulls of excommunication of offenders against faith and morals. Originally read also on Ascension Day (see Church Year, 5, 9) and the feast of the Chair* of Peter (January 18) but later confined to Maundy Thursday (see Church Year, 8; Gründonnerstag). Practice dates from 13th c. Issue of the bull suspended 1773 by Clement XIV (see Popes, 25), abrogated 1869 by Plus IX (see Popes, 28).
1. Chs. not identified with any ecclesiastical body or denomination. See also United Church of Christ, I A 1. 2. Chs. variously called union, federated, community, etc., which represent the movement toward denominational fellowship and consolidation of ch. life for more effective work.
Organized Cicero, Illinois, 1930 by chs. that had left their denominations because of modernism* in the latter. Requires mems. to sever all denominational ties. Its 16 articles of faith include inerrancy of Scripture, verbal inspiration, authority of Scripture; divine-human person of Christ; total depravity of man; vicarious atonement; regeneration by the Spirit; dispensationalism and premillennialism. They reject entire holiness and speaking in tongues. See also Fundamentalism.
RC list of books proscribed for the faithful. Its hist. begins with a list promulgated 405 by Innocent 1 (d. 417; pope 401417). Many individual works were condemned by popes or councils, e.g., Three Chapters (see Three Chapters, Controversy of); works of Photius,* J. S. Erigena,* J. Wycliffe,* J. Hus.* The Council of Trent,* 4th Session, decreed that no religious books should be pub. without ch. approval.
Paul* IV gave the task of cataloging forbidden books 1557 to a cong. of cardinals that had been appointed 1542 (see Inquisition, 5) and that pub. a list 1559. A commission appointed by the Council of Trent drafted a list ratified 1564 by Pius* IV (Sess. XVII at the beginning; XXV, Concerning the index of books etc.; Ten rules concerning prohibited books, appended to the Confirmation of the Council). Various rules and lists were drafted thereafter. Leo XIII (see Popes, 29) drafted a new Index and gen. rules governing censorship and prohibition of books. The norms were promulgated 1897 and a new Index pub. 1900. Several eds. were pub. later.
Alfredo Ottaviani (b. Rome 1890; cardinal 1953), head of Cong. for the Doctrine of the Faith, announced 1966 that no more eds. of the Index would be pub. But the RC Ch. still claims the right to prohibit books it regards dangerous to faith and morals.
1. Country S Asia, S of the Himalayas, bet. Bay of Bengal and Arab. Sea. Area: ca. 1, 269,420 sq. mi. Earliest evidences of civilization date back to the 3d and 2d millenniums BC Aryans or Hindus invaded 2400 to 1500 BC Alexander III (the Great; 356323 BC king of Macedonia 336) invaded ca. 327326, withdrew 325324; Muslim invaders founded the Mogul empire 1526 AD Port. practically monopolized trade with India in the 16th c., followed by Dutch, Fr., and Eng. in the 1st half of the 17th century. Eng. est. a beachhead through the Eng. E India Company. Brit. supremacy was secured by defeat of Fr. and Muslim forces in the 1760s and by subsequent pacification or conquest of Indian kingdoms by war or treaty. India became a mem. of the Brit. Commonwealth of Nations 1947 (when India became indep. and was divided into India and Pakistan [see Asia, B 2], a partition marked by much bloodshed and massive migrations), a sovereign democratic rep. in the Commonwealth 1950.
5. The Syrian Christians (reason for Syrian hard to determine), or Thomas Christians, of Kerala claim that the apostle Thomas arrived in that area at Malankara, near Cranganur (Cranganore), ca. the middle of the 1st c. and converted their ancestors. Other possibilities for the origin of Syrian Christians in Jndia include a 4th or 7th c. (or later) immigration by Christians from Syria under a Thomas (of) Cana (or Thomas Cannaneo) and Nestorian influence of the patriarch of Seleucia; Eusebius* of Caesarea (HE, V, x, 23) connects the apostle Bartholomew and Pantaenus* with India.
6. The first Christians in India may have been converted by missionaries from Antioch or Edessa; in course of time they accepted Nestorian bps., perhaps from Seleucia. Port. RC missionaries came to them ca. the beginning of the 16th c., initiating a period of transition. The Syrian Christians in India were forced 1599 (see Diamper, Synod of) to accede to many RC teachings and practices (including celibacy of priests and Communion under one kind) and to destroy E Syrian MSS Many revolted against Rome and seceded, esp. 1653, going back to the Antioch patriarchate, which was now Monophysitic (see Monophysitism). Dutch influence abetted separation from RCm Later Brit. influence attracted some. Further schisms are a tragic commentary on this ancient ch. and on problems of a religious group which had become in effect a caste of its own. The Mar* Thoma Ch. sent missionaries to the Tibetan border 1954. See also Nonchalcedonian Churches, 2.
7. There are more than 2 million Syrian Christians in India, chiefly in Kerala, which includes Malabar Coast: ca. 1,200,000 RCs of the Syro-Malabar rite (called Malabars), a uniate ch. (see Uniate Churches) using a Syriac liturgy; ca. 130,000 RCs of the Syro-Malankara rite (called Malankars), using a Malayalam (Dravidian language of Kerala) liturgy; ca. 700,000 Jacobites or Syrian Orthodox Christians whose allegiance is to the patriarch of Antioch and to the catholicos* in Kottayam, Kerala (after yrs. of litigation over the relative authority of the patriarch and the catholicos this group composed its differences 1959, the suit finally decided by the Supreme Court of India); ca. 300,000 Mar Thoma Christians, a reforming group which broke away from the Jacobites in the 1870s, maintaining an E Cath. type of episcopacy, though with local consecration; ca. 100,000 former Angls. who have joined the CSI; a group of ca. 5,000 mems. which has reest. a Nestorian connection; the Thozhiyur diocese, small but important for supplying a consecrating bp. for the Mar Thoma Ch. See also Malabar Christians; Nonchalcedonian Churches, 2.
8. Syrian Christians have been influential in Christian circles in India and in the WCC
9. The 149798 discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama (ca. 14691524; Port. navigator) gave impetus to RC missions. Goa became a bishopric in the 1530s, archbishopric ca. 1558. RC missionaries include F. Xavier* and Robert(o) de Nobili.* Sp. lent govt. support to missions in India in the 16th and 17th c.
10. Prot. missions in India were initiated 1706 by Frederick* IV of Den. Prominent missionaries included B. Ziegenbalg,* H. Plütschau,* J. P. Fabricius,* C. W. Gericke,* C. F. Schwartz.* Ger. rationalism, the Napoleonic wars, and disease and poverty in the Tranquebar area wrought havoc in the miss. All stations except Tranquebar were turned over 1825 to the SPCK, which later gave them to the SPG A. F. Kemmerer's* work in Tranquebar was curtailed by royal resolution 1825 but renewed by J. H. K. Cordes.* Work of the Ev. Luth. Miss. of Leipzig* and of the Church of Swed. Missions resulted 1919 in the Tamil Ev. Luth. Ch. See also Missions, 56.
11. ABCFM missionaries 1812: A. Judson,* S. Newell,* G. Hall,* L. Rice,* S. Nott.* Judson and Rice became Bap. en route to India. Rice returned to Am. 1813 and helped organize the Am. Bap. Miss. Union, which supported Judson, began work 1840 among Telugu around Nellore, S Andhra Pradesh, S India, and 1841 in Assam, NE Indian Union.
12. A. Duff's* emphasis on secondary and higher educ. encouraged other miss. socs. and the Indian govt.; schools, colleges, and univs. were est., with govt. grants in many cases covering the operating costs of miss. schools.
Zenana (Hindi belonging to women) work and med. miss. are distinct branches of miss. work in India. Zenanas are quarters for seclusion of women, who can usually be reached there with physical and spiritual ministry only by trained women workers. An assoc. for zenana work was formed 1852.
13. The Basel* Miss. Soc. entered India at Mangalore, S. Kanara, 1834. The Gossner* Miss. Soc. worked chiefly among Kols in Chota Nagpur. The autonomous Gossner Ev. Luth. Ch. in Chota Nagpur and Assam was est. 1919. J. C. F. Heyer* arrived Ceylon 1842.
K. G. T. Nüther* and F. E. Mohn* began the work of the Missouri Ev. Luth. India Miss. in N Arcot 1895. Work spread into the Salem, Mysore, and Tinnevelly Dists. and was begun in Travancore (present Kerala) 1907. Ceylon was entered 1927 (see also Asia, B 3). Wandoor has been served since 1950, Bombay since 1954. The India Ev. Luth. Ch. was organized 1958, accepted 1959 as a sister ch. of the LCMS Work is done in Eng., Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Urdu, Kanarese, Marathi, and Gujerati and includes educ., med., pub., and radio activities.
The Hermannsburg* Miss. began work in the middle 1860s at Nellore. Two stations were sold 1912 to the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, which took over the whole field 1916. In 1930 the miss. came under the ALC Bd. of For. Miss. The South Andhra Luth. Ch. was organized for autonomy and self-support 1945. For Luth. Ch. in the Andhra Country of India see United Lutheran Church in America, The, III.
14. The Church* of S India was formed 1947. It observes an episcopate in practice, but no specific doctrine of apostolic succession is accepted. The Ch. of S India and Luths. have been in conversation since 1947.
15. See Church of North India.
16. In 1968 the India Ev. Luth. Ch. (see section 13 above) joined The Fed. of Ev. Luth. Chs. in India, formed 1926 and granting its mems. autonomy. All Luth. chs. in India are mems. of the Fed., which helps maintain contact among ca. 800,000 Luths. in India spread chiefly along the E coast. Chs. of considerable strength work in 6 different language areas, and at least 6 other languages are used. BHJ, HMZ, AJB.
Began to take shape 1846 when a few left the Syn. of the West*; J. F. Isensee pres., J. G. Kunz secy., W. Wier treas., J. J. Meissner miss. at large; formal organization completed 184748; received 1858 into the Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of) as the Southern Dist.
H. M. Zorn, Beginnings in Indianapolis, CTM, V, 1 (January 1934), 1929.
Organized October 27, 1855, at Columbia City, Indiana, by former mems. of the Olive Branch Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 8) and Wittenberg* Syn. Its territory included Michigan It united with The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US of Am. 1857 and with it entered the ULC 1918. In 1920 it helped organize the Mich. Syn. of the ULC (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 12). At the time of this merger it numbered 53 pastors, 77 congs., and ca. 9,415 confirmed mems.
Conflict bet. Generalists* and Henkelites (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 7) was carried W beyond the Alleghenies in the 1820s. The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Indiana was organized August 15, 1835, at St. John's Ch., Johnson Co., Indiana, by 6 pastors (3 ordained pastors and 3 ordained deacons, the latter ordained as pastors at the conv.) and 7 laymen, representing ca. 10 congs., in opposition to the Generalists, who had banded together 1834 in Kentucky and organized 1835 as a syn. (see also West, Synod of the). Three generations of Henkels (see Henkels, The) had visited Indiana on miss. tours: Paul, his sons David and Philip, and his grandson Eusebius (who helped found this Indiana Syn.). This Indiana Syn. adopted the same doctrinal basis as the Tennessee Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 10), but in course of time was affected by infidelity, Universalism, revivalism, and annihilationism. A division came 1849, the Miller Faction (so called after 2 of its leaders, pastors Abraham and David Miller), which courts adjudged the real Syn. of Indiana, opposing liberal leaders. But this faction soon disbanded, having exhausted its strength in lawsuits. The others continued under the old name till disbanding 1859. At the time of its greatest strength this Indiana Syn. probably had ca. 2,500 communicants. Its immediate successor was the Union* Syn. of the Evangelic Luth. Ch.
M. L. Wagner, The Chicago Synod and Its Antecedents (Waverly, Iowa, [1909?]).
The Indiana Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. was organized October 23, 1871, at East Germantown, Indiana, by men formerly belonging to the Union* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. and the Eng. Dist. of the Joint Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of) who desired union with the Gener al* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am.; this Indiana Syn. joined the Gen. Council 1872. When the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Illinois* left the Gen. Council 1871, the Indiana Syn. branched out into Illinois Its interest centered in the Chicago Sem. est. 1891 by the Gen. Council; in 1895 it adopted the name Chicago* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. See also Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary.
1. The primitive* religion of Am. Indians was diverse. Discovery of original Indian beliefs is complicated by the fact that Indians quickly annexed white men's ideas of religion, e.g., the Great Spirit concept may be more non-Indian than Indian in origin. The belief that all natural forces are either spirits or expressions of spirits was apparently basic in Indian religion. It showed itself, e.g., in forms of veneration of sun, moon, stars, sacred trees, animals, reptiles, and fire; in religious actions (dances) and sacrifices (e.g., of animals); in beliefs in magic attributes of certain things (orenda: pervasive energy: otkon [or otgon]: malevolent orenda), in a life beyond the grave (happy hunting ground), and in shamans (medicine men, who allegedly possessed ability to converse with invisible spirits). Indians constantly tried to lay hold of orenda and expel otkon.
3. Persuading Indians to accept the Gospel was made difficult, as B. de Las* Casas and others found, by inconsistent practice on the part of white professing Christians. The conversion of Pocahontas,* the search of the Nez Percé (Indians of cen. Idaho, Washington, and Oregon) for the white man's Book of the Great Spirit, early journeys of white men across the Rockies, the miss. hist. of Calif. and the SW under Sp. rule, heartbreaking journeys of missionaries to Indians as homes and families were broken up and tribes moved to strange lands show how some brought the Gospel to the Indians, others subjugated and deprived them of their natural heritage.
4. Brit. colonists stationed at Roanoke 158586 preached the Gospel to Indians, one of whom was bap. 1587. R. Williams* was an early Prot. miss. to Am. Indians. His work was reinforced and extended by J. Eliot,* E. Mayhew,* and others. An Indian ch. was formed 1660 at Natick, Mass.; 18th-c. Indian converts include S. Occom.*
5. Groups that pioneered in sponsoring missions to the Indians include Moravians, who worked in New Eng. and other areas (see also Moravian Church, 4), and the Soc. of Friends,* which began work 1796 in New York and expanded it to other areas. The ABCFM sent missionaries (T. S. Williamson,* S. R. Riggs,* and others) to the Dakota (in Minnesota and N and South Dakota). Cong. and Presb. missions were est. 180075 among many tribes, including Chippewa, Osage, Omaha, and Oto. See also Spangenberg, Augustus Gottlieb.
6. John Stewart (d. 1823; Meth.; freeborn mulatto; Apostle to the Wyandottes) began preaching ca. 1816 among Wyandot in Ohio; the work was later extended to Potawatomi, Shawnee, Kickapoo, and other tribes. Other early Meth. missionaries to Indians include J. Lee.*
9. The early hist. of New Eng. states includes instances of miss. work by Episcopalians; they began work in the interior in the 1st part of the 19th century. Indians ministered to by Episcopalians include Iroquois in New York, Oneida (an Iroquois people who moved to Wisconsin 1822), Arapaho and Shoshoni of Wyoming, Chippewa of Minnesota, Sioux, and Dakota. Missionaries included E. Williams,* H. B. Whipple,* and W. H. Hare.*
10. In 1847 the Ev. Luth. Miss. Soc. of Dresden* began work among Chippewa in lower Mich.; other Luth. miss. areas included Wisconsin and Arizona See also Indians, Lutheran Missions to North American.
15. Aggression against Indian lands, subjugation of Indians by military force, and graft in administering Indian affairs have helped to make miss. work among Indians difficult.
16. More than 30 Prot. denominations are doing miss. work among ca. 525,000 Indians in the US, most of whom are W of the Miss. River. There probably are ca. 143,000 RCs and bet. 39,000 and 100,000 Prots. among US Indians.
19. Efforts to help indians achieve self-determination in residence and vocation and become integral parts of urban soc. have been successful. Thousands annually migrate to metropolitan centers. Many urban chs. are including them in their outreach.
G. E. E. Lindquist, The Red Man in the United States (New York, 1923) and The Indian in American Life (New York, 1944); G. W. Hinman, The Amerian Indian and Christian Missions (New York, 1933) and Christian Activities Among American Indians (Boston, 1933); D. M. Cory, Within Two Worlds (New York, 1955); J. W. Clark, Indians of North America, Missions to the, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, ed. S. M. Jackson (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1953 reprint), V, 480485; R. P. Beaver, Church, State, and the American Indians (St. Louis, 1966); W. J. Mann, Ein Aufgang im Abendlande: Mittheilungen aus der Geschichte der fröheren evangelischen Missionsversuche unter den Indianern Amerikas (Reading, Pennsylvania, 1883). RJS
Luth. work among Indians in the eastern US began soon after Swed. Luths. settled on the Delaware River. J. Campanius* tr. the SC into the language of the Indians. At the instigation of F. Schmid(t)* miss. work began 1845 near Sebewaing, Michigan At Frankenmuth, Michigan, F. A. Crämer* worked among Chippewa. The work was taken over 1849 by the Missouri Synod. E. O. Clöter* was Mo. Syn. miss. to Chippewa in Minnesota 185768. The Iowa Syn. (see Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of) made several attempts to est. missions among Indians in the NW (see also Braeuninger, Moritz). In Oklahoma a miss. was est. 1892 among Cherokee by the Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3). The Mo. Syn. also did miss. work among indians in Oklahoma In 1892 the Wisconsin* Syn. est. a miss. among Apache in Arizona (see also Harders, Johann Friedrich Gustav). The Mo. Syn. began work 1899 among Stockbridge Indians (named after Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where they were first gathered into a miss. town in the 1730s by J. Sergeant*) in Wisconsin The Syn. for the Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, The) founded Bethany Indian Miss. and Industrial School among Winnebago at Wittenberg, W cen. Wisconsin; it was dedicated July 4, 1887. The Eielsen* Syn. began miss. work near Wittenberg, Wisconsin, among Potawatomi in the 1890s. See also Indians, American, 10; Mexican Indian Mission; Michigan Synod, 1.
A. Keiser, Lutheran Mission Work Among the American Indians (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1922); T. Graebner, Church Bells in the Forest (St. Louis, 1944); C. F. Luckhard, Faith in the Forest (Sebewaing, Michigan, 1952).
In 1881 a Skokomish Indian, John Slocum (reportedly a bap. RC), allegedly received teachings from God. Two syncretistic groups, both called Indian Shaker Ch., resulted among Indians of the Pacific NW from claims to represent continuation of a group organized 1910 to perpetuate the teachings.
1. Attitude of indifference toward religion. 2. View that one religious belief is as good as another. 3. View that some things are neither commanded nor forbidden in the Bible; see also Adiaphora.
Concept which places high value on individual freedom. Philosophic individualism holds that individuals exist independently; the universe is a collection of individuals. Political individualism holds that the state exists for the individual. Economic individualism calls for free enterprise, personal initiative, competition, and survival of the fittest. Ethical individualism holds that each man's ideals are the measure of his morality; everything is right that the individual believes to be right; sin is not transgression of God's law, but violation of one's own conviction and character. For Bap. view of theol. individualism see Baptist Churches, 5.
1. Name used in a wide sense for the Malay Archipelago (The Islands of India) and by extension for all areas of Malay-related people, and in a narrow sense for the Rep. of Indonesia; former names for the Rep. of Indonesia include: Dutch E Indies; E Indies; Neth. E Indies; Neth. Indies. Area: ca. 735,432 sq. mi. consisting of ca. 3,000 islands of SE Asia, N and NW of Australia; chief islands: the Greater Sundas (Soendas; include Java [which includes Madoera (Madura) since 1885], Sumatra, Borneo [Kalimantan], and Celebes [Sulawesi]), Irian Jaya, New Guinea), Moluccas (Maluku; Molukken; Spice Islands), and the Lesser Sundas (Soendas; renamed Nusa Tenggara 1954; include Bali, Lombok, Soembawa [Sumbawa], and Timor). (remove population figures) including Atjehnese (Achinese), Bataks, Menangkabaus, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, Sasaks, Menadonese, Buginese, Dayaks, Papuans. Capital: Djakarta (Jakarta; formerly called Batavia). Neth. territory till March 1942; occupied by Jap. 194245; proclaimed a rep. by nationalists 1945 (recognized by Neth. 1949); West Irian transferred by Neth. to UN 1962, given to Indonesia 1963. Indonesia withdrew from UN 1965. Religions: Islam* ca. 90%; Buddhism,* Hinduism,* and Christianity are important minorities. See also New Guinea, 1, 2.
2. Christians may have reached Indonesia in the 14th century. Port. (arrived 1511) and Spaniards brought RC missionaries in the 16th century. Dutch brought Protestantism ca. 1600. In the 17th c. the United E India Co. sponsored miss. work. The work of W. Carey* and A. Judson* stimulated formation of miss. socs. which sponsored work in Indonesia. H. Kraemer* and J. H. Bavinck* promoted indigenization of Indonesian chs.
3. Java and Madoera. Area: ca. 51,000 sq. mi.; ca. 90% Islamic. Ca. the middle of the 19th c. Mennonites sent workers to Sumatra and Java. The outstanding soc. is the Netherlands* Miss. Society. Baps. began work 1951 in Bandung (Bandoeng). The CIM (now OMF) began work among Mandarin-speaking Chinese after WW II. Other groups include Salvation* Army, Worldwide* Evangelization Crusade, Assemblies* of God, and Pentecostals. Indigenous Prot. chs.: E Java Ch., Middle Java Ch., and W Java Ch.
4. Sumatra. Area: ca. 182,800 sq. mi. including islands along W and SE coasts. (Malays, Hindus, and Chinese). Hindus arrived early in the Christian era; Arabs invaded 13th c.; Dutch est. settlements on SW coast 166364. H. Lyman* and S. Munson* were pioneer ABCFM missionaries; mistaken for Muslim spies, killed, eaten by Bataks Bataks.* The Basel* Miss. Soc. began work in W Sumatra 1858. L. I. Nommensen of the of Rhenish* Miss. Soc. was very successful. The Batak Ch. and the Nias Ch. resulted from work of the Basel and Rhenish societies. Meths. sent permanent miss. to Chinese 1912. Other groups include Worldwide Evangelization Crusade and OMF.
5. Kalimantan. Area: 212,463 sq. mi. RMS began work 1835 among Dayak in SE Borneo. Field given to Basel Miss. Soc. 1925. The Christian and Miss. Alliance (see Evangelistic Associations, 5) began work in Borneo ca. 1929. Other groups include Regions* Beyond Miss. Union since 1932; Worldwide Evangelization Crusade since 1950; OMF; New* Tribes Miss.; Go-Ye* Fellowship; Dutch Ref. Ch.; Pentecostals.
7. Irian Jaya (renamed 1973 from West Irian; also known as Irian Barat or West New Guinea; formerly Dutch New Guinea or Neth. New Guinea). Area: ca. 162,000 sq. mi. The Evangelical* Alliance Miss. is carrying on work in Anggi Lakes and Manokwari region. It est. the Erickson-Tritt Bible Institute 1959 (named after 2 miss. murdered 1952 by natives). The Australian Baps. began 1954 in Baliem Valley and Regions Beyond Miss. Union in Swaart Valley 1955. A Dutch group began work 1957. The Missionary* Aviation Fellowship serves all missions. See also New Guinea, 1, 2.
8. Moluccas. Area: 28,766 sq. mi. Dutch ministers assoc. with United E India Co. pioneered here. J. Kamm* of Neth. Miss. Soc. arrived 1815. The Molucca Protestant Church has several hundred thousand mems.
12. Timor. Area (with nearby islands): 18,857 sq. mi. Dutch Prots. arrived 1612. Neth. Miss. Soc. began work 1819. Churches affiliated with the Prot. Ch. of the Neth. Indies 1870. The Ev. Ch. of Timor became autonomous 1947. EL
See also New Guinea.
1. Roots of the RC doctrine of indulgences reach back to the ancient practice of penitential* discipline. As the penitential system changed its character and the RC sacrament of penance* evolved, penance was no longer regarded as a mere expression of sorrow for sin or even as the discharge of ch. penalties, but as pleasing to God, meritorious, and compensatory for sin. It was held to remove, acc. to the degree of its merit, a portion of that temporal punishment of sin (chiefly purgatory*) which could not be removed by absolution.* Commutations* of penance, or indulgences, became commutations of divine punishment and were gained by giving money to chs. and monasteries, by pilgrimages,* sometimes by direct payment to the priest. Contrition,* or at least attrition,* was in theory necessary to gain indulgence.
2. The Crusades* marked an epoch in the hist. of indulgences, for each crusader received plenary indulgence (see par. 5). In the later Middle Ages plenary indulgences were offered in gen. for opposition against various heretics and their followers.
5. M. Luther's* exposure of the indulgence traffic convinced many of the corruption of the RC Ch. and prepared them to welcome the restored Gospel. The Council of Trent* made quaestors of alms (indulgence preachers) scapegoats, absolutely [Lat. penitus] abolished their name and service [Lat. usus], but decreed that the use of indulgences, most salutary for Christian people and approved by authority of holy councils, is to be retained in the Church, that moderation be observed, and that all evil traffic in them be absolutely [Lat. omnino] abolished (Sess. XXI, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. ix; XXV, Decree Concerning Reform, chap. xxi, Decree Concerning Indulgences). Indulgences are called plenary (remitting all temporal punishment due to sin) or partial (e.g., for 40 days, which means the equivalent of that period of canonical penance). Some indulgences can be gained only at particular places or at certain times; others are attached to objects, e.g., crosses, medals. To gain some indulgences, prayers must be said.
(from Lat. indultum, privilege, grant). Special favor permitting bps. and others to act beyond or contrary to common ecclesiastical laws; may be positive (e.g., benefice*) or negative (e.g., dispensation*).
20th-c. industry has presented new problems to the ch. in the application of moral principles to a complex economic structure. Rapid industrialization and urbanization, increase of large corporations and holding companies, impersonal control of industry, absentee ownership, managerial direction of the capitalist system, concentration of wealth, and increasing use of natural resources have created human and moral problems which concern the ch. Areas of strain are to be found not only in labor-management relations, but also in the degree of interest and control by industry and its leaders of civic welfare, philanthropy, production and consumption of goods, and the ownership of property in the manufacturing and financial colossus which governs industry. These, as well as benefactions of industrial giants, are to be viewed in light of Lv 19:13; Jer 22:13; Ja 5:16.
Papal encyclicals have warned against abuse of wealth and power as fertile ground for radical economic and pol. ideologies. Prots. are increasingly interested and active in Christian industrial reconstruction. The ch. ministers to industrialist and laborer and applies the ethical teachings of Scripture to both. JD
A. I. Abell, The Urban Impact on American Protestantism 18651900 (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1943); E. B. Chaffee, The Protestant Churches and the Industrial Crisis (New York, 1933); J. Daniel, The Church and Labor-Management Problems of Our Day (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1947) and Labor, Industry, and the Church (St. Louis, 1957); T. C. Graebner, The Business Man and the Church (Clinton, South Carolina, 1942); F. H. Knight and T. W. Merriam, The Economic Order and Religion (New York, 1945); H. F. May, Protestant Churches and Industrial America (New York, 1949); S. Miller and J. F. Fletcher, The Church and Industry (New York, 1930); R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (New York, 1926); A. W. Taylor, Christianity and Industry in America (New York, 1933).
1. God's people in the OT and NT viewed children as a blessing (Gn 21:18; 22:17; Ps 127:35; 128:3) and barrenness as a deprivation and, at times, reproach (Gn 15:2; 30:1; 1 Sm 1:11, 20; Lk 1:7, 2425). After the Fall, God promised the Woman's Seed to crush the Serpent's head. This first Gospel promise provided the message of hope. Longing for the coming of the Messiah grew in the heart of God's people (Gn 3:15; 4:1; 49:10; Is 7:14; 9:6, 7; Lk 2:2526).
2. Children were involved in worship life from infancy. Ceremonial acts after childbirth were prescribed (Lv 12; Lk 2:2227). The firstborn son belonged to God; redeemed after Levites became priestly tribe (Ex 13:2, 13, 15; 22:29; Nm 3:1215; 18:1516; Lk 2:23). Sons were circumcised on the 8th day (Gn 17:1213); males not receiving circumcision were rejected (Gn 17:14). Children were involved in religious observances (Ex 12:26; 1 Sm 1:2428; Lk 2:2151) and given religious instruction (Dt 4:9; 6:6; Pr 22:6; Eph 6:4; 2 Ti 3:15).
3. Children were at times received into special relationship with God (1 Sm 3:118). Jesus loved children and praised their faith (Mt 18:16; Mk 9:3637; 10:1316). Children are mems. of the kingdom of God (Lk 18:1516). Many see a reference to little children in Acts 2:3839.
4. After the Fall, all men are born in sin and hence separate from God (Gn 3:119; 8:21; Ps 51:5; Ro 5:1219; see also Sin, Original). This alienation is overcome by Christ's work of redemption and reconciliation (2 Co 5:19; Eph 2:13, 16; Heb 2:17; see also Justification). Connection with Christ (Ro 6:38; Gl 3:27), sanctification and cleansing (Eph 5:2527), regeneration (Tts 3:5), salvation are est. through Baptism. in the NT, believers are described as circumcised in Christ by Baptism (Cl 2:1113).
5. The requirement of baptism applies to all, since the NT makes no distinction bet. adult and infant baptism and mentions no age for baptism. Evidence suggests that infants were baptized from the very beginning. The NT term oikos derives from OT usage (e.g., Jos 24:15) and indicates that entire families were baptized (1 Co 1:16; Acts 16:15, 3334; 18:8).
1. Earliest known direct patristic evidence for infant baptism is in Tertullian (De baptismo XVIII 45). Indirect evidence includes: Polycarp* was probably baptized in infancy (Martyrium IX 3); Irenaeus* mentions infants, children, boys, youths, and adults as being born again (renascuntur) in the Lord (Adversus haereses II xxii 4). Apparently there was no age limitation in the first 2 cents.
2. Hippolytus* (Order of Service for the rite of baptism, 21) regarded infant baptism as the rule and instructed parents or other mems. of the family to speak for them. Origen* (Commentary on Romans, V, 9, on 6:57) held that the tradition of baptizing infants came from the apostles. Cyprian* (Epistle LVIII [LXIV]) held that, because of original sin, baptism should not be postponed till the 8th day, but that infants should be baptized on one of the first days immediately after birth.
3. Augustine* of Hippo (De peccatorum meritis et remissione et de baptismo parvulorum, III [vi] 12) and Pelagius* (in Augustine, De gratia Christi et de peccato originali, II [xviii] 20) said they had not heard of a heretic or schismatic who renounced infant baptism.
C. Middle Ages.
In the Middle Ages the objective nature of baptism was stressed.
D. Reformation Era.
1. In the 1520s Anabaps. rejected infant baptism, insisted on believer's baptism, and denied that infants can have real faith.
2. M. Luther* fostered instruction and tried to involve infants and other children in the life of the ch. He advocated baptism for infants and other children because it is God's will. He granted that Scripture does not explicitly command infant baptism, but pointed out (1) that Scripture does not say You are to baptize adults and not children and (2) that nations (Mt 28:19) includes infants (WA 26, 158 and 166). LC IV 57 holds that infants should be baptized because of God's gen. command. Later catechisms hold that infants should be baptized because they can believe (Mt 18:6; Mk 10:1316) and because Baptism is the only means whereby they can ordinarily be regenerated.
3. Ap IX 1 states that Baptism is necessary for salvation, but the Luth. Confessions and Luther do not say that the unbaptized are damned. In Baptism children are committed to God and become acceptable to Him (AC IX). Ap IX 2: It is most certain that the promise of salvation also applies to little children. Therefore it is necessary to baptize children, so that the promise of salvation might be applied to them according to Christ's command (Mt 28:19). SA-III V 4: children should be baptized, for they, too, are included in the promise of redemption which Christ made. Infants are in need of regeneration because they are born in sin (AC II; Ap II; FC I). By Baptism a child is received into the Christian community, receives the promise, and enters Christ's kingdom (LC IV 2, 39, 67).
E. Since the Reformation.
1. Emphasis on form under state ch. influence tended to externalize baptism.
2. Pietism* tended to minimize infant baptism and the role of children in the ch. Rationalism* reduced baptism to an initiation ceremony, a view held also by some Luths. in Am. in the 1st half of the 19th c. (see also Definite Synodical Platform).
3. Many denominations in Am. followed Anabaps. in rejecting the right of infants to receive baptism for various reasons: denial of inherited sin; a child's inability to believe; faith ought be in evidence before baptism; an age of accountability must first be reached. Baptism is gen. viewed by these as merely a sign or symbol. CML
See also Grace, Means of, III 4.
O. C. Hallesby, Infant Baptism and Adult Conversion, tr. C. J. Carlsen (Minneapolis, 1924); Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, 6th ed. (Göttingen, 1967); F. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, III (St. Louis, 1920), 297339, Eng. tr. Christian Dogmatics, ed. W. W. F. Albrecht (St. Louis, 1953), 253289; Christian Baptism, ed. A. Gilmore (Chicago, 1959); The Book of Concord, tr. and ed. T. G. Tappert (St. Louis, 1959); J. Jeremias, Infant Baptism in the First Four Centuries, tr. D. Cairns (London, 1960) and The Origins of Infant Baptism: A Further Study in Reply to Kurt Aland, tr. D. M. Barton (London, 1963); O. Cullmann, Baptism in the New Testament, tr. J. K. S. Reid (London, 1950); E. Schlink, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, tr. P. F. Koehneke and H. J. A. Bouman (Philadelphia, 1961); M. E. Marty, Baptism (Philadelphia, 1962); K. Aland, Did the Early Church Baptize Infants? tr. and introd. G. R. Beasley-Murray, pref. J. F. Jansen (London, 1963); H. Fagerberg, Die Theologie der lutherischen Bekenntnisschriften von 1529 bis 1537, tr. G. Klose (Göttingen, 1965); R. Jungkuntz, The Gospel of Baptism (St. Louis, 1968); J. H. Elliott, The Christ Life (Chicago, 1968).
J. Calvin* held that all elect infants are saved. Luths. hold that, if infant children of Christians die without Baptism (see Grace, Means of, III), it is best to commend them to the mercy of God, who has power to work faith also without ordained means (Lk 1:15, 44).
(Lat. the infinite [is] capable of grasping, or holding, the finite). Term used in stating that God enters into fellowship with man through revelation in hist. See also Finitum (non) est capax infiniti.
(18601954). B. Crayke, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; Angl.; dean St. Paul's, London; influenced by Platonic spirituality. Works include Christian Mysticism; Personal Idealism and Mysticism; Christian Ethics and Modern Problems. See also Modern Churchmen's Union.
1. Ideas alleged to be inborn, e.g., belief in God and immortality. 2. Power of understanding given with mind. 3. Ideas which all men as human and rational have.
3. A. Stoecker* exerted strong influence in later Inner Miss. developments. Nazism and WW II combined to undo many soc. gains achieved by Inner Miss. in Ger. Late in Kirchenkampf* the Inner Miss. saved many lives by opposing euthanasia. The Hilfswerk (relief work) of EKD was organized 1945; in 1957 it united with Inner Miss. as Innere Mission und Hilfswerk der EKD In Am. the term Inner Mission fell into disuse by the middle of the 20th c. and was replaced by such terms as soc. miss., soc. service, and soc. welfare work. Responsibility for much soc. work was assumed by govts. of various countries. HFW
Man was created in the image of God (Gn 1:27). Through the Fall, man became sinful (Gn 3; Ro 5:12). Justified by faith in Christ, man becomes righteous before God (Ro 3:2128; cp. Ps 19:1213). A man may be innocent with respect to demands and judgments of civil laws, e.g., not guilty of a gross moral offense (Ps 18:26), without fault in the eyes of human judges and soc. in gen. (Gn 20:5; Job 33:9; Ps 26:6; Jer 2:35; Dn 6:22). God regards believers innocent when He sees them clothed in Christ's righteousness and cleansed by His blood. JMW
(Benedetto Odescalchi; 161189). Pope 167689; b. Como, It.; educ. Naples; cardinal 1645; bp. Novara 1650; championed moral and administrative reform; engaged in controversy with Louis* XIV over royal prerogatives in ecclesiastical appointments. See also Gallicanism.
(from Lat. inquiro, inquire; search for). 1. Special permanent RC tribunal est. ca. 1231 to detect and punish those guilty of dissent from accepted teachings and rites of the ch. Called Cong. of the Holy Office by Pius X (see Popes, 30). Directed by Gregory IX (see Popes, 11) to combat Cathari* and Waldenses,* its activity was later extended to others (e.g., Beguines [see Beghards and Beguines], witches, diviners, blasphemers, and sacrilegious people). Its name is derived from its power to make inquiries in search of heresy. Inquisitors became known as severe oppressors.
2. Historical antecedents. Theodosius* I persecuted heathen and deprived heretics of civil rights. Intolerance appears in the codes of Theodosius* II and Justinian* I. Charlemagne* converted the Saxons by force.
3. In the later Middle Ages an organized inquisitorial system to guard against inroads of heresy was developed. Popes, councils, syns., and secular rulers provided legislative and administrative machinery. Lateran* Council II (1139) required secular princes to prosecute heretics. Alexander III (see Popes, 9) ordered imprisonment and confiscation of property of convicted heretics 116263. At the 1229 Syn. of Toulouse (see also Toulouse, Synods of) bps. were ordered to appoint a priest and 2 or more laymen to hunt heretics in their sees and bring them to trial before the episcopal tribunal (hence called Episcopal Inquisition). Gregory IX ordered life imprisonment for repentant heretics and capital punishment by state for obstinate heretics 1231 (Constitution Excommunicamus).
4. Because he felt that bps. were lax in enforcing these regulations, Gregory IX entrusted trial and punishment of heretics to Konrad* von Marburg, who used esp. Dominicans* for this purpose. This inquisition was first limited primarily to Ger., extended to Aragon 1232, made gen. 1233.
5. Thereafter inquisitors or judges were selected almost exclusively from Dominicans and Franciscans.* Each tribunal was to have 2 inquisitors who received their power directly from the pope. Responsible only to the pope, many inquisitors were cruel and ruthless. At times there was lawless retaliation against them; K. v. Marburg was murdered 1233.
6. The Sp. Inquisition was peculiar to Sp. and its colonies. It was est. at the request of Ferdinand V of Castile (Ferdinand II of Aragon; the Catholic; 14521516; b. Sos, Aragon; king of Sicily 14681516, of Castile as Ferdinand V with Isabella 14741504, of Aragon as Ferdinand II 14791516) and Isabella I (Sp.: Isabel; the Catholic; 14511504; m. Ferdinand II of Aragon 1469; ruled with him as Ferdinand V of Castile and Aragon 14791504) to eradicate heresy, to deal with conversos or Marranos (Jews and Moors who professed Christianity, but in some cases only halfheartedly or to escape persecution), to consolidate their realm, to share in spoils. Sixtus IV (see Popes, 16) gave RC kings right to appoint 2 or 3 doctors of theol., as inquisitors 1478. Inquisitors were appointed 1480, installed 1481; in 1483 Ferdinand raised this tribunal to the dignity of the 5th council of the state and called it Concejo de la Suprema y General lnquisicion (Council of the Supreme and Gen. Inquisition). The whole Sp. Inquisition was put under T. de Torquemada,* who became known as a cruel, uncouth persecutor. Suppressed 1808, reest. 1813, it was abolished 1834.
7. A permanent cong. of cardinals with headquarters at Rome and supreme and universal competence in matters concerning heretics and suspected heretics was est. 1542 by Paul* III and further defined by subsequent popes. Paul VI (see Popes, 35) reorganized it 1965 into the Sacred Cong. for the Doctrine of the Faith, which is to condemn error and promote orthodox doctrine. EL
H. C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, 3 vols. (London, 1888), A History of the Inquisition of Spain, 4 vols. (New York, 190607), and The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies (New York, 1908); A. H. Verrill, The Inquisition (New York, 1931); E. van der Vekené, Bibliographie der Inquisition (Hildesheim, Ger., 1963); A. S. Turberville, Mediaeval Heresy & the Inquisition (London, 1920) and The Spanish Inquisition (Hamden, Connecticut, 1968).
1. The NT does not use the Gk. word empneo (inspire) used by Philo* Judaeus and other classical and Hellenistic authors in reference to an ecstatic and often impersonal relationship bet. a person and a source of inspiration. In 2 Ptr 1:21 a verb is used (Prophecy did not ever come [enechthe] by the will of man, but men moved by [pheromenoi] the Holy Ghost spoke from God) which occurs 2 Ptr 1:1718 with reference to the voice heard at the Transfiguration (Such a voice came [enechtheises] to Him. This voice came [enechtheisan] from heaven). In 2 Ti 3:16 a word (theopneustos, God-breathed; see also Theopneustia) is used which echoes the thought of Gn 2:7 (God breathed), suggesting that Scripture may be the product of God's creative work in much the same way as that in which man was made a living being. The Luth. Confessions cite 2 Ti 3:16 only in reference to the effectiveness of the Bible and cite 2 Ptr 1:21 to prove the fact of inspiration.
2. To say that the Bible is the work of the Holy Spirit as Author does not imply suspension or extinction of the personality or individuality of the writers. God's Spirit used each writer with his endowments and his background of grammar, style, knowledge of nature and hist., etc.
3. That the Holy Spirit suggested to the writers the whole content and the words (plenary and verbal inspiration) is est., e.g., by Is 59:21; 1 Co 2:13; Gl 3:16; 1 Th 2:13. Accordingly, inspiration is a special, potent activity of the Holy Spirit which He exercised on those whom He chose as His instruments for writing the Biblical documents.
4. The fact of inspiration is taught in various passages of the OT and NT What is written in the Bible is at times attributed to the Holy Spirit or God, at other times to persons, e.g., David and Moses (2 Sm 23:12; Mt 15:4; 22:43; Mk 7:10; cp. Mt 19:45 and Gn 2:24).
5. Inspiration differs from revelation* in the sense that the latter term is used more broadly of all the methods by which God has made Himself known to men, including oral utterances of prophets, whereas the former refers, in its narrow sense, to specific guidance provided by the Holy Spirit to the writers. The word inspiration occurs in a broader sense 2 Ti 3:16; there it indicates that the individual books of the Bible are an end-product of God's power at work among His people (Lk 1:14; Jos 10:13; 1 Co 15:3), resulting in documents accepted by the ch. as canonical (see Canon, Bible).
6. The relation bet. God as Author and the men whom He used to transmit His Word is expressed in the Nicene Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, B) by the phrase, Who spake by the prophets, which not only exactly summarizes the comparison bet. such texts as I Co 5:9 and 1 Jn 1:4 with that group represented by Mt 2:17 and 24:15, but is found as to its very terms Ro 1:2: Which He had promised by His prophets in the holy scriptures. MHS
1. M. Luther* and Inspiration. Through Luther the Bible was restored as sole authority in the ch. in his 1st lectures on Ps (151316) he showed that he held Scripture to be the Word of God, regarding such expressions as God speaks and Scripture speaks as interchangeable. But as late as 1516 he still surrendered to the fathers and to the ch. his own right to understand and explain Scripture. In controversy with J. Eck,* Luther divorced himself from the authority of councils. By the time of the Diet of Worms* he had concluded that Scripture is far above the authority of the whole human race. Thereafter Scripture remained his sole authority. Though many things in the Bible puzzled and amazed him, he admitted no error in its original MSS At the same time he emphasized the human part in its writing.
2. The Luth. Confessions do not include a separate systematic treatment of inspiration; they take for granted that the Bible is God's Word and the only infallible guide and authority.
a. Early Luth. Dogmaticians. M. Chemnitz* regarded Scripture as the inspired Word of God. N. Selnecker* held that since Scripture is throughout the Word of God, its content throughout is heavenly, divine, and spiritual. He maintained that the real meaning is not in the dead letter, but comes through the enlightenment of the Spirit. J. Gerhard* emphasized that Scripture is autopistos (Gk. trustworthy on its own authority; it needs no testimony except that of God, its Author) and held that the energy of Scripture which leads us to Christ also convinces us that God is the Author of the Bible.
b. G. Calixtus* held that only doctrinal matter of Scripture is inspired, but writers kept from error also in other matters. Over against this view, A. Calov(ius)* held that the Bible forms a whole: forma revelationis divinae est theopneustia,* per quam revelatio divina est, quod est (The form of divine revelation is divine inspiration, by which divine revelation is what it is). He also distinguished bet. the act of the revealing God and the form of the revealed Word. Feeling that Calov had gone too far toward a mechanical theory, J. Musäus* sought to analyze human activity in the act of inspiration and emphasized the divine direction voiced by Calixtus.
c. J. A. Quenstedt's* presentation of inspiration is noteworthy because of the hist. evidence he marshals. He held that Apostolic writing is the same as preaching since both serve the purpose of awakening faith in Christ. He differentiated bet. the need of the whole ch. and the immediate need of the writing. He distinguished an enlightenment (irradiatio) which preceded the impulse (impulsus) to write. Inspiration itself he characterized as the descent of the Holy Spirit to the capabilities of the agent. J. K. Danhauer* distinguished (1) aspiratio (the activity of the penman in obedience to divine will, such as study, comparison of OT, investigations, etc.); (2) postspiratio (the quiet influence of the Holy Spirit on the penman); (3) inspiratio (the culmination of inspiration); (4) respiratio (the working of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of those who read the Word).
d. Later dogmaticians of the classical period concerned themselves with problems given above and developed certain phases of them. One of the important problems which concerned earlier and later dogmaticians was the relation bet. revelation and inspiration.
4. Reformed. Early Ref. writers and confessions adhered to a strict view of inspiration. Many Ref. theologians tried to harmonize reason and revelation. Ref. fundamentalism* emphasized association of inspiration with inerrancy.
5. Roman Catholicism. RCm upholds the inspiration of Scripture. The Council of Trent* held that Scripture and unwritten traditions are the source of all saving truth and rules of conduct (Sess. IV). RC scholars disagree on the meaning of this. The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation of Vatican II (see Vatican Councils, 2) states: 8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved by a continuous succession of preachers until the end of time. 9. Thus, led by the light of the Spirit of truth, these successors can in their preaching preserve this word of God faithfully, explain it, and make it more widely known. Consequently, it is not from sacred Scripture alone that the Church draws her certainty about everything which has been revealed. Many scholars explain this to mean that Scripture is the only source, and tradition the Spirit-guided explanation, unfolding, and teaching of that source by the ch.
6. Pietism* and rationalism* influenced later conceptions of inspiration. A popular theory in the 1st part of the 20th c. held that the Bible is a human account of divine revelation and hence not without error. Others held that there were degrees of inspiration. Thoughts on inspiration in the middle of the c. ranged from mechanical theories to total rejection of inspiration. Since the 1950s, scholars have emphasized the mystery of Scripture, i. e., the relation of the divine to the human.
7. Lutheranism in America. Constitutions of major Luth. chs. in Am. and that of LCUSA pledge these bodies to Scripture as the Word of God and only infallible guide of doctrine and life. Other syn. statements affirm the inspiration of Scripture:
a. Pittsburgh* Agreement (adopted by the ALC and the ULC 1940): 2. The Bible consists of a number of separate books, written at various times, on various occasions, and for various purposes. Their authors were living, thinking personalities, each endowed by the Creator with an individuality of his own and each having his peculiar style, his own manner of presentation, even at times using such sources of information as were at hand. Nevertheless, by virtue of a unique operation of the Holy Ghost (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Pet. 1:21) by which He supplied to the holy writers content and fitting word (2 Pet. 1:21; 1 Cor. 2:12, 13) the separate books of the Bible are related to one another and, taken together, constitute a complete, errorless unbreakable whole, of which Christ is the Center (John 10:35). They are rightly called the Word of God. This unique operation of the Holy Spirit upon the writers is named inspiration. We do not venture to define its mode or manner, but accept it as a fact.
b. Common* Confession, Part I, V (adopted by LCMS and ALC 1950): Through the Holy Scriptures, which God caused to be written by men chosen and inspired by Him, God instructs and assures us regarding His will for us. The Holy Scriptures constitute His Word to men, centering in the revelation of Himself in the person and work of Jesus Christ for our salvation. Through the Holy Scriptures God continues to speak to men in all ages until the end of time. He speaks as the infallible and unchanging God, whose message to mankind never changes. Since the Holy Spirit by divine inspiration supplied to the holy writers content and fitting word, therefore we acknowledge the Holy Scriptures in their entirety as the inspired Word of God. His Holy Spirit testifies in our hearts that His Word is true, that He will keep all His promises to us, and that our faith in Him is not in vain.
We therefore recognize the Holy Scriptures as God's inerrant Word, and this Word of God alone shall establish articles of faith (cf. Smalcald Articles, Part II, Art. II). We pledge ourselves to teach all things taught in the Holy Scriptures, and nothing but that which is taught us by God in the Holy Scriptures.
c. Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod (adopted 1932): We teach that the Holy Scriptures differ from all other books in the world in that they are the Word of God. They are the Word of God because the holy men of God who wrote the Scriptures wrote only that which the Holy Ghost communicated to them by inspiration, 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21. We teach also that the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures is not a so-called 'theological deduction,' but that it is taught by direct statements of the Scriptures, 2 Tim. 3:16; John 10:35; Rom. 3:2; 1 Cor. 2:13. Since the Holy Scriptures are the Word of God, it goes without saying that they contain no errors or contradictions, but that they are in all their parts and words the infallible truth, also in those parts which treat of historical, geographical, and other secular matters, John 10:35.
We reject the doctrine, which under the name of science has gained wide popularity in the Church of our day, that Holy Scripture is not in all its parts the Word of God, but in part the Word of God and in part the word of man and hence does, or at least might, contain errors. EL
See also Buxtorf.
J. M. Reu, Luther and the Scriptures (Columbus, Ohio, 1944); T. E. W. Engelder, Scripture Cannot Be Broken (St. Louis, 1944) and Haec Dixit Dominus, CTM, XVIII (July 1947), 484499, (August 1947), 561572, reprint. ([St. Louis], n. d.) with tr. of Lat. and Ger. quotations; P. E. Kretzmann, The Christocentric Theory of Inspiration,; CTM, XV (Mar. 1944), 187192; W. Dallmann, Why Do I Believe the Bible Is God's Word? 5th print. (St. Louis, 1943); W. Arndt, Die Lehre von der Inspiration nach 1 Petr. 1, 1012, CTM, V (March 1934), 192198; W. W. F. Albrecht, Holy Scripture the Word of God, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 134; C. Eberhard, Geography of the Bible in Relation to Inspiration, CTM, XV (November 1944), 736747; J. A. Dell, The Word of God, What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 2647; P. Schumm, The Clearness and Sufficiency of Scripture, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 5866; W. Elert, Morphologie des Luthertums, I, improved print. (Munich, 1952), 157176, tr. W. Hansen, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 179191; W. Walther, Das Erbe der Reformation im Kampfe der Gegenwart, I: Der Glaube an das Wort Gottes (Leipzig, 1903); W. Rohnert, Die Inspiration der heiligen Schrift und ihre Bestreiter (Leipzig, 1889); The Infallible Word: A Symposium by the mems. of the faculty of Westminster Theol. Sem. (Philadelphia, 1946); R. R. Caemmerer, A. C. Piepkorn, M. H. Franzmann, W. R. Roehrs, Essays on the Inspiration of Scripture, CTM, XXV (October 1954), 738753; R. Preus, The Inspiration of Scripture, 2d ed. (London, 1957); B. Baepler, Scripture and Tradition in the Council of Trent, CTM, XXXI (June 1960), 341362; Faculty of Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri, A Statement on the Form and Function of the Holy Scriptures, CTM, XXXI (October 1960), 626627; K. Rahner, Inspiration in the Bible, tr. C. H. Henkey (New York, 1961); P. Lengsfeld, Überlieferung: Tradition und Schrift in der evangelischen und katholischen Theologie der Gegenwart (Paderborn, 1960); D. M. Beegle, The Inspiration of Scripture (Philadelphia, 1963); B. B. Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible, ed. S. G. Craig (Philadelphia, 1948); H. W. Robinson, Inspiration and Revelation in the Old Testament (Oxford, 1946); Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations: A Study Document on Revelation, Inspiration, [and] Inerrancy, pub. by LCMS ([St. Louis], n. d.). See also documentation under related articles, e.g., Dogmatics; Reformed Confessions.
Theosophist cult with headquarters at Los Angeles, California Claims to give understanding of man's physical, mental, and spiritual nature.
Name given at beginning of 20th c. to Am. Prot. ch. which undertook a program of recreation and soc. service besides functions of worship and soul-care. Theologically it was a product of the Social* Gospel and socially of pop. shifts. As ch. plants came to be surrounded by underprivileged, transient, and foreign-born groups, emphasis shifted to an approach to physical need and provision for leisure time. The designation has largely fallen into disuse for various reasons.
G. Hodges and J. Reichert, The Administration of an Institutional Church (New York, 1906); H. P. Douglass, Protestant Cooperation in American Cities (New York, 1930); H. P. Douglass and E. de S. Brunner, The Protestant Church as a Social Institution (New York, 1935); M. H. Leiffer, City and Church in Transition (Chicago, 1938).
Institute dedicated to the study of Heb. language and Jewish literature, esp. for miss. purposes. The first such inst., founded 1728 by J. H. Callenberg* in Halle, continued till 1792. H. L. Strack* est. one 1883 in Berlin; closed 1933. Franz Delitzsch (see Delitzsch, 1) est. one 1886 in Leipzig; later called Delitzschianum: to Vienna 1935: closed 1938; reopened 1948 in Münster by Karl Heinrich Rengstorf (b. 1903 at Jembke, near Gifhorn, Ger.). Another was est. 1956 in Tübingen by Otto Michel (b. 1903 at Elberfeld [now in Wuppertal], Ger.).
Term used by neo-Thomists; considers man in the wholeness of his being.
System teaching that we learn to know the essence of things not through the senses (sensationalism*) but through pure concepts inherent in the very nature of the mind. Learning is a recollection of inborn ideas suggested by their imperfect copies in the phenomenal world. Principles of ethics are grounded in reason, not in feeling. In theol. the term is sometimes used to distinguish intellectual knowledge of Bible doctrines from mysticism.* See also Idealism.
Lack of moderation; includes all abuse of God's gifts by excess; assoc. esp. with excessive drinking of intoxicants. Lk 21:34; Ro 13:13; 1 Co 6:10; Gl 5:21; Eph 5:18; 1 Ti 3:8; 2 Ptr 1:6. Cp. WA 47, 757771.
Spiritualist ch. founded 1937 at Los Angeles, California Believes in tolerance, divine gifts of God listed 1 Co 1213, Sermon on the Mount.
Grew out of a December 17, 1918, meeting in NYC of representatives of various Prot. home and for. miss. bds.; object: to coordinate various enterprises in home and for. miss., soc. services, and Christian educ.; collapsed in less than 2 yrs. for lack of unity and financial support.
Organized 1945; fosters joint prayer and mutual help among miss. agencies; headquarters Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
(from Lat. interdicere, forbid). RC censure or penalty by which divine services and sacred rites are suspended. Interdicts may be personal or local, and each of these may be particular or gen.; a particular personal interdict is imposed on a person or persons specifically mentioned; a gen. personal interdict is imposed on persons mentioned only as a group; a particular local interdict is imposed on a specific individual place; a gen. local interdict is imposed on a larger area (e.g., diocese, province, state, or nation). Gen. interdicts may be imposed only by the Roman see. Interdicts have often been used effectively against recalcitrants since the 6th c. See also Western Christianity 5001500, 8.
I. Augsburg Interim (June 30, 1548). Charles* V proposed a temporary armistice bet. RCs and Luths. and in February 1548 appointed a commission including J.v. Pflug,* M. Helding* (suffragan bp. Mainz 1537), and J. Agricola* to draft the terms. The draft, rev. by some Sp. monks, consisted of 26 articles: (12) Man before and after the fall; (3) Redemption; (46) Justification; (7) Love and good works; (8) Forgiveness of sins; (912) The church; (13) Bishops; (1421) The sacraments; (22) Sacrifice of the mass; (23) Saints; (24) Commemoration of the dead; (25) Communion at mass; (26) Ceremonies of sacraments. Joachim II Hektor of Brandenburg (see Joachim, 2) and Frederick* II of the Palatinate approved; Ulrich of Württemberg (14871550) approved under pressure; Philip* of Hesse approved in hope of gaining release from prison thereby; John* Frederick of Saxony rejected it. Maurice* of Saxony and others were dissatisfied but did not protest. The emp. succeeded in enforcing the Interim in parts of S Ger., where many pastors, including J. Brenz* and M. Bucer,* were driven out. But there was vehement and successful opposition to it in the Palatinate, Brandenburg, Hesse, Saxony, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and N Ger. cities led by Magdeburg. See also Adiaphoristic Controversies.
II. Leipzig* Interim. After his return from Augsburg, Maurice of Saxony consulted with his theologians and councillors, including C. Cruciger the Elder (see Cruciger, 1), J. v. Pflug, P. Melanchthon,* Johann VIII von Maltitz (bp. Meissen 15371549), George* III of Anhalt, J. Forster,* and P. Eber.* Proposals drafted and modified at inconclusive meetings in August at Pegau and October at Torgau were further considered in November at Altzella, near Nossen, Saxony, at a meeting attended also by J. Bugenhagen,* G. Major,* J. Camerarius,* H. Weller,* and A. Lauterbach*; an interim was drawn up which compromised the doctrine of justification and some other points, and which regarded as adiaphora* such things as extreme unction, confirmation, lights, vestments, images, fasts, and festivals. Maurice of Saxony and Joachim II of Brandenburg came to an agreement in December on the points they would be willing to accept and follow. Saxony accepted the Altzella terms at Leipzig December 1548 (hence the name Leipzig Interim); the bps. of Naumburg and Meissen dissented. The Brandenburg diet met January 1549.
See also Synergistic Controversy.
III. Regensburg (Ratisbon) Interim. See Regensburg Conference.
See also Lutheran Confessions, C 1.
Practice adopted September 1982 and begun January 1983 by the Protestant* Episc. Ch., the Association* of Ev. Luth. Chs., The American* Luth. Ch., and the Lutheran* Ch. in Am.. Falls short of full communion and full sharing of clergy; regarded by many as a step toward full altar and pulpit fellowship. See also Altar Fellowship; Concelebration; Fellowship.
Mission based in Bahraich, India; begun 1930 by A. E. Rassmann of Indianapolis, Indiana: first called Rassmanns Mission Bahraich, then Interior India Mission; present name adopted 1962.
Belief in an interval bet. death and the world to come has given rise to various speculations which assume an intermediate state, e.g., a state of sleep or insensibility (see Soul Sleep), and purgatory.*
Organized 1897 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to unite Pent. and holiness groups; movement resulted in Pilgrim Holiness Ch. 1922, which merged 1968 with Wesleyan Meth. Ch. of Am. (see Methodist Churches, 4 b) to form The Wesleyan* Ch.
Organized 1948; originated in meetings that began 1891; merged 1970 with World Alliance of Ref. Chs. (see Alliance of the Reformed Churches Throughout the World Holding the Presbyterian Order) to form the World* Alliance of Reformed Churches.
Organization of Prot. chs. from various parts of the world formed August 1119, 1948, in the Eng. Ref. Ch., Amsterdam, Neth. The doctrinal statement of the const. includes plenary inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture; Trinity; essential, absolute, eternal deity, and the real and proper, but sinless, humanity of Jesus Christ; virgin birth; substitutionary, expiatory death of Christ; bodily resurrection of Jesus; total depravity of man; salvation, the effect of regeneration by the Spirit and the Word, not by works but by grace through faith; everlasting bliss of the saved, and everlasting suffering of the lost; real spiritual unity in Christ of those redeemed by His precious blood; necessity of maintaining purity of doctrine and life; acceptance of Apostles' Creed.
C. Mclntire, Servants of Apostasy (Collingswood, New Jersey, 1955).
Rapid spread of the Sunday* school beginning in the 1780s led to formation of S. S. unions to meet the need for cooperation. The 1st S. S. Conv. was held 1832 in NYC Internat. convs. began in the 1870s. The 1905 internat. conv. adopted the name The International Sunday School Association. The S. S. Council of Ev. Denominations was organized 1910. These 2 organizations united 1922 to formThe Internat. S. S. Council of Religious Educ., later called The Internat. Council of Religious Educ., which in November 1950 became the Division of Christian Education of the National* Council of Chs. of Christ in the USA ACM
Organized 1936 at Buffalo, New York; charters spiritualist groups. See also Spiritualism.
Founded 1906 to give material and spiritual aid to people in stricken areas of the world; opposes atheistic communism; headquarters Pasadena, Calif.
Organized at Perley, Minnesota 1967. Conservative; evangelical; evangelistic.
Formed October 1921 at Lake Mohonk, New York, integrated 1961 at New Delhi, India, with the World* Council of Chs. and became the WCC Commission on World Mission and Evangelism. Official organ: International Review of Missions. See also Ecumenical Movement, 6.
Founded 1930 as The India Mission; first missionaries sent to Hyderabad, India, 1932. 1966 fields included E. Afr., India, Iran, Philippines. Surinam, E and W Pakistan. The Oriental Boat Miss. (first called South China Boat Mission), which worked in Hong Kong, Japan, and Thailand, merged 1966 with Internat. Missions, Inc.; mem. IFMA; headquarters Wayne, New Jersey
Successor of Association* of Pent. Assemblies (founded 1921) and National* and Internat. Pent. Missionary Union (founded 1914). Helped form International* Pentecostal Ch. of Christ 1976. See also Holiness Churches, 2; Pentecostalism.
Organized 1888 to work for the religious rights and freedom of all men.
Founded 1842 in London, Eng., as the Brit. Soc. for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews; became known as Brit. Jews Soc.; name changed in mid-1960s; also known as Internat. Jews Soc.; worked first primarily in Eng. and on the Continent, then also in other countries including Can., Israel, S Afr., Rhodesia, Australia, India, New Zealand, and Tasmania.
Founded 1910 under leadership of J. R. Mott* as the Committee on Friendly Relations Among Foreign Students by various chs. and religious socs. to give spiritual aid to for. students; headquarters NYC.
Term applied to period bet. the OT and NT These yrs. witnessed diffusion of Gk. culture through conquests of Alexander III of Macedonia (356323 BC; the Great; succeeded his father, Philip II of Macedon, 336) and his successors, and conflict of Gk. (Hellenistic) and Jewish cultures. The life and thought of Jewish people, changed significantly (see Judaism, 2), formed the background for much of the NT See also Apocrypha.
D. S. Russell, Between the Testaments (Philadelphia, 1960), The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (London, 1964), and The Jews from Alexander to Herod (London, 1967); N. H. Snaith, The Jews from Cyrus to Herod (New York, n. d.); R. H. Pfeiffer, History of New Testament Times, With an Introduction to the Apocrypha (New York, 1949). HTM
Dipping bread of the Lord's Supper into the wine prior to distribution. An early instance is noted in Eusebius* of Caesarea, HE, VI xliii. The practice often includes use of a spoon. It is common in the E Ch. and observed in some parts of the W Ch.
(from Lat. introitus, entrance). The initial proper* of the Common Service (see Liturgics); marks the entrance of clergy into the sanctuary in the beginning of the service and expresses the thought of the day. Texts are usually from OT The introit consists of antiphon, Ps, and Gloria Patri (addition of the latter assures a NT element). it is traditionally sung in plainsong settings. Hist. of the introit goes back at least to the 1st half of the 6th c. Several Sundays of the ch. yr. are named after the 1st word of the Lat. text of the introit for the day (see also Church Year, 14). See also Ambrosian Music.
(Lat. in view of faith). Phrase often used in the Predestinarian* Controversy that burst upon conservative Lutheranism in Am. ca. 1880. The expression had been adopted by Luth. theologians chiefly through influence of A. Hunnius.* In opposing the Calvinistic view that the election of God is absolute, Hunnius and others taught that divine election is not absolute, but that God chose people for eternal life in view of faith. The term may have the meaning that God, in electing people to salvation, included faith in the decree of election, resolving to lead men to heaven through faith. But it came to mean that God chose certain people for salvation because of the faith which He foresaw they would have; in this view, faith is a cause of election, the factor which explains the mystery of predestination*; this contradicts complete and free grace. The terra fell into disuse in the Missouri Synod as a result of the Predestinarian Controversy. There is no Scripture warrant for it, and though the phrase is capable of correct interpretation, it can be seriously misunderstood. The Chicago* Theses, in the 1928 revision, opposed use of the term, as did the 1938 Declaration of the Representatives of the Am. Luth. Church (see American Lutheran Church, V). The Brief* Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod, par. 36: Nor does Holy Scripture know of an election 'by foreseen faith,' 'in view of faith,' as though the faith of the elect were to be placed before their election; but according to Scripture the faith which the elect have in time belongs to the spiritual blessings with which God has endowed them by His eternal election. WA
F. Pieper, Die Grunddifferenz in der Lehre von der Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl (St. Louis, 1903); T. C. Graebner, The Missouri Synod's Attitude Towards the Doctrine of Election 'Intuitu Fidei,' CTM, XV (September 1944), 616621.
Acc. to legend (e.g., Ambrose* in Oratio de obitu Theodosii), Helena,* mother of Constantine* I, discovered the 3 crosses of Golgotha, with the cross* of Christ identified by miracle. Cyril* of Jerusalem says the cross was found in the days of Constantine I. MPG, 33, 1167.
Investiture is the conferring of symbols of office. The rite of investiture applied to abbots and bps. provoked a controversy in the Middle Ages bet. the papacy and various secular rulers. Before the fall of the Roman Empire, imperial influence prevailed. No important office was filled without direct sanction of the emp., often not without nomination by him. When papal power increased, traditions respecting emps. were often set aside. The struggle was esp. severe in Germany. The matter was formally adjusted in a compromise, the Concordat of Worms. See also Concordat, 2; Eigenkirche; Lay Investiture; Popes, 7; Simony; Western Christianity 5001500, 5.
(1) Prayer at opening of service or special occasion, usually imploring divine presence. (2) In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost spoken at opening of service or special occasion.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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