(from Gk. hieros, holy, and arche, rule). The word hierarchy may refer to the graded organization of angels (see Dionysius the Areopagite, 2), but usually denotes the organization of the clergy.* Since pre-Reformation times the RC Ch. has had a hierarchy of order (or orders) and a hierarchy of jurisdiction. The hierarchy of order consists of 3 orders usually considered of divine origin (bishop,* priest,* deacon*) and 5 orders usually considered of ecclesiastical origin (subdeacon, acolyte, exorcist, lector, doorkeeper [also called ostiary or porter]); the 1st 4 are major, or holy, orders; the last 4 are minor. The hierarchy of jurisdiction, charged with the gen. guidance and control of the ch., consists of 2 degrees claimed to be of divine origin (primacy of the Roman Pontiff and the episcopate) and many other degrees of ecclesiastical origin (e.g., that of cardinal, patriarch, primate, metropolitan, vicar, apostolic, and prefect apostolic).
In Lutheranism a hierarchy is not considered necessary for the existence of the ch. The Luth. Ch. does not recognize the pope as head of the ch. by divine right. Luths. believe that the ch. can exist without bps. (as distinct from other pastors). The power of order (to preach the Gospel, remit sins, and administer the Sacraments) and the power of jurisdiction (to excommunicate) belongs by divine right to all who preside over the chs., whether they are called pastors, presbyters, or bps., and all pastors may administer ordination by divine right (Tractatus, 60, 61, 65, 74; AC XXVIII 2022; Ap XXVIII 13). There is no essential, divinely-appointed difference in rank bet. pastor and bp. But Luths. recognize the value of ordered ranks in the clergy. It is not our intention that the bishops give up their power to govern, but we ask that they allow the Gospel to be taught purely (AC XXVIII 77); [it is] our deep desire to maintain the church polity and various ranks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, although they were created by human authority [and] to keep the ecclesiastical and canonical polity (Ap XIV 1, 5). Luths. also regard the distinction bet. bp. (or pastor) and deacon as Biblical (AC XXIII 10; Ap XIII 12 Ger. tr.).
(4th c. AD). Probably the Sossianus Hierocles of an inscription from Palmyra; gov. or proconsul Bythinia 303; prefect Egypt 308; Lactantius* calls him auctor et consiliarius of Diocletian* persecution (see Persecution of Christians, 4).
RC congs. in 14th15th-c. Sp. and It. (1) Span. Cong. of Hermits* of St. Jerome*; organized ca. 1373 by Pedro Fernandez Pecha (d. 1374); suppressed 1835 by the Span. govt.; reest. in the 20th c. (2) Poor Hermits of St. Jerome; est. 1377 near Montebello, It., by Peter Gambacorta of Pisa (d. 1435); dissolved 1953. (3) The cong. est. 1406 at Fiesole, It., by Carlo de Montegranelli (d. 1417); dissolved 1668. (4) The Observants or cong. of Lombardy; est. 1424 by Lope de Olmedo (d. 1433), former gen. of the Span. cong.; the Span. branch joined the Span. cong. 1595.
The High Ch. movement has been traced to such men as R. Bancroft* and R. Hooker,* includes L. Andrewes,* J. Butler,* S. Johnson,* and W. Laud,* but the name dates from the end of the 17th c.; Anglo-Catholicism is a corresponding 20th-c. term. High churchmen stress hist. continuity; they wish to be neither RCs nor Prots. but claim to perpetuate non-Roman (pre-Roman) Western Catholicism; gen. emphasize authority of ch., episc. succession, and use of sacraments. The high ch. movement in Am. stresses spiritual life developed within the ch. through the sacraments.
The term Low Ch. was coined in contrast to High Ch. at beginning of 18th c. Low churchmen (also called evangelicals) emphasize Gospel preaching, accept apostolic succession of episcopacy without rejecting validity of nonepiscopal ministry and give secondary position to sacraments and orders; often also emphasize justification* and conversion.* Many low churchmen identified with Latitudinarians,* Methodists (see Methodist Churches), nonconformists,* and similar groups.
The term Broad Ch. became prominent in 2d half of 19th c. Broad churchmen opposed requiring adherence to definite theol. definitions, emphasized intellectual approach to Christianity, and advocated liberal interpretation of Angl. formularies and rubrics. Broad Ch. principles are often identified with liberalism* and Modernism.* See also African Orthodox Church, The Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn.
1. Biblical higher criticism is an investigation of the origin of the books of the Bible. In distinction from lower criticism (see Textual Criticism) it deals with such questions as authorship, hist. background, authenticity, integrity, and unity of the books. It is profitable to evaluate properly the hist. and literary data supplied by the Bible and other hist. sources.
2. Conservative scholars have come to regard the work of most higher critics negatively, pointing out that most conclusions of higher critics make it impossible to accept at face value what Scripture itself says about the origin and authorship of a book or parts of it.
3. Theories of higher critics about the origin and composition of the Pentateuch* and other books reveal their methodology and its results.
4. Critical views regarding the Pentateuch are not all of recent origin. Origen* refuted Celsus* (Contra Celsum, IV, 3355). Sporadic doubts about the authorship of the Pentateuch rose in the Middle Ages. Sweeping attacks were made by T. Hobbes* and B. Spinoza,* but their views were not gen. accepted. Higher criticism as a systematic and gen. method with specific criteria of investigation began in the latter part of the 18th c.
5. Most higher critics hold that the Pentateuch is not the earliest book of the Bible but is the product of oral and literary activity completed toward the end of the OT period, after the return from Babylonian captivity; the substance of some parts may derive from the Mosaic age, but the present structure of the Pentateuch resulted from development spanning a millennium of literary activity.
6. There is a growing tendency to recognize the problem as complex. But most higher critics regard the Pentateuch as the result of literary activity in 4 major stages producing 4 main strands of materials or sources (Ger. Quellen). See also Q.
7. This source hypothesis or documentary hypothesis labels the 4 strands J, E, D, P (Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist, and Priestly writers).
8. There is some variety of opinion, but higher critics are agreed in gen. on a timetable for the origin and fusion of these sources. J is dated no earlier than the time of David (11th c. BC). Since E reflects traditions current in the N Kingdom, its origin is dated prior to the fall of Samaria ca. 722 BC About 100 yrs. later the fused J-E document was supplemented by a strand produced by D. The Priestly writer or writers flourished after the destruction of Jerusalem 586 BC After the Babylonian exile these accumulated and interwoven materials were edited into Pentateuch form by an unknown writer or writers.
9. The 4 main strands have been identified and isolated according to literary criteria held to be valid in the study of any documents, Intense study, great ingenuity, and vast learning have gone into this dissection and linguistic analysis. It is held that the Pentateuch must be of composite origin because certain accounts (e.g., the creation story) and laws (e.g., the Decalog) appear more than once in slightly different versions. These doublets appear in various stages of fusion. Some parallel accounts have been left almost unchanged and have merely been set down side by side; others have been woven together so skillfully that only the seam and an occasional spot of color appears here and there to identify the original material. Further proof that the Pentateuch is the work of many hands is sought in vocabulary and style; e.g., J uses Jahweh (Jehovah), E uses Elohim (God) as a name of the Supreme Being and each source has many words that appear almost exclusively in its strand. A distinct style is predicated for each source; J is volkstümlich, popular; P is pedantic and statistically dry; D. is highly historical.
10. The documentary hypothesis finds each strand marked also by varying points of view. Each writer is said to reflect a stage in the development of Israel's concept of God, J speaking of God in strikingly anthropomorphic terms that do not occur to so marked a degree in E. Later sources give further evidence of growing stress on the monotheistic and transcendental nature of God not found in the earlier writer. Each source also differs in treating Israel's hist., and its choice of materials is dictated by the aim of the writer.
11. Critics admit that it may be difficult to apply these criteria consistently. But they say there is enough validity to make the cumulative evidence conclusive.
12. This view of the origin of the Pentateuch, called the Graf-Wellhausen theory because it was developed esp. by K. H. Graf* and J. Wellhausen,* appeared in rudimentary form ca. a c. earlier. J. Astruc* concluded that Moses incorporated into Gn at least 2 main sources, one of which uses Elohim, the other Jahweh, to denote God. J. G. Eichhorn (see Eichhorn, 2) is regarded by many as the father of modern higher criticism; he elaborated Astruc's documentary hypothesis by applying and broadening its principles to the whole Pentateuch; in the last ed. of Einleitung in das Alte Testament (182324) he concluded that the Pentateuch was a compilation of sources later than Moses, though he conceded that some of the sources may have been of Mosaic origin.
13. But development of the documentary theory did not proceed in a straight line. A rival theory of the origin of the Pentateuch was introd. by Alexander Geddes (17371802; Scot. RC) and later championed by W. M. L. De* Wette. Their view that the Pentateuch resulted from fusion of many indep. strands and pieces was called the fragment theory. Acc. to it the final ed. was not Moses, but the compiling took place at the time of the Exile, though some material may be traced to Moses' time. The main thesis of this theory was later discarded, but its defenders contributed one of the permanent features of modern documentary theory: identification of the core of Dt, now called the Deuteronomic code, as part of the reform movement of Josiah and attributed to Moses as a literary device.
14. Another rival view that found favor for a time was the supplement theory, which posits one initial document (Grundschrift) supplanted by additions of later writers. The core document was regarded as appearing in the 11th or 10th c. BC; Mosaic authorship was considered impossible. The most influential sponsor of this theory was G. H. A. Ewald.*
15. Neither the fragment theory nor the supplement theory survived for many yrs. H. C. K. F. Hupfeld* revived the documentary hypothesis 1853 in Die Quellen der Genesis und die Art ihrer Zusammensetzung von neuem untersucht, and it emerged dominant (see pars. 512 above).
16. Other scholars in the 20th c. have sought to supplement and even displace the documentary hypothesis by stressing the part that oral transmission rather than written sources played in the development. J. F. H. Gunkel* stressed the need of recognizing the oral beginnings of ancient literature which have their origin in definite settings of their presentation (Sitz* im Leben) and which are still recognizable in certain literary forms (Gattungen). Constant recital at various times and occasions modified and enlarged the first short and simple narratives and resulted in more complex and variegated composition in literary form. This attempt to find antecedents of the written form is known as traditio-historical research. A more radical rejection of the literary source hypothesis in favor of a long and reliable oral transmission is advanced by a group of Scand. scholars such as Johannes Peder Ejler Pedersen (b. 1883 in Illebö (or Lindelse), Langeland, Denmark. Ed. and tr. Muhammedansk mystik. Other works include Der Eid bei den Semiten; Israel: Its Life and Culture; Scepticisme Israelite; Islams Kultur) and K. I. A. Engnell.* They and the followers of Gunkel also repudiate Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.
17. Conclusions of higher criticism were contested from the outset by conservative scholars. Investigations have been made to disprove the validity of the linguistic canons on which higher critical theories rest.
18. Opposing literature has also pointed to divergence in higher critical theories. No 2 critics agree on a detailed analysis of literature in question. They differ even in major issues. The same book or sections of a book are distributed by various scholars over many cents. and are assigned to many different hands. Multiplicity of theories, often mutually contradictory, does not preclude possibility that 1 theory may be correct, but it indicates the highly subjective character of the investigation and its lack of scientific checks and criteria.
19. Modern archaeol. has also had a sobering effect on the claims of higher criticism. Results of excavations have had direct bearing on some literary questions, as in the case of the Ras Shamra inscriptions. But it is above all in the hist. field that archaeol. has shown some higher critical theories to be unreliable. WR
O. T. Allis, The Five Books of Moses (Philadelphia, 1943); G. W. Anderson, A Critical Introduction to the Old Testament (London, 1959); A. Bentzen, Introduction to the Old Testament, 5th ed., 2 vols. in 1 (Copenhagen, 1959); U. Cassuto, The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch, tr. I. Abrahams (Jerusalem, 1961); J. Orr, The Problem of the Old Testament (New York, 1926); R. H. Pfeiffer, Introduction to the Old Testament (New York, 1948), abridged ed. The Books of the Old Testament (New York, 1957); J. E. Steinmueller, A Companion to Scripture Studies, 2d ed., II (New York, 1942); E. J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament, rev. ed. (London, 1964).
1. Higher educ. is educ. on the coll. or university level. When the Christian era began, the pagan world had many schools of advanced learning. Alexandria was for cents. the intellectual cen. of the world. Many early ch. fathers were educ. there. But as the danger of pagan learning and philos. was more keenly realized, catechumenal schools developed into catechetical schools designed for higher educ. of leaders in the ch.
2. Pantaenus,* Clement* of Alexandria, and Origen* taught at Alexandria (see also Exegesis, 3). Origen est. a school at Caesarea in Palestine ca. 231. A school in Rome is dated from the 2d c. These schools, where literature, hist., and science were studied, were attended by scholars of all classes but were planned esp. for clergy training under direction of a bp. Later called episc. or cathedral schools, they spread over all Eur. and continued throughout the Middle Ages. Their importance increased as clergy promotion came to depend somewhat on studies pursued.
3. Ch. councils in the 5th and 6th c. ordered that boys destined for the priesthood be placed in these schools. As attendance increased, appropriate bldgs. were erected, teaching staffs were enlarged, courses of study regulated, and the life of teachers and pupils subjected to regular rules and canons. With the overthrow of Roman culture by the barbarians, higher educ. fell completely into the hands of the ch. From the 8th to the 12th c., monastic schools were of greater importance, but with expansion of knowledge and greater tolerance of inquiry the rigidity and narrowness of these schools resulted in renewed growth and revived importance of cathedral schools. The study of dialectics was emphasized; this stimulated interest in intellectual activity and in logical formulation and statement of religious beliefs. Plato* and Aristotle* dominated in these schools; the method was logical analysis of the subject with little observation and research; knowledge was mainly theol. and sophistic.
4. Because of the scholastic movement and the new intellectual and educ. interest, stimulated during the Crusades* by contact with E and Saracen learning, some cathedral schools developed into univs. The schools at Naples (est. ca. 1224), Bologna (11th c.), and Paris (2d half of 12th c.) became prominent. Many additional schools were est. in the 13th, 14th, and 15th cents. Univs. varied from place to place. Usually the organization was patterned after guilds. In some early univs., students controlled curriculum and faculty and were not under local govt.
5. Chivalry represents the educ. that upper secular soc. received. Training in knightly ideals and activities formed the educ. of the nobility. This educ. was divided into 2 periods: that of a page, which covered ca. the 7th14th yr., and that of a squire, 14th21st yr., when the squire was knighted. This educ. was a discipline both for the individual and for the soc. class to which he belonged; the intellectual element was slight. In addition to physical training, educ. emphasized manners and morals. Under chivalry, the ideals constituting the character of a gentleman were more definitely formulated than in modern ages.
6. The Renaissance* vitally affected educ. ideals. The new learning, the study of classical antiquity, wedged its way into all schools and univs. The most important phase of this revival was restoration of the idea of a liberal educ. as formulated by the Gks. and adapted to the Romans by M. T. Cicero,* Quintilian,* C. Tacitus,* et al. Renaissance educ. emphasized the physical element and tried to influence conduct and behavior. It was practical and tried to train for effective citizenship and to produce practical judgment in everyday affairs. Its aesthetic element found expression in the study of literature and became the dominant feature in the work of the schools.
7. This broad content and scope of Renaissance educ. was later restricted to the study of the languages and literatures of the ancients, which study, formerly but a means to the end, became the chief end in humanistic educ. Classics were studied chiefly for the sake of language and less for the sake of educ. value. The new learning found a permanent home in It. and spread from there through the rest of Eur.; it soon reached Oxford and Cambridge. The hostility of univs., the ch., and monastic schools led to the est. of many schools embodying the new spirit under patronage of monarchs and nobility, e.g., court schools in It. and Fürstenschulen (schools for princes) in Ger. The term gymnasium (from Gk. gymnazein, to train naked; to exercise) became popular as a name for a humanistic secondary school. The gymnasium at Strasbourg, organized 153738 by Johannes and Jakob Sturm,* exerted great influence. St. Paul's School, London, founded ca. 1509, influenced educ. in Eng. Grammar schools of the Am. colonies were fashioned after Eng. schools as to scope and method. The Boston Lat. School was founded 1635. But in Am. the humanistic school gave place to a new type earlier than in any Eur. country.
8. The Reformation deeply affected educ. ideas and aims. Renaissance interests were mainly literary and aesthetic; the Reformation emphasized religious and moral interests. It made the new learning serve the Word of God. Lat., Gk., Heb., logic, math, hist., science, and music were studied besides the vernacular. The work of carrying out the ideas of M. Luther* was largely left to his co-workers. P. Melanchthon* was called Praeceptor Germaniae; he was to Ger. as to educ. reform what Luther was with respect to religious reform. Wittenberg, from which all these influences radiated, was remodeled along humanistic-Prot. lines and became the model of many new univs.
9. At the death of Melanchthon there was scarcely a city in all Ger. that had not modified its schools acc. to his direct advice or his gen. suggestions. Many univs. and other schools threw off allegiance to the pope and transferred it to princes and the state. But even under state control the dominant motive was a religious one, and the school plan was strongly humanistic. These schools were organized into a system in Saxony in the 1520s, in Wüerttemberg 1559. Effectiveness of Prot. schools in reforming soc. and ecclesiastical evils and est. chs. moved the RC Ch. to use the same means. Teaching orders, esp. Jesuits, adopting many Prot. ideas and methods, made educ. their chief aim and controlled RC institutions. From a modern viewpoint their educ. was not broad, but it was thorough and effective.
10. Nearly all colleges est. in Am. before the end of the colonial period grew out of religious motives. Puritans controlled Harvard Coll., Cambridge, Massachusetts, est. 1636. The Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, est. 1693, was a sem. for Angl. ministers; Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, est. 1701, was under Puritan auspices; Princeton (New Jersey) U., founded 1746 at Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) as the Coll. of New Jersey, was Presb. The Academy and Coll. of Philadelphia, chartered 1753, owed its origin to Benjamin Franklin and was not under denominational control; Columbia U., NYC, was est. 1754 under predominantly Angl. direction as King's Coll.; Brown U., Providence, R. I., was est. 1764 under Bap. influence as R. I. Coll. in Warren, R. I.; Rutgers U., New Brunswick, New Jersey, was est. 1766 on initiative of leaders of the Dutch Ref. Ch.; Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, N. H., est. 1769, was Cong. See also Ministry, Education of, VI A; Protestant Education in the United States.
11. After the War of Am. Indep. (Revolutionary War; 177583) some States sought control of colleges in their territory. But the 1819 Dartmouth Coll. Case decision of the US Supreme Court protected educ. corporations against pol. interference and roused greater denominational interest in erection of colleges. Since then the no. of colleges has grown rapidly.
12. Development of pub. colleges and univs. was slow. The U. of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, was chartered 1785, opened ca. 1800; the U. of North Carolina was chartered 1789, opened 1795; the U. of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, was founded 1791, opened 1800; the U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was founded 1819, opened 1825; Indiana U. was est. 1820, the U. of Alabama 1831.
13. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, was est. 1824. Emma Willard (nee Hart; 17871870) est. Troy (New York) Female Sem. (later called Emma Willard School) 1821. Mount Holyoke Female Sem., South Hadley, Massachusetts, was chartered 1836, opened 1837, called Mount Holyoke Coll. beginning 1893. Other early women's colleges: Wesleyan Coll. (Macon, Georgia), founded 1836; Rockford (Illinois) Coll., est. 1847; Elmira (New York) Coll., est. 1855; Vassar Coll. (Poughkeepsie, New York), chartered 1861. Oberlin (Ohio) Coll., coeducational, was founded 1833. Johns Hopkins U. (Baltimore, Maryland), founded 1876, emphasized graduate study.
14. From ca. the middle of the 19th c., efforts to broaden curricular offerings became a prominent trend among colleges and univs. In the 20th c., financial support given univs. by state appropriations, individuals, foundations, and organizations greatly increased.
P. Monroe, A Brief Course in the History of Education (New York, 1915); A Cyclopedia of Education, ed. P. Monroe (Detroit, Mich., 1968); W. Boyd, The History of Western Education, 3d ed. (London, 1932); E. P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States, rev. and enl. ed. (New York, 1934); S. G. Noble, A History of American Education (New York, 1938); F. Eby and C. F. Arrowood, The History and Philosophy of Education Ancient and Medieval (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1940) and The Development of Modern Education (New York, 1934); E. W. Knight, Education in the United States, 2d rev. ed. (New York, 1941); H. G. Good, A History of American Education (New York, 1956).
MPL, 23, 2954.
(ca. 315367). Athanasius of the West; b. Poitiers, Fr. (Gaul), of pagan parentage; bp., though married, ca. 350; opposed Arianism*; banished 356 to Phrygia, in Asia Minor, an Arian stronghold; returning ca. 361, he purged Gaul of the heresy, but was less successful in It.; outstanding Lat. theol.; hymnist. Works include De Trinitate. See also Patristics, 6.
(ca. 1056ca. 1133). B. Lavardin, Fr.; educ. at cathedral school of Le Mans; archdeacon Le Mans ca. 1091; bp. Le Mans ca. 1096; abp. Tours 1125; hymnist. Hymns include De mysterio missae; De sacra eucharistia; De operibus sex dierum. Other works include Tractatus theologicus; De sacramento altaris; De expositione missae.
MPL, 171, 91458.
(162391). B. Walkenried Monastery, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Jena, Leipzig, Helmstedt; conrector Wolfenbüttel; prof. theol. and sacred antiquities Helmstedt; supt. Grubenhagen and Celle-Lüneburg. Works include Sacra publica veteris ecclesiae; Theologia dogmatica cum praecipuis controversiis sacris; De nuptiis veterum Christianorum; Immortalitas animae rationalis ex solo lumine naturae ostensa.
(ca. 10981179). B. probably Bermersheim, near Alzey, Ger. (some say Böckelheim, on the Nahe R., Ger.); one of the most influential women of Middle Ages; abbess Disibodenberg and Rupertsberg, near Bingen. Wrote visions (Scivias), letters, sermons, medical treatises, and theol. works. See also Apocalyptic Literature.
(18471928). B. Freistadt, near Milwaukee, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Omaha, Nebraska; Arlington, Nebraska; Cheyenne, Wyoming; San Francisco, California; Hood River and Portland, Oregon First pres. Nebraska Dist., Missouri Syn.; helped found Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, and Luth. Orphanage, Fremont, Nebraska; Missouri Syn. vice-pres.
(18231907). B. Stappenbeck, near Salzwedel, Ger.; prof. Jena; ed. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie; adopted theol. of Later Tübingen* School; wrote on Judaism, Biblical criticism, patristics.
(1791July 1, 1882). Educ. Columbia Coll., NYC, and Prot. Episc. Theol. Sem., Alexandria, Virginia; Am. Episc. Missionary Soc. miss. to Greece 1830; est. schools for boys and girls in Greece; these schools became models for municipal and nat. schools; chaplain of Brit. legation at Athens 1845.
(of Verona: ca. 1220ca. 1295). Grandson of Eleazar ben Samuel of Verona; Jewish physician, philos., Talmudist; practiced medicine at Rome, Capua, Ferrara, and Forli, It.; tr. Lat. scholastic writings into Heb. Works include Tagmule hanephesh (Rewards of the Soul).
(ca. 70 BCca. 10 AD). The Elder. Rabbi; Babylonian by birth; allegedly a descendant of David; to Palestine; pres. Sanhedrin*; in opposition to Shammai,* he advocated lenient interpretation of the Law. See also Bible Versions, B.
(ca. 330365). Jewish patriarch ca. 350365; said to be a descendant of Hillel* I; friend of Julian*the Apostate. To make it possible for Jews outside Palestine to determine festival days, he revealed the rules by which the Jewish calendar is calculated.
(real name Hüller; 17281804). B. Wendisch-Ossig, near Görlitz, Silesia; educ. Görlitz, Dresden, and Leipzig; founder and conductor (178185) Gewandhaus concerts, Leipzig; cantor and dir. Thomasschule, Leipzig, 1789; originated Singspiel. Works include Fünfzig geistliche Lieder für Kinder; Allgemeines-Choral-Melodien-Buch.
(16991769). B. Mühlhausen on the Enz, Ger.; educ. Denkendorf, Maulbronn, and Tübingen; pastor; hymnist. Works include Kurze und erbauliche Andachten; Beiträge zur Anbetung Gottes im Geist und in der Wahrheit, oder Morgen- und Abend-andachten nach dem Gebet des Herrn; Geistliches Liederkästlein.
(Herman Volrath; Hermann Volrath; 18591925). Assyriologist; b. Hohenersleben, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; to U. of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, 1886; dir. several expeditions to Nippur, Babylonia, and made scientific explorations in Syria and Asia Minor. Works include Explorations in Bible Lands During the 19th Century; The Excavations in Assyria and Babylonia; ed. The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania.
(Joannes Himmelius; 15811642). Luth. theol.; b. Stolpe, Pomerania; educ. Wittenberg, Jena, and Giessen; rector Durlach; headmaster grammar school and pastor Speyer; prof. Jena. Works include De canonicatu, jure canonico, et theologia scholastica; commentary on Ro and 1-2 Co in Das Weimarische* Bibelwerk.
(165295). B. Döbeln, Saxony; educ. Wittenberg; rector Gardelegen 1672, Lübeck 1675; deacon Hamburg 1685; court preacher to the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and honorary prof. Giessen 1687; preacher Hamburg 1689; poet; orientalist; accused of millennialism* and pietism.* Works include Sylloge vocum et phrasum rabbinicarum obscuriorum; De sacrificiis Ebraeorum.
(ca. 806882). B. probably N Fr.; abp. Reims 845; adviser of Charles* II; strong in statesmanship and ch. govt.; upheld right of nat. ch. against papacy and nat. ruler; also ably defended his rights as metropolitan over bps. See also Eucharistic Controversies; Predestinarian Controversy.
(18951963). Composer, violist; b. Hanau, Ger.; concertmeister Frankturt am Main 191523; prof. Berlin 192733; to US 1933; taught at the Berkshire Music Cen., Tanglewood, an estate in Lenox, Massachusetts, 1940; prof. Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut, till 1953; prof. U. Zurich, Switz., 1953; identified with ultramodern school. Works include Das Unaufhörliche. (oratorio).
(18771945). B. Weilhelm an der Teck, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen, Greifswald, Halle; dir. Ev. Press. Assoc. of Ger.; chm. Internat. Christian Press Commission 1926 (see World Council of Churches); initiated modern concepts of ch. publicity. Works include Was zur Tat wurde; Bilder aus der inneren Mission in Württemberg; Das ökumenische Schrifttum.
1. Major religious and soc. system of India.* Hinduism as a religion began with Vedic* religion and developed through Brahmanism* and philosophic Hinduism into its modern forms. It survived the influences of Buddhism* and Jainism.* In its conglomeration of beliefs and cults, including some of non-Aryans, there is much compromise. It has been able to absorb, but not necessarily assimilate, almost every system of religious and philos. thought except Christianity. Its levels vary from metaphysical speculation to degraded nature worship.
2. Popular manifestations of Hinduism include gross and subtle pantheism,* worship of celestial bodies, trees, rocks, rivers (e.g., the Ganges), the sea, and animals (esp. the cow). Phallicism* and prostitution in temples is being eliminated, modified, or given abstract significance.
3. Hinduism includes the basically pantheistic concept that individual souls begin in the universal soul, have many forms and incarnations, and finally rejoin the universal soul. Its ideas of creation, God, and man are self-contradictory. Constant themes include karma,* caste (see Brahmanism, 3), transmigration* of souls, and essential monism.* According to the doctrine of karma a present life is determined by a previous life. Transmigration of souls continues the soul's purification till all sins are expiated and the soul joins the Absolute or Infinite, like a drop of water falling into the sea. Besides the 4 traditional castes there are many subcastes. Pariahs (untouchables; mems. of the lowest subcastes) were given the name harijans (children of God; from Skt. harijana, person belonging to Vishnu; from Hari, Vishnu, and jana, person) by M. K. Gandhi.* Gen. speaking, marriage is permitted only within caste or subcaste; severe restrictions apply to eating and drinking across caste lines. New castes and subcastes arise along with new occupations; occupations are usually hereditary. The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850 and later legislation tried to remove caste disabilities from the laws of marriage and inheritance.
4. The Hindu Trimurti, or triad, consisting of the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and S(h)iva, reflects Brahman, the neuter, impersonal, supreme, philosophic Absolute (see also Brahmanism, 3). The term Brahmanism is derived from Brahman, not from Brahma. Brahma (see also Brahmanism, 2) has no large following. Vishnu and Siva early became prominent; Hinduism divides roughly into their followers: Vishnuites and Sivaites. Vishnu, a Vedic celestial god (probably sun-god), regarded as Preserver, is not worshiped in his own person, but in his avatars, i. e., incarnations in animal, human, or superhuman forms. Siva, also a Vedic god (see also Brahmanism, 2) is regarded as Destroyer; the phallic aspect of his worship, apparently of non-Aryan origin, has found expression in indulgence or asceticism.
5. The ritualism and emphasis on knowledge of Brahmanism proper (see Brahmanism, 3) gave way to the bhakti (personal faith and devotion) of the followers of Vishnu and Siva, esp. in S India. Excessive devotion to a deity included marriage to the god by females, who became prostitutes. Vishnu was worshiped in one or more avatars, e.g., Krishna; Siva's emblem was the lingam (phallic symbol), often combined in temple architecture with the yoni (symbol of female genitals), in a stylized form repeated in rows of stone sculptures venerated with prayers and offerings.
6. Important sources for Hindu hist. are the great epic poems Mahabharata (Great Bharata story) and Ramayana (the Career of Rama, an alleged incarnation of Vishnu). The Mahabharata may have begun to take form ca. the 4th c. BC; it was developed and enlarged till ca. 400 AD. It consists of ca. 100,000 stanzas, partly narrative, partly didactic, which tell of the struggle bet. the 2 branches of the house of Bhrata, legendary monarch of India. One of the heroes is Krishna, an alleged incarnation of Vishnu. The Bhagavad* Gita (Song of the Lord [or of the Blessed One]), a popular book of devotion in the form of dialog bet. the warrior Arjuna and Krishna, is part of the Mahabharata. The Ramayana, which also originated several cents. BC but in its present form is later than the Mahabharata, treats of one of Vishnu's avatars. Significant developments leading away from traditional Hinduism occurred with the rise of the Sikhs* in the 16th c. Increasing influence of Christianity and W civilization led to reform movements directed against polytheism and the abuses of the old religion. A theistic soc., the Brahma (or Brahmo) Samaj (or Sabha) (Bengali Soc. of Brahman), founded 1828 by a Brahmin, Ram* Mohan Roy, in cooperation with W. Adam,* was much influenced by Islam and Christianity; it returned to the monotheism of the Upanishads. Ram Mohan Roy was followed 1841 by Debendra Nath Tagore (18171905), father of the poet Rabindra Nath Tagore (18611941). Under Debendra's leadership the movement became more Hindu. Religious dispute led to a split 186566, when the Bharatvarshiya Brahma Samaj (Brahman Soc. of India; called Naba Bidhan, or Nava Vidhana, New Dispenation, January 1881) with emphasis on soc. reform, was formed by Keshab Chandra Sen (183884). Thereafter Debendra's organization was known as Adi Brahma Samaj (Original Brahman Soc.). Further fragmentation followed, with unsuccessful attempts at Hindu-Christian syncretism; decline of influence resulted. The Arya Samaj (Aryan Soc.) was founded 1875 by Mul Sankar (Dayananda Sarasvati*; 182483) to reform Indian religion. It regards the Vedas as divine revelation and is hostile to Christianity.
7. Gadadhar Chatterji (Ramakrishna* Paramahamsa; 183486), mystic, devotee of the goddess Kali, emphasized soc. service. Some of his followers, esp. Swami Vivekananda* (Narendranath Datta: ca. 18621902), devoted themselves to the spread of his teaching through the Ramakrishna mission (see also Vedanta Society). Gandhi, though more of a pol. than religious leader, effected reforms in matters with ancient religious sanction. Aurobindo Ghose (Yoga* philos.; 18721950) tried to combine Vedanta ideas with evolution theories in his ashram (religious community) est. 1910 in Pondicherry, India; his movement spread to other countries. GVS AJB
G. G. Atkins and C. S. Braden, Procession of the Gods, rev. ed. (New York, 1936); R. C. Dutt, The Civilization of India (London, 1900); J. A. Dubois, Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, 3d ed. (Oxford, Eng., 1906), ed. and tr. H. K. Beauchamp; J. N. Farquhar, A Primer of Hinduism, 2d ed. (London, 1914); H. Ringgren and A. V. Ström, Religions of Mankind Today and Yesterday, ed. J. C. G. Greig, tr. N. L. Jensen (Philadelphia, 1967).
(ca. 460ca. 377 BC). Father of Medicine; b. on island of Kos (Cos; It.: Coo). Said to have formulated a code of medical ethics now known as Hippocratic oath or oath or Hippocrates. See also Abortion.
(ca. 170ca. 235). Scholars differ in attempts to identify him and on details of his life. Photius* calls him a pupil of Irenaeus*; opposed patripassianism*; accused Calixtus I (see Monarchianism, B 2) of Sabellianism (see Monarchianism, B 6) and lax discipline; elected bp. by his followers, thus causing so-called schism of Hippolytus, which lasted till 235; called 1st antipope. Works include Philosophumena (Exposition of Philosophical Teachings; also known as Refutation of All Heresies); Syntagma (Against All Heresies); Demonstratio de Christo et Antichristo; chronicle; commentaries. See also Schools, Early Christian, 2.
(Sp. Española; Haiti, perhaps from a native word for land of mountains). Is. of cen. W Indies; W third is rep. of Haiti, rest is Dominican Rep. Discovered 1492 by Christopher Columbus (14511506). See also Caribbean Islands, A; C; E 2, 3.
1. One definition of historicism calls it a theory that all sociocultural phenomena are historically determined, that all truths are relative, and that the student of the past must enter into the mind and attitudes of past periods, accept their point of view, and avoid all intrusion of his own standards or preconceptions (Webster's Third New International Dictionary, p. 1073).
2. J. G. v. Herder* in Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (4 parts, 178491) stressed the organic unity of the historical process. He believed in an evolutionary process: every culture building on the basis of the preceding and striving for a higher humanity. History is a result of the interplay of environment and an internal force which can be described as the spirit of man; it is the scene of God's activity, the fulfillment of God's plan, the revelation of God in nature. Man exists solely to advance humanity (Humanität), the ideal which dominated Herder's later life.
3. G. W. F. Hegel* in Vorlesangen über die Philosophie der Geschichte viewed history as a logical process and felt that history could be explained dialectically (thesis, antithesis, synthesis). His philos. of history is part of his philos. of spirit. Historical phenomena are manifestations of the Weltgeist (World Spirit), which is opposed to nature and manifests itself in the spirit of the nation (Volksgeist), which in turn creates the total culture of the nation. The freedom (clue to history) towards which history moves is the freedom of the community as a whole.
4. Ultimately world history supplants Heilsgeschichte* in Herder's and Hegel's speculative philos. of history. C. L. Dilthey,* who rejected positivistic, naturalistic adaptations to history of A. Comte* and others, proclaimed the autonomy of history, in which man and the principle of relativity were prominent. E. Troeltsch* in Der Historismus und seine Probleme (pub. 1922) preferred F. W. Nietzsche's* hist. philos. to that of K. H. Marx.* Troeltsch tried to overcome historicism by a formula in which history was to overcome history, by a cultural synthesis of the worthy past with the worthy present, by metaphysics. Historicism, which leaves no room for Heilsgeschichte and converts world history into revelation, has been called Christian heresy because it grew out of Christian soil. Progressivistic theories of history have received much criticism in recent yrs., and Heilsgeschichte has been used to overcome the predicament into which historicism brought theologians.
R. G. Collingwood, The Idea of History, ed. T. M. Knox (Oxford. 1946); H. Butterfield, Christianity and History (London, 1949); H. W. Krumwiede, Glaube und Geschichte in der Theologie Lathers (Göttingen, 1952); E. Fülling, Geschichte als Offenbarung (Berlin, 1956); Theories of History, ed. P. Gardiner (Glencoe, Illinois, 1959); K. R. Popper, The Poverty of Historicism (London, 1957); W. H. Walsh, An Introduction to Philosophy of History, rev. ed. (London, 1958); Philosophy & History: Essays Presented to Ernst Cassirer, ed. R. Klibansky and H. J. Paton (Oxford, 1936). HFB
The pessimistic philos. of hist. presumes that human events have no pattern and reveal no control or concern of God. The humanistic philos. of hist. concerns itself with human events as reflections of human personality and/or groups (the hero dominant; sociological theories of hist.). The Christian philos. of hist. views God as dominant in human affairs, controlling and moving all things for His purposes. On the material level, God is concerned with preservation of the human race, with dispersion of peoples over the globe, with their protection by govt., and with human institutions. On the spiritual level, God uses hist. to keep man aware of his need for God; its misfortunes and disasters can be regarded as chastisements designed to turn man to God. Thus the Christian sees not only the pleasurable and beneficent events and trends of hist. but also, in its disasters and horrors, the hand of God seeking out man that He might glorify him by humbling him. In this philos. of hist. the greatest event is that in which God has intervened most directly to reveal His love to man, namely, the incarnation and redemption of Jesus Christ. All other events of hist., in the economy of God's design, have only the function of turning men to Christ before the end of time. RRC
O. Piper, God in History (New York, 1939); Philosophy and History: A Symposium, ed. S. Hook (New York, 1963); J. Maritain, On the Philosophy of History, ed. J. W. Evans (New York, 1957); E. Kahler, The Meaning of History (New York, 1964); W. H. Dray, Philosophy of History (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964); A. C. Danto, Analytical Philosophy of History (Cambridge, 1965); S. Kracauer, History: The Last Things Before the Last (New York, 1969); P. Gardiner, The Nature of Historical Explanation (New York, 1968).
(March 13, 1799August 29, 1855). B. Great Barrington, Massachusetts; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, and Auburn (New York) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), arriving Honolulu 1832.
People in Asia Minor whose empire in the 2d millennium BC rivaled and threatened the power of Babylonia and Egypt. The name is derived from Heth (Gn 10:15), occurs repeatedly in the OT (e.g., Gn 23:120; 26:34; Jos 9:1; 2 Sm 11), and is assoc. with Khatti (Hatti), a city or region in E Asia Minor. Much information about the Hittites was gained from archaeol. finds at Bogazköy (Boghazkeui; Khatti; Hattushash; Hattusa; Gk. Pteria), N cen.; Turkey, where ruins of a probable capital of a Hittite dynasty (ca. 16thca. 12th c. BC) were found.
The Hittite empire began with people who spoke an Indo-Eur. language and who founded city-states in Asia Minor ca. 2, 000 BC Consolidation of power into an empire dates from ca. 1, 800 BC Hittites engaged in war with Babylonia and Egypt. Hittites had settled in Palestine by the time of the patriarchs.
The Hittite religion was anthropomorphic. The gods were immortal, possessed a numinous ethical power (para handandatar), were masters of men, and were worshiped in temples or at open air sanctuaries. They were derived from many sources including the Hattie (e.g., Katahzipuris [Hittite: Kamrusipas]: goddess of healing; Wurusemu: sun-goddess; Taru: storm-god; Telepinus: vegetation god) and Hurrian (e.g., Hebat and Teshub, identified by many with Wurusemu and Taru; Shaushka, identified with Ishtar [see Babylonians, Religion of the, 1]).
Prominent elements in Hittite religion included concepts of sin, magic, prophecy, divination, myth. EL
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