(ca. 15471624). B. Burgdorf, near Bern, Switz.; Ref. pastor Switz.; opposed Ref. doctrine of predestination as presented 1586 at the Colloquy of Montbéliard*; deposed 1588; subscribed FC at Tübingen 1588; pastor Derendingen; prof. Wittenberg 1592; adopted view that man must make universal election and calling sure by repentance and faith; dismissed 1594; exiled 1595.
(Conrad Huober; 150777). B. Bergzabern, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg and Basel; asst. to M. Bucer* at Strasbourg 1531; followed middle course bet. Luth. and Ref. theol.; relieved of all duties except occasional preaching 1563 by ascendant Luth. powers; hymnist. Ed. some of Bucer's works; hymns include Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ.
(Huebmaier; Friedberger; Pacimontanus; ca. 14851528). B. Friedberg, near Augsburg, Ger.; educ. Freiburg; RC priest; became Ref. 1522/23; Anabap. 1524/25; est. Anabap. community 1526 at Nikolsburg, Moravia; burned at Vienna under RC condemnation.
(16681731). B. Türchau, near Zittau, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; rector of the gymnasium at Merseburg 1694, of the Johanneum at Hamburg 1711. Works include Zweimal zwei und funfzig biblische Historien; Genealogische Tabellen; Reales Staats- Zeitungs- und Conversations-Lexicon.
(Hubald; Hugbaldus; Ubaldus; Ugubaldus; ca. 840ca. 930). B. probably near Tournai, Belg.; Benedictine monk at St. Amand (Nord), Fr. Works ascribed to him include De institutione harmonica; Ecloga de calvis.
(Hüschen; May 25, 1856March 20, 1931). B. Kiel, Ger.; to Am. 1874; educ. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; pastor first at Drake, then at Hanover and Egypt Mills, then at Uniontown, all in Missouri; poet. Works include Wo Gottes Brünnlein rauschen.
(John Henry; descendants spell name Hewitt; February 14, 1772February 16, 1855). B. near Hagerstown, Maryland; granted ministerial license by Pennsylvania Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22) 1812; attended 1812 Special Conference of the W Dist. of the Pennsylvania Ministerium and the organization meeting of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1818; ordained by Ohio Syn. 1818; served congs. in Pennsylvania and Ohio
(18521925). B. Florence, It.; to Eng. 1873; naturalized Brit. subject 1914; RC theol.; founded London Soc. for the Study of Religion. Works include The Mystical Element of Religion as Studied in Saint Catherine of Genoa and Her Friends.
(182296). B. Uffington, Berkshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; jurist, soc. reformer; helped found Christian* Socialism; active in founding Working Men's Coll., London, 1854, and was its principal 187283; founded Rugby, an unsuccessful cooperative community, in Tenn. 1879. Works include Tom Brown's School Days; Tom Brown at Oxford; biographies of D. Livingstone and Alfred the Great.
(Hugo; ca. 10961141). B. Flanders (or Saxony?); spent most of adult life in abbey of St. Victor, Paris, Fr.; combined mysticism and dialectics in treatment of theol. Works include De area Noe mystica; De unione spiritus et corporis; De vanirate mundi.
(January 23, 1831April 12, 1904). B. Hassloch, Rhenish Palatinate, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1856; served in Jonesboro, Illinois, Frankenmuth, Saginaw, and Detroit, Michigan; helped found Luth. School for the Deaf at Detroit (see Deaf, 10); pres. N Dist. of Mo. Syn. 187275.
Term of unknown origin; applied ca. 1560 to Fr. adherents of the Reformation. Fr. Prots. had received support of Margaret* of Navarre, a lukewarm RC G. Roussel* and J. Lefevre* d'Étaples were leaders in reform movement. Circulation of Lefevre's Bible tr. throughout Fr. helped gain followers. Efforts of J. Calvin* furthered the success of Fr. Prots. Soon persecution began (see France, 8). Huguenots, reckoned by some as one-third of the pop., resisted under leadership of Anthony of Bourbon (Antoine de Bourbon; 151862; b. Picardy; king of Navarre 155562; vacillating in religion; finally joined RC Ch.), Louis I de Bourbon (Prince de Condé*), and G. (II) de Coligny.* Exile, imprisonment, execution, prohibition of worship, and other forms of persecution caused many Huguenots to emigrate to Holland, Eng., Ireland, Am., Switz., Ger., and other countries. Wars and unrest continued till 1789. See also France, 911; United States, Religious History of the.
The Huguenot Wars, comp. and ed. J. Coudy, tr. J. Kernan (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1969); A. J. Grant, The Huguenots (Toronto, 1934); G. E. Reaman, The Train of the Huguenots in Europe, the United States, South Africa, and Canada (Toronto, 1963); S. Smiles, The Huguenots: Their Settlements, Churches, and Industries in England and Ireland (New York, 1874); H. M. Baird, History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France, 2 vols. (New York, 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vols. (New York, 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 2 vols. (New York, 1895).
(18721945). Dutch hist. b. Groningen, Neth.; prof. Groningen 1905, Leiden 1915; exponent of a philos. of culture in which there is a harmonious balance of material and spiritual values. Works include Homo ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture; The Waning of the Middle Ages; Erasmus.
(160261). B. Esens, Ostfriesland, Ger.; prof. Wittenberg 1629; represented Lutheranism at colloquy of Thorn* 1645; prof. and pastor Leipzig 1646. Works include Calvinismus irreconciliabilis; Extensio breviarii theologici; Dialysis apologetica problematis Calixtini; Manuale Augustanae Confessionis; Praelectiones in librum concoriae.
Encyclical of Pius XII (see Popes, 33), August 12, 1950; directed RC scholars to study evolution,* existentialism,* and historicism* with a view to refuting the errors and determining the truth in them. Among other things it reaffirmed the importance of analogy* of faith and of ch. tradition in Scriptural interpretation; demonstration of the existence of God; doctrine of creation,* predestination,* existence of angels,* original sin,* transubstantiation (see Grace, Means of, IV 3); membership in the ch.; approval of Thomism (see Thomas Aquinas).
Term used in various ways with different emphases for philosophies that center on man. It usually designates a philos. and literary movement which began in It. in the 14th c. and permeated W culture. The movement originally centered on Gk. and Lat. classics but soon influenced concepts of freedom, religion, hist., science, and other areas. Christian humanism stresses the values of human culture but subordinates them to Christian faith. Devout humanism, traced to L. Lessius,* tried to mitigate harsh concepts of man resulting from teachings on original sin by emphasizing man's goodness. Secular humanism emphasizes one or more of man's intellectual, cultural, or soc. achievements to the exclusion of religion. New humanism is common to several contemporary movements with varying emphases; it deals with the human as distinguished from the impersonal and the human as distinguished from the inhuman (the 1st pertains to attempts to humanize life by refusing to make people into things and by liberating them for human potential; the 2d pertains to emphasis on humanization, i. e., on ethical awareness of human nature and its possibilities as distinguished from a merely empirical measurement of man).
16th-c. Ger. humanism tried to correct decay of Lt. and Gk. style that resulted from scholasticism*; it was related in some ways to the humanism of D. Erasmus,* J. Colet,* and T. Moore.* The movement coincided with a revival of interest in classical literature, Scripture in the original languages, and ancient MSS Initiator of the movement was R. Agricola.* Many humanists despised scholastic, studies and degrees, some courted the favor of Ger. princes through their verses. Significant in the movement was a dispute regarding validity of Heb. studies; the dispute resulted in Letters* of Obscure Men. In the Luth. Reformation,* humanism was assoc. esp. with P. Melanchthon,* who founded the system of humanistic intermediate schools and classical coll. studies that became traditional in Ger. Lutheranism for higher educ. in gen. and ministerial training in particular. Humanism emphasized graceful and apt style patterned after classical models, and ethics reflecting natural* law. It provided linguistic tools for Scriptural studies and additional philos, methods for organizing thought. Humanists were interested in sources, literature, philos., and aesthetics. Humanism as such was neutral, without theol. or religious implications. RRC
F. Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, 3d ed., 2 vols. (Leipzig, 191921); P. Petersen, Geschichte der aristotelischen Philosophie im protestantischen Deutschland (Leipzig, 1921); H. A. E. v. Gelder, The Two Reformations in the 16th Century: A Study of the Religious Aspects and Consequences of Renaissance and Humanism (The Hague, 1961); L. W. Spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists (Cambridge, Mass., 1963); J. E. Seigel, Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism (Princeton, 1968).
Statement signed by J. Dewey* and other US philosophers and pub. 1933; reflects the pragmatism* of W. James* et al.; professes anthropological atheism* built on the theory of evolution*; defines humanism* as faith in the supreme value and self-perfectibility of human personality.
Human Manifesto II appeared 1973 with statements on religion, ethics, the individual, democratic society, and humanity as a whole. Signed by Sir J. S. Huxley* and other humanists. The Preface says: Humanists still believe that faith in the prayer-hearing God, assumed to love and care for persons, to hear and understand their prayers, and to be able to do something about them, is an unproved and outmoded faith. On religion: Promises of immortal salvation or fear of eternal damnation are both illusory and harmful. On ethics: Moral values derive their source from human experience. Ethics is autonomous and situational. (See also Situation(al) Ethics.
(171176). Scot. philos. and hist.; b. Edinburgh; studied law; tutor to George Johnstone, 3d marquess of Annandale; secy. to Gen. James Sinclair (d. 1762); keeper of Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; mem. Brit. embassy in Paris; undersecy, of state for the N dept.
Developed a philos. of skepticism (Humism) which restricted knowledge to experience of ideas and impressions; denied ultimate verification of truth.
According to Hume, cognition results from impressions of sensation and reflection, simple ideas come from simple impressions, complex ideas are either copies of complex impressions or mental combinations of simple ones. Knowledge is comparison of ideas.
Held that the necessary connection on which theory of cause-effect is based is not demonstrable (see also Cause, 5). Against the cosmological (or causal) argument for the existence of God, Hume argued that causal connections hold only bet. observable states, thus excluding God. He used Epicurean arguments of atomic materialism against teleological (or design) proofs for God's existence. This led defenders of theism (e.g., I. Kant*) to use moral arguments. In the 20th c. some philosophers have found contradictions in Hume's arguments on cause.
Works include A Treatise of Human Nature; Essays, Moral and Political; Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding (later called An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding); An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals; The Natural History of Religion; Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.
R. F. Anderson, Hume's First Principles (Lincoln, Nebr., 1966); A. H. Basson, David Hume (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng., 1958); A. G. N. Flew, Hume's Philosophy of Belief (New York, 1961); R. H. Hurlbutt III, Hume, Newton, and the Design Argument (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1965); R. Metz, David Hume: Leben und Philosophie (Stuttgart, 1968). EL
(November 9, 1809November 26, 1854). B. Stamford, Connecticut; educ. Union Coll. (Schenectady, New York), Andover, Massachusetts, and Princeton, New Jersey; ABCFM miss. to Bombay, India; secy. Bombay Tract and Book Soc.; ed. periodical Dnyanodaya (Rise of Knowledge).
(from Lat. humerus, shoulder). RC subdeacon's veil; worn around shoulders and covering hands, so that it, not hands, touches the monstrance* at high mass; used by priest and deacon in other eucharistic functions.
(Berettini). Adherents of RC lay-poverty movement; originated 12th c. in Lombardy; practiced communal poverty as manual laborers; women cared for sick; men helped poor and engaged in soc. activity; refused to bear arms; preached against heresy and abuses in ch.; excommunicated by Lucius III (ca. 10971185; pope 118185) with Waldenses 1184; Innocent III (see Popes, 10) restored them 1201; involvement in wool industry brought them wealth and decline; male branch suppressed 1571; several It. convents survived.
Theologically, recognition of human unworthiness in presence of transcendent God; ethically, in love valuing others above self. Non-Christian religions, including Islam,* define humility either in terms of approach to numinous power (esp. in prayer) or in terms of mystical relationship that emphasizes insignificance of man. In OT, concept of humility gen. little concerned with self-valuation apart from soc. context. A humble man depends on God, who requires humility of man (Mi 6:8). In NT, humility is not often assoc. with low soc. status, though it is part of Jesus' messianic character (Mt 11:29; 21:45). Included in NT catalogs of virtues (Cl 3:12; Eph 4:2; Ph 2:3). Humility involves man's relationship to God (2 Co 10:1, 1218). Augustine* of Hippo posited humility as basic (Sermon 19 [69 in Benedictine ed.], 2 and 4, on Mt 11:2829). Thomas* Aquinas viewed it as part of the cardinal virtue temperance, basic to Christian life. Mystical literature of the Middle Ages dealt at great length with humility. M. Luther* early defined humility as man's qualifying disposition (the deeper the humility, the greater God's mercy) which gave God honor, following Bernard* of Clairvaux (e.g., WA 1, 6365). In many instances in the Ps Luther interprets humility as meaning nothingness of man before God, the crucifying of self, the will to hear God's Word (e.g., WA 40 II, 315470). Humility assumes the character of God's work in man in Luther's lectures on Ro (e.g., WA 56, 408409). In sermons of 1518 Christocentric humility appears in faith (e.g., WA 1, 329334).
K. Thieme, Die christliche Demut (Giessen, 1906); W. C. v. Unnik, Zur Bedeutung von Tapeinou##n th;n yuchvn bei den Apostolischen Vätern, Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, XLIV (195253), 250255; L. Pinomaa, Der existenzielle Charakter der Theologie Luthers (Helsinki, 1940); R. Damerau, Die Demut in der Theologie Luthers (Giessen, Ger., ). JEG
(b. 1720). B. Burford, Oxfordshire, Eng.; educ. at a ministerial school in London; assoc. with J. and C. Wesley,* later with G. Whitefield*; preached at Bristol, London, and Deptford; hymnist. Hymns include Blessed Are the Sons of God.
Area: ca. 35,900 sq. mi. Ethnic groups: Magyar 98%, Ger. .5%, Slovak .3%, Croatian .3%. Language: Hung. (Magyar). Religions: RC 54%, Prot. 21%. For current information see CIA World Factbook. Hung. was part of the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dacia. Invading Magyars* founded a kingdom ca. 896. Stephen I (ca. 9751038; Apostle of Hung.; Apostolic King; duke of Hung. 997; crowned 1st king of Árpád dynasty 1001; continued Christianizing policy of his father, Duke Geza; suppressed paganism; patron saint of Hung.) attached the ch. of Hung. closely to Rome. Hung. hist. is checkered. The monarchy, defeated in WW I, was replaced by a rep., followed 1919 by short communist rule that ended with Rumanian occupation. Shifting fortunes of war and peace led to a Hung. rep. 1946, a Soviet People's Rep. 1949, and an unsuccessful uprising 1956.
Lutheranism (introd. by traveling merchants and returning students) and Calvinism* spread rapidly through Hung. in the 16th century. P. Melanchthon* was called Preceptor of Hung. Reformation leaders included M. B. Dévay,* J. Honter(us),* and L. Stöckel.* A Luth. confession was adopted at Erdöd 1545; the Confessio Pentapolitana (see also Lutheran Confessions, A 5) was drafted 1548 at Medias, made legal 1555. The Hung. Confession (see also Reformed Confessions, E 6), adopted at Czenger 1557 (15587), was printed 1570 at Debrecen.* In the Counter* Reformation, Hung. Prots. were severely persecuted. Joseph* II granted Prots. tolerance 1781. Further adjustments were made 1848, 1867, and 194849.
After WW II, the Soviets allowed religious freedom in principle. After the fall of pol. parties, the Soviets regarded chs. as offering the chief surviving ideological opposition to communism. Through land reforms the chs. lost endowments by which they had supported and controlled educ. In 1948 Ref. and Luth. chs. accepted an arrangement by which schools were taken over by the state, but 2 hrs. of religious instruction allowed. The RC Ch. under leadership of Cardinal Primate J. Mindszenty opposed the move. Mindszenty was imprisoned, RC schools laicized, and many RC orders dissolved. A concordat advantageous to communist govt. (organized as People's Rep. by the 1949 const.) was imposed on the chs. and signed 1948 by Ref. and Luths., 1950 by RCs In following yrs. the state assumed increasing control of ch. affairs. A 1957 decree with retroactive force required civil approval of nominations and elections to higher ch. offices. A 1958 decree made it possible for the secular govt. to fill certain ch. offices without consulting the ch. Mindszenty, who lived in refuge in US embassy Budapest 195671, was retired from the Hung. episcopate against his will by the pope and stripped of his title as RC primate of Hung. February 1974.
See also Batizi, Andras.
(Giles; Hunn; 15501603). Father of N. Hunnius*; b. Winnenden, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; asst. pastor Tübingen 1574; prof. Marburg 1576; tried unsuccessfully to win the U. of Marburg and the ch. of Hesse for the FC; prof. Wittenberg 1592; opposed Calvinism; was called to other Ger. territories (e.g., Silesia) to oppose Calvinism; main Prot. spokesman at the 1601 Regensburg* conf. Helped compose Saxon Visitation Articles (see Articles of Visitation); other works include Tractatus de majestate, autoritate fide, ac certitudine sacrae scripturae propheticae et apostolicae veteris et novi testamenti; Articulus de providentia dei et aeterna praedestinatione; De peccato originali; Thesaurus apostolicus; Thesaurus evangelicus. See also Intuitu fidei.
(Nicolaus; 15851643). Son of A. Hunnius*; b. Marburg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; instructor philos. and theol. Wittenberg 1609; supt. Eilenburg 161217; prof. Wittenberg 161723; pastor Lübeck 1623, supt. 1624. Defended orthodox Lutheranism against Calvinism and RCm Works include Epitome credendorum, 1625, repr. 1844 in a slightly rev. ed. for the Neuendettelsau sem. for missionaries to Am.; tr. into Eng. by Paul Edward Gottheil and pub. 1847, with a preface by J. K. W. Löhe,* for Ger. Luth. settlers in N. Am.
(18711934). B. Romford, Essex, Eng.; educ. Eastbourne Coll. and Oxford U.; excavated in Faiyûm province, N Egypt, with B. P. Grenfell* and David George Hogarth (18621927; b. Barton-on-Humber, Lincolnshire, Eng.; archaeologist); prof. Oxford; ed. with Grenfell papyrus texts issued by Egypt Exploration Soc.
(June 13, 1812October 4, 1848). B. Hykeham Moor. near Lincoln, Eng.; farm laborer; Meth. at ca. 16; educ. theol. coll. Hoxton; miss. to Fiji 1838. Helped tr. Bible into Fiji; other works include Memoir of the Rev. W. Cross; Entire Sanctification, in Letters to a Friend.
(February 16, 1864October 12, 1930). Luth. pastor and ed.; b. Morrisburg, Ont., Can.; educ. Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Theol. Sem.; pastor Amanda, Ohio, Rochester and Buffalo, New York, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Chicago, Illinois; instr. Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem. 190206; mgr. Gen. Council Pub. House; literature mgr. United Luth. Pub. House. Ed. The Lutheran 190720; other works include Favorite Hymns; I Believe; Facts of Our Faith.
(18711920). B. Dreilützow, Mecklenburg, Ger.; prof. Leipzig and Erlangen; pastor Hamburg 1912. Works include Probleme und Aufgaben der gegenwärtigen systematischen Theologie; Die religiöse Krisis der Gegenwart.
(181788). Luth. patriot and writer; b. Beckov, Slovakia; educ. Bratislava; chaplain Brezova 1840; pastor Hluboka 184388; opposed efforts toward Ref.-Luth. union. His Unia states position of Luth. confessionalism; ed. periodical Cirkevni� Listy, which became rallying point for Slovak Luth. Ch. See also Slovakia, Lutheran Theology in, 2.
(Huss; Johannes Hus von Husinetz; Czech: Jan Hus; ca. 13701415). 1. Reformer and martyr; b. Husinec, Boh.; educ. Prague; lecturer U. of Prague 1398; priest 1401; rector U. of Prague 1402; preacher Bethlehem Chapel, Prague, founded for the preaching of the Word of God in the language of the people. Hus tried to restore true devotion among Christians and fearlessly attacked corruption (e.g., simony* and indulgences*) on all levels in the ch.; supported Wenceslaus'* position in the papal schism of 13781417 (see Schism, 8). His defense of J. Wycliffe's* reform ideas made him suspect of heresy.
2. Hus was forbidden to preach 1409, put under lesser excommunication 1410, under greater excommunication 1412 (see Keys, Office of the, 9); went into hiding 1412 and turned to writing. His stress on the ch. as the body of the elect and on the need for doctrine and decrees to be in harmony with Scripture in order to be binding on conscience challenged the importance and authority of the hierarchy. Though Hus may not have accepted all of Wycliffe's views, he was accused of Wycliffite errors and cited to appear before the Council of Constance* 1414. Emp. Sigismund* promised him safe-conduct.
3. Hus hoped to defend his cause before the council. But he was thrown into prison and was only asked to recant his errors. He insisted on the need to distinguish bet. what was true and what was heretical in Wycliffe. He also requested reasons for recanting. The council, anxious to assert its authority and accomplish its purpose to restore unity and pure doctrine in the ch. (see Councils and Synods, 7), was not inclined to argue with a man accused of heresy. And Hus's old enemies did their best to represent him as a heretic. July 6, 1415, he was condemned, stripped of clerical status, handed over to the secular arm, and burned at the stake. His ashes were cast into the Rhine.
4. Hus's inability to accept the authority of the ch. where it went against his conscience and his understanding of Scripture foreshadowed the advent of modern man and of the Reformation.
5. Works include De ecclesia; De causa boemica; Determinatio de ablatione temporalium a clericis; Disputatio Joannis Hus; letters; sermons.
See also Hussites.
The Cambridge Medieval History, ed. C. W. Previté-Orton and Z. N. Brooke, VIII (New York, 1936), 1115; J. Hus, De ecclesia: The Church, tr. D. S. Schaff (New York, 1915); The Library of Christian Classics, ed. J. Baillie, J. T. McNeill, H. P. Van Dusen, XIV: Advocates of Reform From Wyclif to Erasmus, ed. M. Spinka (Philadelphia, 1953), 185278; M. Spinka, John Hus (Princeton, New Jersey, 1968). MSF
(180186). B. Münden, Ger.; prof. law Rostock 1824, Breslau 1827; leader of Breslau indep. Luths.; held that the ch. is formed by the means of grace and hence separate from the state. Works include Wort und Sakramente die Faktoren der Kirche (pub. 1849 in Zeitschrift für lutherische Theologie und Kirche.
(November 9, 1807May 4, 1881). B. Nordel, Hannover, Ger.; teacher in Bremen; responded to call of F. C. D. Wyneken* for ch. workers in Am. by going to Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1840; miss. teacher and pastor in and near Fort Wayne and elsewhere in N Indiana and Ohio; 1st secy. Mo. Syn. 184760; pastor South Euclid, near Cleveland, Ohio, 186381.
Gen. name for followers of J. Hus.* Fierce indignation aroused throughout Boh. by execution of Hus and Jerome* of Prague, rejection by the Council of Constance* of the use of the cupintrod. during the imprisonment of Hus with his approvalas heretical, and determination of Hussites to defend their faith to the utmost resulted in grave disorders and civil war. A favorable setting for the Hussite movement had been prepared by Devotio* moderna. Wycliffism* furnished Hussites with a theoretical basis for revolt. Refusal of the estates to have Sigismund* as king brought on the Hussite Wars. Martin* V organized a crusade against the dissidents 1420. Hussite moderates (called Calixtines [from their demand for the use of the chalice (Lat. calix) in communing the laity] or Utraquists [from Lat. sub utraque specie, under both kinds]) were conservative in demands for reform. Taborites,* a more radical group, gathered around Jan (Johann) Zizka (Ziska; ca. 13601424), rejected transubstantiation,* adoration of saints, intercession for dead, and eccle siastical customs not commanded in the Bible; they demanded that the state regulate its affairs by the Bible, and had chiliastic and communistic tendencies. Horebites (from a mountain which they called Horeb and to which they retired), another radical group, also gathered around Zizka. These 3 groups adopted the Articles of Prague 1420: 1. Freedom of preaching; 2. Communion under both kinds; 3. Reduction of clergy to apostolic poverty; 4. Severe punishment for mortal sin. Hussites were repeatedly victorious and carried the war into neighboring countries. Crushing defeat of the RC army 1431 blighted all hopes of emp. and pope of subjecting the Bohemians by force. The driving force of the Hussites was religious zeal nourished by Biblical preaching, frequent partaking of the Eucharist, and rich vernacular hymnody. Negotiations bet. the Council of Basel* and the Hussites resulted in adoption 1433 of a modified form of the Articles of Prague. Communion under both kinds was allowed. Taborites rejected the agreement and were well-nigh annihilated 1434 by Hussite moderates and RCs in a battle near Lipan. Hussite zeal and religious creativity came to an end but found new expression in the Bohemian* Brethren. Utraquists continued in an uneasy peace with RCs till the time of M. Luther* (see Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in). Most then became Luth. or neo-Utraquist; Old Utraquists merged with the RC Ch. See also Poland, 1.
F. G. Heymann, The Hussite-Utraquist Church in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, LII (1961), 116, and John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution (Princeton, New Jersey, 1955); F. H. H. V. v. Lützow, A History of Bohemian Literature (New York, 1900); The Cambridge Medieval History, ed. C. W. Previté-Orton and Z. N. Brooke, VIII (New York, 1936), 65115. MSF
(Hutt; ca. 14901527). Anabap.; b. Hain, near Grimmenthal, Franconia; sexton, bookbinder, book peddler; traveled in Ger. and Austria; influenced by T. Münzer*; won for the Anabap. cause by J. Denk*; influential in Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia, and Austria; defeated in disputation with B. Hubmaier*; d. in prison at Augsburg.
(nee Marbury; 160043). B. Lincolnshire, Eng.; to Boston, Massachusetts, 1634; her theol. views at variance ith Puritanism (see Puritans) led to an Antinomian Controversy; J. Cotton* first supported her, later recanted; tried for traducing the ministers; banished and excommunicated; est. a settlement on the is. of Aquidneck (now Rhode Island) 1638; to Long Island Sound, near present New Rochelle, Pelham Bay, New York; killed by Indians. Folloers called Antinomians and Hutchinsonians.
(November 30, 1857April 23, 1926). B. Nieden, Brandenburg, Ger.; educ. Northwestern U. (later called Northwestern Coll.), Watertown, Wisconsin (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B), and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 18811926.
(14881523). Humanist; b. Steckelberg Castle, near Fulda, Franconia, Ger.; studied at Benedictine monastery at Fulda and various univs. in Ger. and It.; joined imperial army 1513; joined Swabian League against duke Ulrich of Württemberg 1519; joined F. v. Sickingen* in struggle of nobles against spiritual principalities 1522; fled to Switz., where H. Zwingli* befriended him. Satirist; wrote part of Letters* of Obscure Men; vigorously defended M. Luther*; writings appealed to sympathies and patriotism of nobility; had dispute with D. Erasmus*; ed. L. Valla's* work on Donation* of Constantine.
(Leonard Hütter; Hutterus; 15631616). B. Nellingen, near Ulm, Ger.; educ. Strasbourg, Leipzig, Heidelberg, and Jena; prof. Wittenberg 1596; champion of Luth. orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580); called redonatus Lutherus (Lat. Luther given back), by anagrammatic rearrangement of the letters in Leonardus Hutterus. Works include Compendium locorum theologicorum; Concordia concors (reply to R. Hospinian,* Concordia discors).
(18871975). Gradson of T. H. Huxley*; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; biologist; humanistic philos.; prof. Rice Institute, Texas, 191316; senior demonstrator in zoology Oxford 191925; prof. King's Coll., London, 192527; Fullerian prof. Royal Institution 192629; dir. gen. UNESCO 194648. Developed theory of evolutionary humanism; its basic postulate is that mental and spiritual forcesusing the term force in a loose and general sensedo have operative effect, and are indeed of decisive importance in the highly practical business of working out human destiny; and that they are not supernatural, not outside man but within him (Religion without Revelation, chap. 9). Works incl. Religion without Revelation; Toward a New Humanism. See also Humanist Manifesto, A; Humanism. into collective farms in Moravia; arrested in Tirol; burned at stake. See also Mennonite Churches, 3 a.
(182595). Biologist; b. Ealing, near London, Eng.; lectured on biology and related subjects at various London institutions; held several govt. positions; embraced Darwinism (see Darwin, Charles Robert) and became skeptic, rejecting Christianity completely; engaged in warfare against Christian beliefs; promoted agnosticism.* Works include Man's Place in Nature; Lessons in Elementary Physiology. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
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