(18421906). B. Berlin; held that Christianity exhausted its possibilities in the Middle Ages. In his philos. system the Absolute is the Unconscious; world process results from the struggle of ideas to free themselves from Universal Will, thereby causing consciousness to emerge from the Unconscious. His earlier pessimism rejected attempts to find happiness in this world, in a future world, or in evolution. Later he modified his pessimism by positing 5 criteria of value: pleasure, purposiveness, beauty, morality, religiosity; he referred his pessimism primarily to the 1st. Works include Philosophie des Unbewussten.
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