(18341919). B. Potsdam, Ger.; zoologist; philos.; prof. Jena 1865. Popularized and expanded Darwinism (see Darwin, Charles Robert). Adopted view of biogenetic law, which antedated him, that development of an individual is a recapitulation* of the hist. of the race. Acc. to his carbon-theory, organic life evolved from albuminoid compounds of carbon. He regarded the seat of the soul as located in phronetal cells (thought-cells). Denied existence of personal God and immortality; exerted great influence, esp. on freethinkers; championed monism*; coined words ecology, ontogeny, protozoa, and metazoa. Works include Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte; Die Weltrütsel; Der Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft; Die Lebenswunder. See also Loofs, Friedrich.
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